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Comments

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The mandarin or tangerine is cultivated for superior quality and delcious fruit. Cultivated mainly in the Punjab. Commonly grown varieties are:

(a) Early Feutrall. Fruit oblate; rind orange-red, smooth and glossy. Pulp sweet and juicy. Introduced from Australia. Ripens in November.

(b) Kinnow. Fruit deep yellow, apex round and flatened. Rind orange, smooth and glossy. Pulp very juicy, sweet-acidic and rich in flavour. Ripens in December-February. Introduced from N. America.

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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 25 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Comments

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Tangerine or mandarin orange is the parent with Citrus maxima of C. ×aurantium, with C. japonica of C. ×microcarpa, and possibly with C. cavaleriei of C. ×junos. The recently recognized subspecies are perhaps better considered as cultivar groups to which most of the synonyms would be referred. However, some names in the synonymy may be referable to those cultivars of C. ×aurantium that are repeated backcrosses with C. reticulata. Trees referred to C. tachibana may represent true wild forms and have the following characteristics:

Trees to 3 m tall. Branchlets numerous, with short spines. Petiole 8-10 mm, very narrowly winged; leaf blade elliptic, 6-7 × 3.5-4 cm, secondary veins inconspicuous, base broadly cuneate, margin crenulate, apex narrow, obtuse, and conspicuously emarginate. Flowers solitary, 1.2-1.4 cm in diam.; flower buds subglobose. Pedicel ca. 2 mm. Petals white. Stamens ca. 20. Fruit yellow, oblate, 2-2.5 × 2.5-3.4 cm, smooth; pericarp 1.5-2 mm thick; sarcocarp with 7-9 segments, yellow, very acidic and bitter, 5- or 6-seeded. Seeds broadly ovoid, ca. 1 cm; seed coat smooth; embryos numerous; cotyledons greenish.

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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of China Vol. 11: 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Description

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Slender tree, 4-6 m tall. Spines absent or short. Leaves 6-8 cm, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, serrate; petiole narrowly winged. Flowers white, axillary, mostly bisexual. Stamens more or less united into a tube. Fruit oblate or pyriform, 5-8 cm in diameter. Rind bright yellow to orange, tinged red, with sunken oil glands, usually rough and warty; rind easily separable from the pulp vesicles. Axis hollow. Pulp vesicles loosely attached. Pulp orange, sweet or acidic.
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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 25 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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Description

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Small trees. Branchlets numerous, with few spines. Leaves 1-foliolate; leaf blade lanceolate, elliptic, or broadly ovate, basal articulated part to leaf blade usually narrow or only a remnant, midvein furcate near apex, margin apically obtusely crenulate or rarely entire, apex emarginate. Flowers solitary to 3 in a fascicle. Calyx irregularly 3-5-lobed. Petals usually 1.5 cm or less. Sta-mens 20-25. Style long, slender; stigma clavate. Fruit pale yellow, orange, red, or carmine, oblate to subglobose, smooth or coarse; pericarp very thin to thick, easily removed; sarcocarp with 7-14 segments or rarely more, sweet to acidic and sometimes bitter, with few to many seeds or rarely seedless; pulp vesicles plump, short, rarely slender and long. Seeds usually ovoid, base rounded, apex narrow and acute; embryos numerous, rarely solitary; cotyledons dark green, pale green, or milky white; chalaza purple. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Oct-Dec. 2n = 18, 27, 36.
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Flora of China Vol. 11: 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Habitat & Distribution

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Extensively cultivated in China S of the Qin Ling [possibly native to SE China and/or S Japan (see below)].

Hillside forests; low elevations. Taiwan [Japan (Ryukyu Islands)].

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Flora of China Vol. 11: 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Synonym

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Citrus ×aurantium Linnaeus f. deliciosa (Tenore) Hiroe; C. ×aurantium var. tachibana Makino; C. daoxianensis S. W. He & G. F. Liu; C. deliciosa Tenore; C. depressa Hayata; C. erythrosa Yu. Tanaka; C. madurensis Loureiro var. deliciosa (Tenore) Sagot; C. mangshanensis S. W. He & G. F. Liu; C. ×nobilis Loureiro subf. deliciosa (Tenore) Hiroe; C. ×nobilis var. deliciosa (Tenore) Guillaumin; C. ×nobilis subf. erythrosa (Yu. Tanaka) Hiroe; C. ×nobilis var. major Ker Gawler; C. ×nobilis var. ponki Hayata; C. ×nobilis subf. reticulata (Blanco) Hiroe; C. ×nobilis var. spontanea Ito; C. ×nobilis subf. succosa (Tanaka) Hiroe; C. ×nobilis var. sunki Hayata; C. ×nobilis subf. tachibana (Makino) Hiroe; C. ×nobilis var. tachibana (Makino) Ito; C. ×nobilis subf. unshiu (Marcowicz) Hiroe; C. ×nobilis var. unshiu (Marcowicz) Tanaka ex Swingle; C. ×nobilis var. vangasy (Bojer) Guillaumin; C. ponki Yu. Tanaka; C. poonensis Yu. Tanaka; C. reticulata var. austera Swingle; C. reticulata subsp. deliciosa (Tenore) Rivera et al.; C. reticulata subsp. tachibana (Tanaka) Rivera et al.; C. reticulata subsp. unshiu (Marcowicz) Rivera et al.; C. succosa Tanaka; C. suhuiensis Hayata; C. sunki Tanaka; C. tachibana (Makino) Yu. Tanaka; C. tachibana subf. depressa (Hayata) Hiroe; C. tachibana subf. ponki (Hayata) Hiroe; C. tachibana subf. suhuiensis (Hayata) Hiroe; C. tachibana subf. sunki (Hayata) Hiroe; C. tangerina Yu. Tanaka; C. tankan Hayata; C. unshiu Marcowicz; C. vangasy Bojer.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of China Vol. 11: 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Brief Summary

provided by EOL authors
Citrus nobilis, the tangerine, mandarin or mandarin orange (including the ‘Clementine’ or clementine mandarin), or satsuma, is a cold-intolerant small fruit tree in the Rutaceae (citrus family) that originated in southwestern China or northeastern India. Referred to in many classifications as C. reticulata, it is now grown in tropical and semi-tropical areas around the world for its sweet, juicy, and easy-to-peel fruits. The tangerine tree is among the most drought- and frost-tolerant of citrus trees, although developing fruits can be severely damaged by cold. Common names among this type of citrus fruit can be confusing, as numerous cultivars and hybrids have been developed, and similar common names may be applied to those as well as to related species (including the Mediterranean mandarin, C. deliciosa, the king mandarin—previously the common name for C. nobilis--and the satsuma mandarin, C. unshiu, among others). Hybrids include the tangor and tangelo (C. reticulata X C. sinensis), of which the minneola is a popular variety; and the large Jamaican “Ugli” or ugli fruit (a cross between a tangerine and a grapefruit, C. reticulata X C. paradisi--which is itself a hybrid between the pomelo, C. maxima, and the sweet orange, C. sinensis). Tangerine trees are small—generally smaller than sweet orange trees, although some cultivars may reach a maximum height of 7.5 m (25 ft)-- with slender, spiny twigs. Leaves are lanceolate (lance-shaped), up to 3 cm (1.25 in) long, with narrow wings on the petioles (leaf stems). The white aromatic flowers, which grow singly or in clusters of 2 or 3, develop into small oblate (flattened spherical) fruits roughly 7.5 cm (3 in) in diameter that ripen to light or deep orange. The sweet, juicy pulp is divided into 10 to 14 segments that separate easily from each other and from the thin skin or peel. Tangerines and mandarins, which are high in vitamins A and C as well as calcium and potassium, are generally eaten as a fresh fruit, but may also be processed into juice and used in beverages and cocktails. The fruit is sometimes used for jams or marmalades, and in cooking. The peel (or whole fruit) may be used to flavor liquers and candies. Total commercial production of tangerines of various varieties (including mandarins and clementines) was 21.3 million metric tons (mt), harvested from 2.0 million hectares. China alone produced nearly half the global total (10.1 million mt), although the crop is considered quite important in Spain (the second leading producer, with 1.7 million mt). Other leading producers include Brazil and Turkey. Tangerines are the second most widely cultivated citrus fruit (after sweet oranges, C. sinensis). (Bailey et al. 1976, FAOSTAT 2012, Flora of China 2012, Morton 1987, van Wyk 2005.)
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Citrus crenatifolia

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Citrus crenatifolia, found only in Sri Lanka, fruit is very small, moderately oblate to obconical, deep orange, and has a thin, moderately loose rind. The flesh is somewhat coarse-grained, dry, and acidic, but becomes edible at full maturity.

Taxonomy

The name of the species is unresolved.

References

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Citrus crenatifolia: Brief Summary

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Citrus crenatifolia, found only in Sri Lanka, fruit is very small, moderately oblate to obconical, deep orange, and has a thin, moderately loose rind. The flesh is somewhat coarse-grained, dry, and acidic, but becomes edible at full maturity.

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Citrus depressa

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Citrus depressa (Citrus × depressa, formerly C. pectinifera, Okinawan: シークヮーサー/シークァーサー shiikwaasa, Japanese: ヒラミレモン hirami remon or シークワーサー shīkuwāsā), in English sometimes called shiikuwasha, shequasar, Taiwan tangerine, flat lemon, hirami lemon, or thin-skinned flat lemon, is a small, green citrus fruit rich in flavonoids and native to Taiwan and Okinawa, Japan.

Very sour, it is often used like lemon or lime to garnish dishes, but is also used to make jam, or a yellow juice, which can be thinned or sweetened.

Its name is occasionally translated into English as calamansî (calamondin), but strictly speaking, this is a different fruit.

Shiikuwasha is primarily produced in southwest Japan, in the northern region of the main Okinawa island, along with another indigenous Japanese citrus, Tachibana (Citrus tachibana). The two are not the only species of citrus currently growing on the island, as there have been foreign species introduced and have since been crossbred alongside Citrus depressa. Despite the varying diversity of citrus currently found in the region, only Shiikuwasha and Tachibana are native to this region, originating in the Ryukyu Islands.[1]

Description

Citrus depressa is grown in Okinawa and Taiwan. Shikuwasa is grown in Okinawa. This flat lemon is a flowering tree with an average height of 3–5 m. The appearance is similar to Calamondin. The flowers, white and about 3 cm in diameter, usually bloom in April. The fruit, which appear around July, weigh about 25–60 g. Unripe, the skin is a dark green, which becomes yellow during ripening. The fruits have a very low sugar content and are very sour.

Alternative health benefits

Shiikuwasha is often used as a fruit juice and has been used for alternative health practices frequently. Though the pulp has some beneficial nutrients, most health-benefitting compounds present in the fruit's peel are:

  • Synephrine, a compound known to enhance lipid metabolism[2] and increase metabolic rate.[3]
  • Nobiletin (NBL), tangeretin and sinensetin, where nobiletin is predominate. NBL has been linked to anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory biological properties.[2] Similarly, there is a high concentration of anti-tumorous compounds limonin glucoside and nomilin glucoside in the fruits' seed.[2]
  • NBL in C. depressa is also linked to hepatoprotective activities in liver-injuries induced by acetaminophen.[4]

Though commonly used as a fruit juice and considered an aid in metabolic health, C. depressa can potentially also aid in fat regulation. The addition of C. depressa alongside a high-fat diet has demonstrated to decrease fat mass, though this is based on a study done on rat models, and little study has been done to determine a similar correlation in humans.[5] Dried shiikuwasha, however, is often mixed with teas for its therapeutic benefits, and can be mixed into a fruit paste with chili pepper as a garnish on grilled meats. Shiikuwasha paste has also been demonstrated to decrease plasma glucose levels in lab rats and human volunteers.[2]

High levels of flavonoids provide the bitter taste often associated with the fruit. To make Shiikuwasha juice more palatable, sugar is commonly added excessively. However, fermentation of Citrus depressa juice has also been demonstrated to cause a significant decrease in the umami, bitterness and astringent tastes of the fruit,[6] to aid in creating a more flavorful drink while maintaining the nutritional content of the fruit.

Shiikuwasha fruits are also a significant source of anti-oxidants. An in vitro study used antioxidant assays to determine that in 100 mg of unripened Shiikuwasha peels, there is either, approximately, 225.4 mg to 294.2 mg of total phenolic compounds – composed of β‐Carotene and DPPH – which varied due to differing extraction methods.[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ Yamamoto, Masashi; Takakura, Akiko; Tanabe, Aika; Teramoto, Sayuri; Kita, Masayuki (2017). "Diversity of Citrus depressa Hayata (Shiikuwasha) revealed by DNA analysis". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 64 (4): 805–814. doi:10.1007/s10722-016-0403-2.
  2. ^ a b c d Ohta, Hideaki (2012-07-15). "Physiological Function and Variety Differentiation of Shiikuwasha Fruit (Citrus depressa, Hayata) Produced in Okinawa". Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi. 59 (7): 357–362. doi:10.3136/nskkk.59.357. ISSN 1881-6681.
  3. ^ Miyagi, K.; Fujise, T.; Koga, N.; Wada, K.; Yano, M.; Ohta, H. (July 2008). "The synephrine content of Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa HAYATA) fruit: Analytical method and change during fruit growth". Planta Medica. 74 (9): PC120. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1084638. ISSN 1439-0221.
  4. ^ Sugiyama, Kimio; Mori, Makoto; Morita, Tatsuya; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Ohishi, Yayoi; Shiina, Yasuyuki; Akachi, Toshiyuki (2010). "Hepatoprotective Effects of Flavonoids from Shekwasha (Citrus depressa) against D-Galactosamine-Induced Liver Injury in Rats". Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology. 56 (1): 60–67. doi:10.3177/jnsv.56.60. ISSN 1881-7742.
  5. ^ Lee, Young-Sil; Cha, Byung-Yoon; Saito, Kiyoto; Choi, Sun-Sil; Wang, Xiao Xing; Choi, Bong-Keun; Yonezawa, Takayuki; Teruya, Toshiaki; Nagai, Kazuo; Woo, Je-Tae (2011-06-15). "Effects of a Citrus depressa Hayata (shiikuwasa) extract on obesity in high-fat diet-induced obese mice". Phytomedicine. 18 (8–9): 648–654. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2010.11.005. ISSN 0944-7113. PMID 21216135.
  6. ^ Kimoto‐Nira, Hiromi; Moriya, Naoko; Nogata, Yoichi; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Toguchi, Yutaka (2018). "Fermentation of Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) pomace by lactic acid bacteria to generate new functional materials". International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 0 (3): 688–695. doi:10.1111/ijfs.13980. ISSN 1365-2621.
  7. ^ Asikin, Yonathan; Taira, Ikuko; Inafuku, Sayuri; Sumi, Hidekazu; Sawamura, Masayoshi; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji (2012-04-01). "Volatile Aroma Components and Antioxidant Activities of the Flavedo Peel Extract of Unripe Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata)". Journal of Food Science. 77 (4): C469–C475. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02604.x. ISSN 1750-3841. PMID 22394020.

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Citrus depressa: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Citrus depressa (Citrus × depressa, formerly C. pectinifera, Okinawan: シークヮーサー/シークァーサー shiikwaasa, Japanese: ヒラミレモン hirami remon or シークワーサー shīkuwāsā), in English sometimes called shiikuwasha, shequasar, Taiwan tangerine, flat lemon, hirami lemon, or thin-skinned flat lemon, is a small, green citrus fruit rich in flavonoids and native to Taiwan and Okinawa, Japan.

Very sour, it is often used like lemon or lime to garnish dishes, but is also used to make jam, or a yellow juice, which can be thinned or sweetened.

Its name is occasionally translated into English as calamansî (calamondin), but strictly speaking, this is a different fruit.

Shiikuwasha is primarily produced in southwest Japan, in the northern region of the main Okinawa island, along with another indigenous Japanese citrus, Tachibana (Citrus tachibana). The two are not the only species of citrus currently growing on the island, as there have been foreign species introduced and have since been crossbred alongside Citrus depressa. Despite the varying diversity of citrus currently found in the region, only Shiikuwasha and Tachibana are native to this region, originating in the Ryukyu Islands.

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Citrus unshiu

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Citrus unshiu is a seedless and easy-peeling citrus species, also known as unshu mikan,[1] cold hardy mandarin,[2] satsuma mandarin,[2] satsuma orange, naartjie,[2] and tangerine.[2] It is of Chinese origin, named after Unsyu (Wenzhou), China, but introduced to the West via Japan.[1][3][4][5]

Nomenclature

The unshiu is known as wēnzhōu mìgān (simplified Chinese: 温州蜜柑; traditional Chinese: 溫州蜜柑) in China, and mikan in Japan (or formally unshū mikan (温州蜜柑), the Japanese reading of the characters used in Chinese). In both languages, the name means "honey citrus of Wenzhou" (a city in Zhejiang province, China). An alternative Chinese name, Chinese: 无核桔; pinyin: wúhé jú, means "seedless mandarin".

One of the English names for the fruit, satsuma, is derived from the former Satsuma Province in Japan, from which these fruits were first exported to the West.

The Afrikaans name naartjie is also used in South African English. It came originally from the Tamil word nartei, meaning citrus.[6]

Classification

Under the Tanaka classification system, Citrus unshiu is considered a separate species from the mandarin. Under the Swingle system, unshius are considered to be a group of mandarin varieties.[7] Genetic analysis has shown the Satsuma to be a highly inbred mandarin-pomelo hybrid, with 22% of its genome, a larger proportion than seen in most mandarins, coming from pomelo. It arose when a mandarin of the low-pomelo huanglingmiao/kishu variety (placed in C. reticulata by Tanaka) was crossed with a pomelo or pomelo hybrid, then the resulting cultivar was backcrossed with another huanglingmiao/kishu mandarin.[8][9]

Characteristics

 src=
The dried peel is used in Chinese cuisine
 src=
Satsuma orange trees in Izunokuni, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan
 src=
Satsuma orange fruits

Its fruit is one of the sweetest citrus varieties.[10] It is usually seedless, and is about the size of other mandarin oranges (Citrus reticulata). One of the distinguishing features of the satsuma is the thin, leathery skin dotted with large and prominent oil glands, which is lightly attached around the fruit, enabling it to be peeled very easily in comparison to other citrus fruits. The satsuma also has particularly delicate flesh, which cannot withstand the effects of careless handling. The loose skin of the satsuma means that bruising and damage to the fruit may not be immediately apparent upon the typical cursory visual inspection associated with assessing the quality of other fruits. In this regard, the satsuma might be categorised as a hit-and-miss citrus fruit; the loose skin particular to the fruit precluding the definitive measurement of its quality by sight and feel alone.

Satsumas grown in humid areas may be ripe while the skin is still green.[11]

Satsumas are cold-hardy, and when planted in colder locations, the fruit becomes sweeter from the colder temperatures. A mature satsuma tree can survive down to −9 °C (15 °F) or even −11 °C (12 °F) for a few hours.[12] Of the edible citrus varieties, only the kumquat is more cold-hardy. Satsumas rarely have any thorns, an attribute that also makes them popular. They can be grown from seed, which takes about 8 years until the first fruits are produced, or grafted onto other citrus rootstocks, such as trifoliate orange.

History

Jesuits brought the fruit from Asia to North America in the 18th century, starting groves in the Jesuit Plantation upriver from New Orleans, Louisiana (then a part of New Spain). The municipal street "Orange" in New Orleans, was originally named "Rue Des Orangers" and the site of the Jesuit grove. The groves were later re-cultivated farther south in Plaquemines Parish to provide greater protection from harmful frosts, and have continued to the present day. The Becnel family are the largest growers of Louisiana Citrus.[13]

The fruit became much more common in the United States starting in the late 19th century. In 1878 during the Meiji period, Owari mikans were brought to the United States from the Satsuma Province in Kyūshū, Japan, by the spouse of the US Minister to Japan, General Van Valkenberg, who renamed them satsumas.[14] Between 1908 and 1911 about a million Owari mikan trees were imported throughout the lower Gulf Coast states.[12] Owari is still commonly grown in Florida.[11] The towns of Satsuma, Alabama; Satsuma, Florida; Satsuma, Texas; and Satsuma, Louisiana were named after this fruit. By 1920 Jackson County in the Florida Panhandle had billed itself as the "Satsuma Capital of the World." However, the commercial industry was damaged by a −13.3 °C (8.1 °F) cold snap in 1911, a hurricane in 1915,[12] and a very cold period in the late 1930s.

Distribution

Citrus unshiu is amongst others grown in Japan, Spain, central China, Korea, the US, South Africa, South America, New Zealand, and around the Black Sea.[11][14]

Varieties

Unshiu varieties cluster among the mandarin family.[15] There are, however, some hybrids.

Possible non-hybrids

Hybrids

References

  1. ^ a b Schlegel, Rolf (2009). Dictionary of Plant Breeding (2nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 437. ISBN 9781439802434. It's named after, Unsyu, China; in Japan it is known as "unshu mikan," in China, as "wenzhou migan"; recorded cultivation of the "wenzhou migan" date back some 2,400 years; it was listed as a tribute item for Imperial consumption in the TANG Dynasty; the best record of the cultivation of this variety in ancient China is from Jijia Julu, written by Han YAN, the governor of the region and published in 1178
  2. ^ a b c d Michel H. Porcher (ed.). "Sorting Citrus names". Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database. The University of Melbourne.
  3. ^ "Japanese Mikan and Satsuma Oranges". hawaii.edu. Mikan is a tangerine-like citrus fruit that is grown in warmer regions of Japan in large quantities. Many different varieties have been introduced to Japan from China since the eighth century, but since the late 19th century the most important variety has been the unshu.
  4. ^ "Citrus unshiu". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 11 December 2017. "probable origin in Kyushu islands, Japan or imported from China to Japan."
  5. ^ Misaki, Akira (November 1999). "紀州有田みかんの起源と発達史" [The Origin and the Development-Process of "Kisyu Arida Mikan (Arida Mandarin)"]. 経済理論 [The Wakayama Economic Review] (in Japanese). University of Wakayama. 292: 97–118. Archived from the original on 2001-01-10. (After the many years of research, Dr. Tanaka has concluded the place of origin of Satsuma is Nagashima, Kagoshima. Satsuma is a chance seedling of Sōkitsu, Mankitsu, or Tendaisankitsu introduced from Huangyan Zhejiang, China. It appeared in the early Edo period.)
  6. ^ Branford, Jean (1978). A dictionary of South African English. Oxford University Press.
  7. ^ Froelicher, Yann; Mouhaya, Wafa; Bassene, Jean-Baptiste; Costantino, Gilles; Kamiri, Mourad; Luro, Francois; Morillon, Raphael; Ollitrault, Patrick (2011). "New universal mitochondrial PCR markers reveal new information on maternal citrus phylogeny". Tree Genetics & Genomes. 7: 49–61. doi:10.1007/s11295-010-0314-x.
  8. ^ Wu, Guohong Albert; Terol, Javier; Ibanez, Victoria; López-García, Antonio; Pérez-Román, Estela; Borredá, Carles; Domingo, Concha; Tadeo, Francisco R; Carbonell-Caballero, Jose; Alonso, Roberto; Curk, Franck; Du, Dongliang; Ollitrault, Patrick; Roose, Mikeal L. Roose; Dopazo, Joaquin; Gmitter Jr, Frederick G.; Rokhsar, Daniel; Talon, Manuel (2018). "Genomics of the origin and evolution of Citrus" (PDF). Nature. 554 (7692): 311–316. Bibcode:2018Natur.554..311W. doi:10.1038/nature25447. PMID 29414943. and Supplement
  9. ^ Shimizu, Tokurou; Kitajima, Akira; Nonaka, Keisuke; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Goto, Shingo; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Mochizuki, Takako; Nagasaki, Hideki; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu (30 November 2016). "Hybrid Origins of Citrus Varieties Inferred from DNA Marker Analysis of Nuclear and Organelle Genomes". PLOS ONE. 11 (11): e0166969. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1166969S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0166969. PMC 5130255. PMID 27902727. e0166969.
  10. ^ Elisa Bosley. "In Season: Satsuma Oranges". CookingLight. Retrieved 2015-02-25.
  11. ^ a b c P. C. Andersen; J. J. Ferguson; T. M. Spann (2019-04-05). "HS195/CH116: The Satsuma Mandarin". ufl.edu.
  12. ^ a b c ""Orange Frost", a new cold hardy citrus". PLANTanswers.
  13. ^ WWNO (2009-10-03). "Satsumas". Publicbroadcasting.net. Archived from the original on 2012-01-17. Retrieved 2009-12-06.
  14. ^ a b Saunt, James (2000). Citrus varieties of the world : an illustrated guide (2nd ed.). Norwich, England: Sinclair International Ltd. ISBN 1872960014. OCLC 45130256.
  15. ^ Barkley, NA; Roose, ML; Krueger, RR; Federici, CT (2006). "Assessing genetic diversity and population structure in a citrus germplasm collection utilizing simple sequence repeat markers (SSRS)". Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 112 (8): 1519–1531. doi:10.1007/s00122-006-0255-9. PMID 16699791.
  16. ^ "Kinkoji unshiu mandarin (graft) hybrid Citrus neo-aurantium". Citrus Variety Collection. University of California Riverside.
  17. ^ Kuniaki Sugawara; Atsushi Oowada; Takaya Moriguchi1; Mitsuo Omura (1995). "Identification of Citrus Chimeras by RAPD Markers" (PDF). HortScience. 30 (6): 1276–1278. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI.30.6.1276.

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Citrus unshiu: Brief Summary

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Citrus unshiu is a seedless and easy-peeling citrus species, also known as unshu mikan, cold hardy mandarin, satsuma mandarin, satsuma orange, naartjie, and tangerine. It is of Chinese origin, named after Unsyu (Wenzhou), China, but introduced to the West via Japan.

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Citrus × deliciosa

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Citrus × deliciosa (thorny (Australia), amarillo, beladi, Willowleaf Mandarin, Mediterranean Mandarin[1]) is a citrus hybrid mandarin orange with just under 6 % pumelo ancestry.[2] It is related to the ponkan.[3][4]

It has been widely grown around the Mediterranean since it appeared in Italy (between 1810 and 1818), but was not found in the orient until it was exported there.[1] It is one of the most commercially important citrus. Its sweet fruit is eaten, its rind oil is used to flavour food and drinks, and petitgrain oil is extracted from the pruned leaves[1]. Flower (particularly petals) are also rich in essential oils[5].

This species produce those which are perhaps the tastiest of all citrus fruits. That's why, its scientific name is Citrus × deliciosa, which means, delicious citrus[6].

The production of Mediterranean mandarin has suffered a sharp decline since the middle of the 20th century because of the perishability of the fruits and the tendency for an alternating production with years of low production and years of excessive tree load, but consumers who require more intense citrus aromas and fragrances continue to enjoy this mandarin[6][7]. Therefore, this mandarin has a commercial space for different markets that value the traditional cultivars[7]. This is the case of the PGI "Citrinos do Algarve"[8]. These characteristics and its time of maturity, which implies being little affected by Ceratitis capitata, make Mediterranean mandarin recommended for organic farming[7].

References

  1. ^ a b c d http://citruspages.free.fr/mandarins.html#deliciosa
  2. ^ Wu, Guohong Albert; Terol, Javier; Ibanez, Victoria; López-García, Antonio; Pérez-Román, Estela; Borredá, Carles; Domingo, Concha; Tadeo, Francisco R; Carbonell-Caballero, Jose; Alonso, Roberto; Curk, Franck; Du, Dongliang; Ollitrault, Patrick; Roose, Mikeal L. Roose; Dopazo, Joaquin; Gmitter Jr, Frederick G.; Rokhsar, Daniel; Talon, Manuel (2018). "Genomics of the origin and evolution of Citrus". Nature. 554 (7692): 311–316. doi:10.1038/nature25447. PMID 29414943. and Supplement
  3. ^ Wu GA, et al. (2014). "Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication". Nature Biotechnology. 32 (7): 656–662. doi:10.1038/nbt.2906. PMC 4113729. PMID 24908277.
  4. ^ Barkley NA, Roose ML, Krueger RR, Federici CT (2006). "Assessing genetic diversity and population structure in a citrus germplasm collection utilizing simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs)". Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 112 (8): 1519–1531. doi:10.1007/s00122-006-0255-9. PMID 16699791.
  5. ^ Silva, Luis Rodrigues da; Silva, Branca (2016). "Bioactive Compounds of Citrus as Health Promoters". Natural Bioactive Compounds from Fruits and Vegetables as Health Promoters Part I. pp. 29–97. doi:10.2174/9781681082394116010005. ISBN 9781681082394.
  6. ^ a b Duarte, Amílcar; Fernandes, Jacinta; Bernardes, João; Miguel, Graça (2016). "Citrus as a Component of the Mediterranean Diet". J. Spat. Org. Dyn. IV (4): 289–304.
  7. ^ a b c Pacheco, Pedro; Duarte, Amílcar (2016). "Caracterização da rebentação da tangerineira 'Setubalense' em anos de safra e de contrassafra". Actas Portuguesas de Horticultura. 25: 43–49.
  8. ^ "Portuguese Traditional Products".
Fruits os Mediterranean mandarin .jpg
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Citrus × deliciosa: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Citrus × deliciosa (thorny (Australia), amarillo, beladi, Willowleaf Mandarin, Mediterranean Mandarin) is a citrus hybrid mandarin orange with just under 6 % pumelo ancestry. It is related to the ponkan.

It has been widely grown around the Mediterranean since it appeared in Italy (between 1810 and 1818), but was not found in the orient until it was exported there. It is one of the most commercially important citrus. Its sweet fruit is eaten, its rind oil is used to flavour food and drinks, and petitgrain oil is extracted from the pruned leaves. Flower (particularly petals) are also rich in essential oils.

This species produce those which are perhaps the tastiest of all citrus fruits. That's why, its scientific name is Citrus × deliciosa, which means, delicious citrus.

The production of Mediterranean mandarin has suffered a sharp decline since the middle of the 20th century because of the perishability of the fruits and the tendency for an alternating production with years of low production and years of excessive tree load, but consumers who require more intense citrus aromas and fragrances continue to enjoy this mandarin. Therefore, this mandarin has a commercial space for different markets that value the traditional cultivars. This is the case of the PGI "Citrinos do Algarve". These characteristics and its time of maturity, which implies being little affected by Ceratitis capitata, make Mediterranean mandarin recommended for organic farming.

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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visit source
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wikipedia EN

Mandarin orange

provided by wikipedia EN

The mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata), also known as the mandarin or mandarine, is a small citrus tree with fruit resembling other oranges, usually eaten plain or in fruit salads.[1] The tangerine is a group of orange-coloured citrus fruit consisting of hybrids of mandarin orange.

Mandarins are smaller and oblate, rather than spherical, like the common oranges (which are a mandarin hybrid).[1] The taste is considered less sour, as well as sweeter and stronger.[2] A ripe mandarin is firm to slightly soft, heavy for its size, and pebbly-skinned. The peel is thin, with little white mesocarp,[3] so they are usually easier to peel and to split into segments.[1] Hybrids generally have these traits to a lesser degree. The mandarin is tender and is damaged easily by cold. It can be grown in tropical and subtropical areas.[1][2]

According to genetic studies, the mandarin was one of the original citrus species; through breeding or natural hybridization, it is the ancestor of many hybrid citrus cultivars. With the citron and pomelo, it is the ancestor of the most commercially important hybrids (such as sweet and sour oranges, grapefruit, and many lemons and limes). The mandarin has also been hybridized with other citrus species, such as the desert lime and the kumquat.[4] Though the ancestral mandarin was bitter, most commercial mandarin strains derive from hybridization with pomelo, which gave them a sweet fruit.[5]

Etymology

Citrus reticulata is from Latin, where reticulata means "netted".[6] The name mandarin orange is a calque of Swedish mandarin apelsin [apelsin from German Apfelsine (Apfel + Sina) meaning Chinese apple], first attested in the 18th century. The form "mandarine" derives from the French name for this fruit. The reason for the epithet "mandarin" is not clear; it may relate to the yellow colour of some robes worn by mandarin dignitaries.[7][8]

Botany

 src=
Mandarin oranges growing on a tree in Crete.

Citrus reticulata is a moderate-sized tree some 7.6 metres (25 ft) in height.[1][6] The tree trunk and major branches have thorns.[1] The leaves are shiny and green, rather small.[1] The petioles are short, almost wingless or slightly winged.[1] The flowers are borne singly or in small groups in the leaf-axils.[1] Citrus are usually self-fertile (needing only a bee to move pollen within the same flower) or parthenocarpic (not needing pollination and therefore seedless, such as the satsuma). A mature mandarin tree can yield up to 79 kilograms (175 lb) of fruit.[9]

Fruit

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Mandarin oranges in a mesh bag

Mandarin orange fruits are small 40–80 millimetres (1.6–3.1 in).[1] Their colour is orange, orange-yellow, or orange-red.[2] The skin is thin and peels off easily.[1] Their easiness to peel is an important advantage of mandarin oranges over other citrus fruits.[2] Just like with other citrus fruits, the endocarp (inner flesh) is separated into segments, which in their turn consist of a large number of elongated cells.[1] The fruits may be seedless or contain a small number of seeds. Mandarin orange fruits are sweet to taste, and can be eaten as whole or squeezed to make juice.[1][2]

Production

In 2017, world production of mandarin oranges (combined with tangerines, clementines, and satsumas in reporting to FAOSTAT) was 33.4 million tonnes, led by China with 54% of the global total (table).[10] Producing more than one million tonnes each in 2017 were Spain, Turkey, Morocco, Brazil, and Egypt.[10]

Uses

Dried mandarin peel
Dried mandarin peel used as a seasoning
Chocolate-coated citrus peel.
Chocolate-coated citrus peel
Canned and peeled mandarin orange segments
Canned and peeled mandarin orange segments

Fresh

Mandarins are generally peeled and eaten fresh or used in salads, desserts and main dishes.[1] Fresh mandarin juice and frozen juice concentrate are commonly available in the United States. The number of seeds in each segment (carpel) varies greatly.

Peel

The peel is used fresh, whole or zested, or dried as chenpi. It can be used as a spice for cooking, baking, drinks, or candy. Essential oil from the fresh peel may be used as a flavouring for candy, in gelatins, ice cream, chewing gum, and baked goods.[1] It is also used as a flavouring in liqueurs.[1] In Chinese cuisine, the peel of the mandarin orange, called chenpi, is used to flavor sweet dishes and sauces.

Canning

Canned mandarin segments are peeled to remove the white pith prior to canning; otherwise, they turn bitter. Segments are peeled using a chemical process. First, the segments are scalded in hot water to loosen the skin; then they are bathed in a lye solution, which digests the albedo and membranes. Finally, the segments are rinsed several times in plain water. Once orange segments are properly prepared, mandarin oranges undergo heat processing to remove bacteria that can cause spoilage. The oranges are then packed in airtight sealed containers. Ascorbic acid may also be added.

Traditional medicine

In traditional Chinese medicine, the dried peel of the fruit is used in regulation of ch'i and to enhance digestion.[11]

Nutrition

A mandarin orange contains 85% water, 13% carbohydrates, and negligible amounts of fat and protein (table). Among micronutrients, only vitamin C is in significant content (32% of the Daily Value) in a 100-gram reference serving, with all other nutrients in low amounts.

Cultural significance

 src=
Mandarin fruitlets

During Chinese New Year, mandarin oranges/tangerine/satsumas are considered traditional symbols of abundance and good fortune. During the two-week celebration, they are frequently displayed as decoration and presented as gifts to friends, relatives, and business associates. Mandarin oranges, particularly from Japan, are a Christmas tradition in Canada, the United States and Russia.

In Canada and the United States, they are commonly purchased in 5- or 10-pound boxes,[2] individually wrapped in soft green paper, and given in Christmas stockings. This custom goes back to the 1880s, when Japanese immigrants in the United States began receiving Japanese mandarin oranges from their families back home as gifts for the New Year. The tradition quickly spread among the non-Japanese population, and eastwards across the country: each November harvest, "The oranges were quickly unloaded and then shipped east by rail. 'Orange Trains' – trains with boxcars painted orange – alerted everyone along the way that the irresistible oranges from Japan were back again for the holidays. For many, the arrival of Japanese mandarin oranges signaled the real beginning of the holiday season."[12] This Japanese tradition merged with European traditions related to the Christmas stocking. Saint Nicholas is said to have put gold coins into the stockings of three poor girls so that they would be able to afford to get married.[13] Sometimes the story is told with gold balls instead of bags of gold, and oranges became a symbolic stand-in for these gold balls, and are put in Christmas stockings in Canada[13][14] along with chocolate coins wrapped in gold foil.

Satsumas were also grown in the United States from the early 1900s, but Japan remained a major supplier.[15] U.S. imports of these Japanese oranges was suspended due to hostilities with Japan during World War II.[12] While they were one of the first Japanese goods allowed for export after the end of the war, residual hostility led to the rebranding of these oranges as "mandarin" oranges.[12]

The delivery of the first batch of mandarin oranges from Japan in the port of Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada), is greeted with a festival that combines Santa Claus and Japanese dancers[14]—young girls dressed in traditional kimonos.[16]

Historically, the Christmas fruit sold in North America was mostly Dancys, but now it is more often a hybrid.[17]

Genetics and origin

Mandarins are one of the core ancestral citrus taxa, and are thought to have evolved in a region including Vietnam, South China, and Japan.[18][5] Mandarins appear to have been domesticated at least twice, in the north and south Nanling Mountains. Wild mandarins are still found there, including Daoxian mandarines (sometimes given the species name Citrus daoxianensis) as well as some members of the group traditionally called 'Mangshan wild mandarins', a generic grouping for the wild mandarin-like fruit of the Mangshan area that includes both true mandarins and the genetically-distinct and only distantly-related Mangshanyegan. The wild mandarins were found to be free of the introgressed pomelo (C. maxima) DNA found in domestic mandarins but they did appear to have small amounts (~1.8%) of introgression from the ichang papeda, which grows wild in the same region.[19]

The Nanling Mountains are also home to northern and southern genetic clusters of domestic mandarins that have similar levels of sugars in the fruit compared to their wild relatives, but appreciably (in some almost 90-fold) lower levels of citric acid. The clusters display different patterns of pomelo introgression, have different deduced historical population histories, and are most closely related to distinct wild mandarins, suggesting two independent domestications in the north and south.[19] All tested domesticated cultivars were found to belong to one of these two genetic clusters, with varieties such as Nanfengmiju, Kishu and Satsuma deriving from the northern domestication event producing larger, redder fruit, while Willowleaf, Dancy, Sunki, Cleopatra, King, Ponkan, and others derived from the smaller, yellower-fruited southern cluster.[19]

The Tanaka classification system divided domestic mandarins and similar fruit into numerous species, giving distinct names to cultivars such as willowleaf mandarins (C. deliciosa), satsumas (C. unshiu), tangerines (C. tangerina). Under the Swingle system, all these are considered to be varieties of a single species, Citrus reticulata.[20] Hodgson represented them as several subgroups: common (C. reticulata), Satsuma, King (C. nobilis), Mediterranean (willowleaf), small-fruited (C. indica, C. tachibana and C. reshni), and mandarin hybrids.[21]

Genetic analysis is consistent with mandarins representing a single species, with much of the variation within mandarins being due to hybridization.[4] There are only a small number of genetically-pure cultivars, including the Tachibana orange, which Talon determined to be sufficiently divergent to be classified as a distinct subspecies,Citrus reticulata tachibana[4] and found by Wang to have branched from the wild mandarin lineage prior to the split that gave rise to the two domesticated clusters. Others, such as Sun Chu Sha mandarin[18][4] and Nanfengmiju,[22] were found to be pure in initial genomic characterization, but Wang detected in them not only an apparent Ichang papeda introgression found in all examined mandarins but also the distinct pomelo DNA of the domesticated mandarins.[19] Following initial hybridization, cultivars were produced by backcrossing the initial mandarin-pomelo hybrids to produce mandarins with limited pomelo contribution,[4] that differed between the northern and southern domesticates.[19] An 'acidic' group of cultivars including Sunki and Cleopatra mandarins that likewise previously were thought to be pure but since found to contain small regions of introgressed pomelo DNA are too sour to be edible, but are widely used as rootstock and grown for juice.[20][4] Another group of mandarins, including some tangerines, Satsuma and King mandarins, show a greater pomelo contribution and derive from the limited-pomelo hybrids being crossed again, with sweet orange or pomelo, and likewise backcrossing in some cases, producing cultivars with moderate to high levels of pomelo introgression.[4] Hybrid mandarins thus fall on a continuum of increasing pomelo contribution with clementines, sweet and sour oranges, and grapefruit.[18] Mandarins and their hybrids are sold under a variety of names. In the genomic-based species taxonomy of Ollitrault et al., only pure mandarins would fall under C. reticulata, while the pomelo admixture found in the majority would cause them to be classified as varieties of C. aurantium.[23]

Varieties

 src=
Unripe fruit

Stem mandarins (Citrus reticulata)

  • Mangshan wild mandarins (only some, others being the genetically-distinct mangshanyegan)[19]
  • Daoxian mandarines[19]
  • Tachibana[4][19]
  • Suanpangan[19]

Domesticated mandarins and hybrids

(Species names are those from the Tanaka system. Recent genomic analysis would place them all in Citrus reticulata.[4])

 src=
Kinnow, a 'King' (Citrus nobilis) × 'Willow Leaf' (Citrus × deliciosa) cross, developed by Dr H.B. Frost
  • Sun Chu Sha[18][4]
  • Nanfengmiju - one of the most widely cultivated varieties in China.[22]
  • Cleopatra mandarin,[18] acidic mandarin containing very small amount of pomelo introgression[4].
  • Sunki,[18] acidic mandarin containing very small amount of pomelo introgression[4].
  • Tangerines (Citrus tangerina)[24] is a grouping used for several distinct mandarin hybrids. Those sold in the US as tangerines have usually been Dancy, Sunburst or Murcott (Honey) cultivars. Some tangerine-grapefruit hybrids are legally sold as tangerines in the USA.[25][26]
  • Mediterranean/Willowleaf/Thorny (Citrus × deliciosa), a mandarin with small amounts of pomelo[27].
  • Huanglingmiao (Citrus reticulata), a mandarin–pomelo hybrid[4][28].
  • Kishumikan (Citrus reticulata), or simply Kishu, close clonal relative of Huanglingmiao, the two sharing a common origin before diverging as they were propagated[4]
    • Kunenbo (Citrus nobilis) a heterogeneous group that includes at least four distinct mandarin-pomelo hybrids.[29]
      • King (in full, 'King of Siam', Citrus nobilis) a Kunenbo mandarin with high levels of pomelo admixture, sometimes classed as a tangor.[4][29]
        • Kinnow (see image), a King-Willowleaf hybrid.
      • Satsuma (Citrus unshiu), a mandarin-pomelo hybrid with more pomelo than seen in most mandarins. It derived from a cross between a Huanglingmiao/Kishu and a non-King Kunenbo that was itself a pomelo-Huanglingmiao/Kishu cross.[4][29] It is a seedless variety, of which there are over 200 cultivars, including Wenzhou migana, Owari, and mikan; the source of most canned mandarins, and popular as a fresh fruit due to its ease of consumption
        • Owari, a well-known Satsuma cultivar that ripens during the late autumn
    • Komikan, a variety of Kishumikan[29]
  • The Ponkan ( Citrus reticulata), a mandarin–pomelo hybrid[18][27]
    • The Dancy tangerine (Citrus tangerina) is a hybrid, the cross of a Ponkan with another unidentified hybrid mandarin.[4] Until the 1970s, most tangerines grown and eaten in the USA were Dancys, and it was known as "Christmas tangerine"[17] and zipper-skin tangerine[30]
      • Iyokan (Citrus iyo), a cross between the Dancy tangerine and another Japanese mandarin variety, the kaikoukan.[29]
  • Bang Mot tangerine, a mandarin variety popular in Thailand.
  • Shekwasha (Citrus depressa), a very sour mandarin grown for its acidic juice, has admixture from both pomelo and citron[31]

Mandarin crosses

 src=
Citrus fruits clustered by genetic similarity. Most commercial varieties of citrus are hybrids of the three species at the corners of the ternary diagram (mandarin at top). Genetically distinct hybrids often bear the same common name.[31]
  • Tangelos, a generic term for modern mandarin (tangerine)-pomelo and mandarin-grapefruit crosses
    • The Mandelo or 'cocktail grapefruit', a cross between a Dancy/King mixed mandarin and a pomelo.[4] The term is also sometimes used generically, like tangelo, for recent mandarin-pomelo hybrids.
  • The sour orange (Citrus x aurantium) derives from a direct cross between a pure mandarin and a pomelo[28]
  • The common sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis), derives from a cross between non-pure mandarin and pomelo parents[28]
    • Tangors, or Temple oranges, are crosses between the mandarin orange and the common sweet orange;[28] their thick rind is easy to peel and its bright orange pulp is sour-sweet and full-flavoured. Some such hybrids are commonly called mandarins or tangerines.
      • Clementine (Citrus × clementina), a spontaneous hybrid between a Willowleaf mandarin orange and a sweet orange.[27][32] sometimes known as a "Thanksgiving Orange" or "Christmas orange", as its peak season is winter; an important commercial mandarin orange form, having displaced mikans in many markets.
        • Clemenules or Nules, a variety of Clementine named for the Valencian town where it was first bred in 1953; it is the most popular variety of Clementine grown in Spain.[33]
        • Fairchild is a hybrid of Clementine and Orlando, a tangelo
      • Murcott, a mandarin–sweet orange hybrid,[27][34] one parent being the King.[35]
        • Tango is a proprietary seedless mid-late season irradiated selection of Murcott developed by the University of California Citrus Breeding Program.[9]
    • Grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), the result of backcrossing the sweet orange with pomelo
    • Meyer lemon (Citrus x meyer), a cross between a mandarin × pomelo hybrid and a citron.[31]
    • Palestinian sweet lime (Citrus x limettioides), a distinct (mandarin × pomelo) × citron hybrid[31]
  • Rangpur lime (Citrus x limonia), a pure mandarin-citron cross[31]
  • Rough lemon (Citrus x jambhiri), a pure mandarin-citron cross, distinct from rangpur[31]
  • Jabara (Citrus jabara), a Kunenbo mandarin-yuzu cross.[29]

Non-mandarins

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Julia F. Morton (1987). "Mandarin orange; In: Fruits of Warm Climates, p. 142–145". NewCROP, the New Crop Resource Online Program, Center for New Crops and Plant Products, Purdue University. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e f David Karp (3 February 2016). "Mandarin oranges, rising stars of the fruit bowl". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  3. ^ David Karp (13 March 2014). "Market watch: The wild and elusive Dancy". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Wu, Guohong Albert; Terol, Javier; Ibanez, Victoria; López-García, Antonio; Pérez-Román, Estela; Borredá, Carles; Domingo, Concha; Tadeo, Francisco R; Carbonell-Caballero, Jose; Alonso, Roberto; Curk, Franck; Du, Dongliang; Ollitrault, Patrick; Roose, Mikeal L. Roose; Dopazo, Joaquin; Gmitter Jr, Frederick G.; Rokhsar, Daniel; Talon, Manuel (2018). "Genomics of the origin and evolution of Citrus" (PDF). Nature. 554 (7692): 311–316. Bibcode:2018Natur.554..311W. doi:10.1038/nature25447. PMID 29414943. and Supplementary information
  5. ^ a b Wang, L; He, F; Huang, Y; He, J; Yang, S; Zeng, J; Deng, C; Jiang, X; Fang, Y; Wen, S; Xu, R; Yu, H; Yang, X; Zhong, G; Chen, C; Yan, X; Zhou, C; Zhang, H; Xie, Z; Larkin, RM; Deng, X; Xu, Q (6 August 2018). "Genome of wild mandarin and domestication history of mandarin". Molecular Plant. 11 (8): 1024–1037. doi:10.1016/j.molp.2018.06.001. ISSN 1674-2052. PMID 29885473.
  6. ^ a b "Citrus reticulata, 'Clementine'". Missouri Botanical Garden. 2019. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  7. ^ "Chinese loanwords in the OED". The Free Library. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  8. ^ "Mandarin | Origin and meaning of mandarin". www.etymonline.com. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  9. ^ a b "Citrus reticulata Blanco; Tango mandarin". University of California - Riverside; College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences; Citrus Variety Collection. 2010. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  10. ^ a b "Mandarin orange production in 2017, Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)". UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  11. ^ Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. 1985. Los Angeles: Institute of Chinese Medicine.
  12. ^ a b c "Information on This Week's Product: Mandarin Oranges" (PDF). BC Agriculture in the Classroom Foundation. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
  13. ^ a b "Personalized Christmas Stockings". centrinet.com. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
  14. ^ a b Marion, Paul (December 19, 2010). "Oranges at Christmas". richardhowe.com: Lowell Politics and Lowell History. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
  15. ^ "HS195/CH116: The Satsuma Mandarin". Edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2014-11-19. Retrieved 2018-04-09.
  16. ^ "Christmas Stockings". Christmas Traditions in France and in Canada. Ministère de la culture et de la communication de France. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
  17. ^ a b Dancy Tangerine Citrus Tangerina v. Dancy, Ark of Taste Catalogue http://www.slowfoodusa.org/ark-item/dancy-tangerine Archived 2016-04-09 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick (2014). "Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrus species: analysis of chromosome 2". BMC Genetics. 15: 152. doi:10.1186/s12863-014-0152-1. PMC 4302129. PMID 25544367.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i Wang, Lun; et al. (2018). "Genome of Wild Mandarin and Domestication History of Mandarin". Molecular Plant. 11 (8): 1024–1037. doi:10.1016/j.molp.2018.06.001. PMID 29885473.
  20. ^ a b Froelicher, Yann; Mouhaya, Wafa; Bassene, Jean-Baptiste; Costantino, Gilles; Kamiri, Mourad; Luro, Francois; Morillon, Raphael; Ollitrault, Patrick (2011). "New universal mitochondrial PCR markers reveal new information on maternal citrus phylogeny". Tree Genetics. 7: 49–61. doi:10.1007/s11295-010-0314-x.
  21. ^ Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Porat, Ron; Carmi, Nir (2018). "Mandarin fruit quality: a review". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 98 (1): 18–26. doi:10.1002/jsfa.8495. PMID 28631804.
  22. ^ a b "The Seedless Kishu, a small but mighty mandarin". latimes. 2010-01-13.
  23. ^ Ollitrault, Patrick; Curk, Franck; Krueger, Robert (2020). "Citrus taxonomy". In Talon, Manuel; Caruso, Marco; Gmitter, Fred G, Jr. (eds.). The Citrus Genus. Elsevier. pp. 57–81.
  24. ^ "Citrus tangerina Yu.Tanaka — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  25. ^ Larry K. Jackson and Stephen H. Futch (2018-07-10). "Robinson Tangerine". ufl.edu.
  26. ^ Commernet, 2011. "20-13.0061. Sunburst Tangerines; Classification and Standards, 20-13. Market Classification, Maturity Standards And Processing Or Packing Restrictions For Hybrids, D20. Departmental, 20. Department of Citrus, Florida Administrative Code". State of Florida. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  27. ^ a b c d Velasco, R; Licciardello, C (2014). "A genealogy of the citrus family". Nature Biotechnology. 32 (7): 640–642. doi:10.1038/nbt.2954. PMID 25004231.
  28. ^ a b c d e G Albert Wu; et al. (2014). "Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pomelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication". Nature. 32 (7): 656–662. doi:10.1038/nbt.2906. PMC 4113729. PMID 24908277.
  29. ^ a b c d e f Shimizu, Tokurou; Kitajima, Akira; Nonaka, Keisuke; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Goto, Shingo; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Mochizuki, Takako; Nagasaki, Hideki; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu (2016). "Hybrid Origins of Citrus Varieties Inferred from DNA Marker Analysis of Nuclear and Organelle Genomes". PLOS ONE. 11 (11): e0166969. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1166969S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0166969. PMC 5130255. PMID 27902727.
  30. ^ Larry K. Jackson and Stephen H. Futch (2018-06-06). "HS169/CH074: Dancy Tangerine". ufl.edu.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Curk, Franck; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick (2016). "Phylogenetic origin of limes and lemons revealed by cytoplasmic and nuclear markers". Annals of Botany. 11 (4): 565–583. doi:10.1093/aob/mcw005. PMC 4817432. PMID 26944784.
  32. ^ Edible: An Illustrated Guide to the World's Food Plants. National Geographic. 2008. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-4262-0372-5.
  33. ^ Toni Siebert (30 July 2009). "Nules". Citrus Variety Database. University Of California. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
  34. ^ Stephen H. Futch and Larry K. Jackson (2018-05-09). "HS174/CH078: Murcott (Honey Tangerine)". ufl.edu.
  35. ^ Shimizu, Tokurou; Kitajima, Akira; Nonaka, Keisuke; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Goto, Shingo; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Mochizuki, Takako; Nagasaki, Hideki; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu (2016). "Hybrid Origins of Citrus Varieties Inferred from DNA Marker Analysis of Nuclear and Organelle Genomes". PLOS ONE. 11 (11): e0166969. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1166969S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0166969. PMC 5130255. PMID 27902727.

 src= Data related to Citrus reticulata at Wikispecies

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Mandarin orange: Brief Summary

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The mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata), also known as the mandarin or mandarine, is a small citrus tree with fruit resembling other oranges, usually eaten plain or in fruit salads. The tangerine is a group of orange-coloured citrus fruit consisting of hybrids of mandarin orange.

Mandarins are smaller and oblate, rather than spherical, like the common oranges (which are a mandarin hybrid). The taste is considered less sour, as well as sweeter and stronger. A ripe mandarin is firm to slightly soft, heavy for its size, and pebbly-skinned. The peel is thin, with little white mesocarp, so they are usually easier to peel and to split into segments. Hybrids generally have these traits to a lesser degree. The mandarin is tender and is damaged easily by cold. It can be grown in tropical and subtropical areas.

According to genetic studies, the mandarin was one of the original citrus species; through breeding or natural hybridization, it is the ancestor of many hybrid citrus cultivars. With the citron and pomelo, it is the ancestor of the most commercially important hybrids (such as sweet and sour oranges, grapefruit, and many lemons and limes). The mandarin has also been hybridized with other citrus species, such as the desert lime and the kumquat. Though the ancestral mandarin was bitter, most commercial mandarin strains derive from hybridization with pomelo, which gave them a sweet fruit.

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Mangshanyegan

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The mangshanyegan (Chinese: 莽山野柑; Citrus mangshanensis) is a wild citrus fruit species.

The mangshanyegan is native to mountain forests in Mangshan, Hunan province, China, where it was first reported in the 1980s.[2] It is genetically distinct from the mandarin orange,[1] with which it has morphological similarities, and the term 'Mangshan wild mandarins' as well as the species name C. mangshanensis have been used both for the mangshanyegan and for wild true mandarins of the same region.[3] Genomic sequencing shows the mangshanyegan to be one of a small number of pure (non-hybrid) citrus species, having diverged from other members of the genus at the initial branching of Citrus radiation in the Late Miocene.[4] It is genetically similar to another wild citrus of the region, the yuanju.[3]

References

  1. ^ a b Wu, GA; et al. (2014). "Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication". Nature Biotechnology. 32 (7): 656–662. doi:10.1038/nbt.2906. PMC 4113729. PMID 24908277.
  2. ^ Liu, Cuihua; Jiang, Dong; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Chen, Feng; Fang, Liu; Ma, Zhaocheng; Xu, Juan (2013). "Chemotaxonomic Study of Citrus, Poncirus and Fortunella Genotypes Based on Peel Oil Volatile Compounds - Deciphering the Genetic Origin of Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro)". PLoS ONE. 8 (3): e58411. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...858411L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058411. PMC 3596367. PMID 23516475.
  3. ^ a b Wang, Lun; et al. (2018). "Genome of Wild Mandarin and Domestication History of Mandarin". Molecular Plant. 11 (8): 1024–1037. doi:10.1016/j.molp.2018.06.001. PMID 29885473.
  4. ^ Wu, Guohong Albert; Terol, Javier; Ibanez, Victoria; López-García, Antonio; Pérez-Román, Estela; Borredá, Carles; Domingo, Concha; Tadeo, Francisco R; Carbonell-Caballero, Jose; Alonso, Roberto; Curk, Franck; Du, Dongliang; Ollitrault, Patrick; Roose, Mikeal L. Roose; Dopazo, Joaquin; Gmitter Jr, Frederick G.; Rokhsar, Daniel; Talon, Manuel (2018). "Genomics of the origin and evolution of Citrus". Nature. 554 (7692): 311–316. Bibcode:2018Natur.554..311W. doi:10.1038/nature25447. PMID 29414943.
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Mangshanyegan: Brief Summary

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The mangshanyegan (Chinese: 莽山野柑; Citrus mangshanensis) is a wild citrus fruit species.

The mangshanyegan is native to mountain forests in Mangshan, Hunan province, China, where it was first reported in the 1980s. It is genetically distinct from the mandarin orange, with which it has morphological similarities, and the term 'Mangshan wild mandarins' as well as the species name C. mangshanensis have been used both for the mangshanyegan and for wild true mandarins of the same region. Genomic sequencing shows the mangshanyegan to be one of a small number of pure (non-hybrid) citrus species, having diverged from other members of the genus at the initial branching of Citrus radiation in the Late Miocene. It is genetically similar to another wild citrus of the region, the yuanju.

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Ponkan

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Ponkan (Chinese: 椪柑 (also known in Chinese as 芦柑);[1] Citrus poonensis; "Chinese Honey Orange") is a high-yield sweet Citrus cultivar with large fruits in the size of an orange. It is a citrus hybrid (mandarin × pomelo),[2] though it was once thought to be a pure mandarin.[3][4]

Description

"Pon" for its Japanese name "ponkan" is named after the city of Pune, India, and "kan (柑)" means citrus. The fruit is very sweet, round in shape and about 7–8 cm wide in size. Trees are heavy bearing every other year, and sometimes the limbs break due to the heavy yields. Growers resort to propping the limbs up with sticks at times, though if the limb bends gradually down and grows in that position it will do better in future years.[5]

Trees can be propagated by seed, as they breed true, or grafted onto other rootstocks, trifoliate orange being the most popular. Andrew Willis of Apopka, Florida, promoted the Ponkan heavily in the early 1900s.

Ponkan is also noted for having a loose rind that is very easy to peel.[1]

Ponkan cultivation

Ponkans are widely grown in Japan.

2006 Citrus cultivation in Japan. [6][7]

It was originally introduced to the United States by Carlo Roman in 1880. His original grove is still in production, and under the care of Marion Holder near Hawthorne in Putnam County, Florida. The fruit is still very popular in the Melrose area, and often sold at roadside stands there. The city of Teresópolis in Brazil holds an annual Ponkan festival.[8]

See also

  • Citrus depressa (shikwasa, hirami lemon), a similarly-sized sour citrus fruit widely used in Taiwan and Okinawa, Japan
  • Citrus microcarpa (calamansi), a similarly-sized sour citrus fruit from the Philippines

Notes

  1. ^ a b "椪柑". Retrieved 2018-02-12.
  2. ^ Velasco, Riccardo; Licciardello, Concetta (2014-01-01). "A genealogy of the citrus family". Nature Biotechnology. 32 (7): 640–642. doi:10.1038/nbt.2954. PMID 25004231.
  3. ^ Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone (2014-07-01). "Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication". Nature Biotechnology. 32 (7): 656–662. doi:10.1038/nbt.2906. ISSN 1087-0156. PMC 4113729. PMID 24908277.
  4. ^ Barkley, Noelle A.; Roose, Mikeal L.; Krueger, Robert R.; Federici, Claire T. (2006-04-20). "Assessing genetic diversity and population structure in a citrus germplasm collection utilizing simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs)". Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 112 (8): 1519–1531. doi:10.1007/s00122-006-0255-9. ISSN 0040-5752. PMID 16699791.
  5. ^ "Mandarin Orange". purdue.edu.
  6. ^ "2006 The area under cultivation of Mikan" (in Japanese). National Institute of Fruit Tree Science. Archived from the original on 2009-11-30.
  7. ^ "2006 The area under cultivation of Citrus (except for Mikan)" (in Japanese). National Institute of Fruit Tree Science. Archived from the original on 2009-11-30.
  8. ^ Festa da Ponkan, Teresópolis (Portuguese) Archived 2010-12-23 at the Wayback Machine

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Ponkan: Brief Summary

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Ponkan (Chinese: 椪柑 (also known in Chinese as 芦柑); Citrus poonensis; "Chinese Honey Orange") is a high-yield sweet Citrus cultivar with large fruits in the size of an orange. It is a citrus hybrid (mandarin × pomelo), though it was once thought to be a pure mandarin.

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Tachibana orange

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The tachibana orange (Citrus tachibana, or Citrus reticulata tachibana) is a variety of mandarin orange, a citrus fruit.[3] It is native to China and introduced to Japan 2000 years ago. The Tanaka System assigns it to its own species, while the Swingle System places it in the same species with other mandarin oranges. Genomic analysis has shown it to be genetically pure, without the pomelo introgression found in the closely related domesticated mandarin oranges of mainland Asia, though distant enough for it to by considered a distinct subspecies by Wu, et al..[2] They are estimated to have diverged from other Asian mandarins about 2 million years ago, and likely spread to the islands over land bridges formed during Pleistocene glacial maxima,[2] probably arising near where its mandarin cousins would later be domesticated in the Nanling Mountains of China.[4]

References

  1. ^ "ITIS standard report - Citrus tachibana (Makino) Tanaka". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Wu, Guohong Albert; Terol, Javier; Ibanez, Victoria; López-García, Antonio; Pérez-Román, Estela; Borredá, Carles; Domingo, Concha; Tadeo, Francisco R; Carbonell-Caballero, Jose; Alonso, Roberto; Curk, Franck; Du, Dongliang; Ollitrault, Patrick; Roose, Mikeal L. Roose; Dopazo, Joaquin; Gmitter Jr, Frederick G.; Rokhsar, Daniel; Talon, Manuel (2018). "Genomics of the origin and evolution of Citrus". Nature. 554 (7692): 311–316. doi:10.1038/nature25447. PMID 29414943.
  3. ^ "Plants profile for Citrus tachibana". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  4. ^ Wang, Lun; et al. (2018). "Genome of Wild Mandarin and Domestication History of Mandarin". Molecular Plant. 11 (8): 1024–1037. doi:10.1016/j.molp.2018.06.001. PMID 29885473.
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Tachibana orange: Brief Summary

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The tachibana orange (Citrus tachibana, or Citrus reticulata tachibana) is a variety of mandarin orange, a citrus fruit. It is native to China and introduced to Japan 2000 years ago. The Tanaka System assigns it to its own species, while the Swingle System places it in the same species with other mandarin oranges. Genomic analysis has shown it to be genetically pure, without the pomelo introgression found in the closely related domesticated mandarin oranges of mainland Asia, though distant enough for it to by considered a distinct subspecies by Wu, et al.. They are estimated to have diverged from other Asian mandarins about 2 million years ago, and likely spread to the islands over land bridges formed during Pleistocene glacial maxima, probably arising near where its mandarin cousins would later be domesticated in the Nanling Mountains of China.

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Tangerine

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The tangerine (Citrus reticula L. var.,[1] sometimes referred as Citrus tangerina[2]) is a group of orange-colored citrus fruit consisting of hybrids of mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata).

The name was first used for fruit coming from Tangier, Morocco, described as a mandarin variety.[3] Under the Tanaka classification system, Citrus tangerina is considered a separate species. Under the Swingle system, tangerines are considered a group of mandarin (C. reticulata) varieties.[4] Genetic study has shown tangerines to be mandarin orange hybrids containing some pomelo DNA.[5][6] Some differ only in disease resistance.[7] The term is currently applied to any reddish-orange mandarin (and, in some jurisdictions, mandarin-like hybrids, including some tangors).[8][9]

Tangerines are smaller and less rounded than common oranges. The taste is considered less sour, as well as sweeter and stronger, than that of an orange.[10] A ripe tangerine is firm to slightly soft, and pebbly-skinned with no deep grooves, as well as orange in color. The peel is thin, with little bitter white mesocarp.[11] All of these traits are shared by mandarins generally.

Peak tangerine season lasts from autumn to spring. Tangerines are most commonly peeled and eaten by hand. The fresh fruit is also used in salads, desserts and main dishes. The peel is used fresh or dried as a spice or zest for baking and drinks, and eaten coated in chocolate. Fresh tangerine juice and frozen juice concentrate are commonly available in the United States.

Nomenclature and varieties

Tangerines were first grown and cultivated as a distinct crop in the Americas by a Major Atway in Palatka, Florida.[12] Atway was said to have imported them from Morocco (more specifically its third-largest city Tangier), which was the origin of the name. Major Atway sold his groves to N. H. Moragne in 1843, giving the Moragne tangerine the other part of its name.[13]

The Moragne tangerine produced a seedling which became one of the oldest and most popular American varieties, the Dancy tangerine (zipper-skin tangerine, kid-glove orange).[13] Genetic analysis has shown the parents of the Dancy to have been two mandarin orange hybrids each with a small pomelo contribution, a Ponkan mandarin orange and a second unidentified mandarin.[5] The Dancy is no longer widely commercially grown; it is too delicate to handle and ship well, it is susceptible to Alternaria fungus, and it bears more heavily in alternate years.[14][15] Dancys are still grown for personal consumption, and many hybrids of the Dancy are grown commercially.

Until the 1970s, the Dancy was the most widely grown tangerine in the US;[16] the popularity of the fruit led to the term "tangerine" being broadly applied as a marketing name. Florida classifies tangerine-like hybrid fruits as tangerines for the purposes of sale and regulation;[8] this classification is widely used but regarded as technically inaccurate in the industry.[9] Among the most important tangerine hybrids of Florida are murcotts, a late-fruiting type of tangor marketed as "honey tangerine"[17] and Sunbursts (an early-fruiting complex tangerine-orange-grapefruit hybrid).[18] The fallglo, also a three-way hybrid (5/8 tangerine, 1/4 orange and 1/8 grapefruit), is also grown.[19]

Nutrition

Tangerines contain 85% water, 13% carbohydrates, and negligible amounts of fat and protein (table). Among micronutrients, only vitamin C is in significant content (32% of the Daily Value) in a 100 gram reference serving, with all other nutrients in low amounts.

Etymology

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "tangerine" was originally an adjective meaning "Of or pertaining to, or native of Tangier, a seaport in Morocco, on the Strait of Gibraltar" and "a native of Tangier." The OED cites this usage from Addison's The Tatler in 1710 with similar uses from the 1800s. The adjective was applied to the fruit, once known scientifically as "Citrus nobilis var. tangeriana" which grew in the region of Tangiers. This usage appears in the 1800s.[20] In India, it is called Narangi in Hindi (Hindi:नारंगी), Narangi means "Orange color" and hence it refers to the bright orange color of the fruit.

 src=
Tangerine or Narangi fruit during winters in Delhi
 src=
Narangi tree in Mohali
 src=
Narangi fruit

References

  1. ^ Mandal, Shyamapada; Mandal, Manisha (2016). "Tangerine (Citrus reticulata L. Var.) Oils". Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety. pp. 803–811. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-416641-7.00091-2. ISBN 978-0-12-416641-7.
  2. ^ "Citrus tangerina Yu.Tanaka — The Plant List". theplantlist.org.
  3. ^ "Home : Oxford English Dictionary". oed.com.
  4. ^ Froelicher, Yann; Mouhaya, Wafa; Bassene, Jean-Baptiste; Costantino, Gilles; Kamiri, Mourad; Luro, Francois; Morillon, Raphael; Ollitrault, Patrick (2011). "New universal mitochondrial PCR markers reveal new information on maternal citrus phylogeny". Tree Genetics. 7: 49–61. doi:10.1007/s11295-010-0314-x.
  5. ^ a b Wu, Guohong Albert; Terol, Javier; Ibanez, Victoria; López-García, Antonio; Pérez-Román, Estela; Borredá, Carles; Domingo, Concha; Tadeo, Francisco R; Carbonell-Caballero, Jose; Alonso, Roberto; Curk, Franck; Du, Dongliang; Ollitrault, Patrick; Roose, Mikeal L. Roose; Dopazo, Joaquin; Gmitter Jr, Frederick G.; Rokhsar, Daniel; Talon, Manuel (2018). "Genomics of the origin and evolution of Citrus" (PDF). Nature. 554 (7692): 311–316. Bibcode:2018Natur.554..311W. doi:10.1038/nature25447. PMID 29414943. and Supplement
  6. ^ G Albert Wu; et al. (2014). "Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pomelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication". Nature Biotechnology. 32 (7): 656–662. doi:10.1038/nbt.2906. PMC 4113729. PMID 24908277.
  7. ^ Li, Xiaomeng; Xie, Rangjin; Lu, Zhenhua; Zhou, Zhiqin (2010). "The Origin of Cultivated Citrus as Inferred from Internal Transcribed Spacer and Chloroplast DNA Sequence and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Fingerprints". Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 135 (4): 341–350. doi:10.21273/JASHS.135.4.341.
  8. ^ a b Commernet, 2011. "20-13.0061. Sunburst Tangerines; Classification and Standards, 20-13. Market Classification, Maturity Standards And Processing Or Packing Restrictions For Hybrids, D20. Departmental, 20. Department of Citrus, Florida Administrative Code". State of Florida. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  9. ^ a b Larry K. Jackson & Stephen H. Futch. "HS178/CH073: Robinson Tangerine". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  10. ^ Pittman & Davis (22 February 1999). "Pittman & Davis – Premium Citrus Fruit Gifts – Why Are Tangerines So Tangy?". Pittmandavis.com. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
  11. ^ David Karp (28 January 2011). "Market Watch: The wild and elusive Dancy". LA Times. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
  12. ^ H. Harold Hume (1913). Citrus Fruits and Their Culture. O. Judd Company. p. 101.
  13. ^ a b "dancy". www.citrusvariety.ucr.edu. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  14. ^ Larry K. Jackson & Stephen H. Futch (6 June 2018). "HS169/CH074: Dancy Tangerine". ufl.edu.
  15. ^ "Satsuma cultivars: The best and the worst". AL.com. 30 October 2009. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  16. ^ USA, Slow Food. "Dancy Tangerine". Slowfood USA. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  17. ^ "HS174/CH078: Murcott (Honey Tangerine)". Edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
  18. ^ "HS168/CH079: Sunburst Tangerine". Edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
  19. ^ Larry K. Jackson & Stephen H. Futch. "HS173/CH075: Fallglo Tangerine". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  20. ^ See the Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition, 1989.

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Tangerine: Brief Summary

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The tangerine (Citrus reticula L. var., sometimes referred as Citrus tangerina) is a group of orange-colored citrus fruit consisting of hybrids of mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata).

The name was first used for fruit coming from Tangier, Morocco, described as a mandarin variety. Under the Tanaka classification system, Citrus tangerina is considered a separate species. Under the Swingle system, tangerines are considered a group of mandarin (C. reticulata) varieties. Genetic study has shown tangerines to be mandarin orange hybrids containing some pomelo DNA. Some differ only in disease resistance. The term is currently applied to any reddish-orange mandarin (and, in some jurisdictions, mandarin-like hybrids, including some tangors).

Tangerines are smaller and less rounded than common oranges. The taste is considered less sour, as well as sweeter and stronger, than that of an orange. A ripe tangerine is firm to slightly soft, and pebbly-skinned with no deep grooves, as well as orange in color. The peel is thin, with little bitter white mesocarp. All of these traits are shared by mandarins generally.

Peak tangerine season lasts from autumn to spring. Tangerines are most commonly peeled and eaten by hand. The fresh fruit is also used in salads, desserts and main dishes. The peel is used fresh or dried as a spice or zest for baking and drinks, and eaten coated in chocolate. Fresh tangerine juice and frozen juice concentrate are commonly available in the United States.

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