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Description

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Parasitic fungus-like plants without chlorophyll with a fleshy underground rhizome. Leaves 0. Flowers solitary, bisexual, actinomorphic, borne on the rhizome, smelling of carrion. Calyx 3-4(-5)-lobed, fleshy, united below. Petals 0. Stamens alternating with calyx lobes; anthers large with numerous thecae. Ovary inferior, 1-locular. Stigma button-like, crowning the ovary. Fruit a large thick-walled fleshy berry. Seeds minute, numerous.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Hydnoraceae Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=102
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Herbs, climbers, rarely shrubs. Stipules 0 but stipule-like leaves may be present in the leaf axils. Leaves alternate, often palmately-veined, simple, entire or 3-5-lobed. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, solitary or arranged in racemes or cymes. Calyx petaloid, usually enlarged with a basal tube; apical limb 1-3-lobed. Petals 0. Stamens 6-10 or many. Ovary inferior, 3-6-locular. Style with 3-6 stigmas. Fruit usually a many-seeded capsule. Seeds sometimes winged.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Aristolochiaceae Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=21
author
Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
author
Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Aristolochiaceae

provided by wikipedia EN

The Aristolochiaceae (English: /əˌrɪstəˈlkiəsii/) are a family, the birthwort family, of flowering plants with seven genera and about 400 known species belonging to the order Piperales. The type genus is Aristolochia L.

Description

They are mostly perennial, herbaceous plants, shrubs, or lianas. The membranous, cordate simple leaves are spread out, growing alternately along the stem on leaf stalks. The margins are commonly entire. No stipules are present. The bizarre flowers are large to medium-sized, growing in the leaf axils. They are bilaterally or radially symmetrical.

Classification

Aristolochiaceae are magnoliids, a basal group of angiosperms which are not part of the large categories of monocots or eudicots. As of APG IV (2016), the former families Hydnoraceae and Lactoridaceae are included, because exclusion would make Aristolochiaceae in the traditional sense paraphyletic.[1]

Some newer classification schemes, such as the update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, place the family Aristolochiaceae in the order Piperales, but it is still quite common, though superseded, for the Aristolochiaceae to be assigned, sometimes with some other families, their own order (Aristolochiales).

Phylogeny

Four assemblages can be distinguished in the genus-level cladogram of Aristolochiaceae:

  • Aristolochia is closely related to Thottea.
  • Hydnora is closely related to Prosopanche.
  • Lactoris occupies an isolated position.
  • Asarum is closely related to Saruma, and both genera display a deep-branching position in the family.
Genus-level cladogram of the Aristolochiaceae. Aristolochiaceae Asaroideae  

Asarum L. 1753 (Wild ginger)

   

Saruma Oliver 1889[2]

      Lactoridoideae

Lactoris Philippi 1865

    Hydnoroideae

Hydnora Thunberg 1775

   

Prosopanche de Bary 1868

    Aristolochioideae  

Aristolochia L. 1753 (Pipevine)

   

Thottea Rottboell 1783[3]

          The phylogeny is based on the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website.[4][5]

Phytochemistry

Many members of Aristolochia and some of Asarum contain the toxin aristolochic acid, which discourages herbivores and is known to be carcinogenic in rats. Aristolochia species are carcinogenic to humans.

Genomics

 src=
The highly reduced plastid genome map of a member of Aristolochiaceae, Hydnora visseri

The complete plastid genome sequence of one species of Aristolochiaceae, Hydnora visseri, has been determined. As compared to the chloroplast genome of its closest photosynthetic relatives, the plastome of Hydnora visseri shows extreme reduction in both size (ca. 27 kilo base pairs) and gene content (24 genes appear to be functional).[6] This Aristolochiaceae species therefore possesses one of the smallest plastid genomes among flowering plants.[7]

Ecology

Pipevine swallowtail butterflies lay their eggs on pipevine (Aristolochia species), and the larvae feed on the plant, but are not affected by the toxin, which then offers the adult butterfly protection against predators.

Fossil record

The oldest fossil leaf remains are of †Aristolochites dentata from the Late Cretaceous of Nebraska, United States. Pollen record of †Aristolochiacidites viluiensis has been described from Upper Cretaceous sediments of Siberia. Fossil wood is known from the Deccan Traps of India some 66 million years ago. Leaf fossils of Aristolochia are known from the Early and Late Tertiary of North America and the Late Tertiary of Abkhazia, Ukrainia and Poland.[8] Fossil leaf remains of †Aristolochia austriaca have been described from Late Miocene sediments of the Pellendorf site at the Vienna Basin in Austria. †A. austriaca is most similar to the extant Mediterranean species A. rotunda and A. baetica.[9]

References

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385.
  2. ^ "GRIN Genera of Aristolochiaceae subfam. Asaroideae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
  3. ^ "GRIN Genera of Aristolochiaceae subfam. Aristolochioideae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
  4. ^ Stevens, P.F. (2001). "ARISTOLOCHIACEAE Jussieu". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. 13. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  5. ^ "Family: Aristolochiaceae Juss., nom. cons". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-04-12. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
  6. ^ Naumann, Julia; Der, Joshua P.; Wafula, Eric K.; Jones, Samuel S.; Wagner, Sarah T.; Honaas, Loren A.; Ralph, Paula E.; Bolin, Jay F.; Maass, Erika; Neinhuis, Christoph; Wanke, Stefan; dePamphilis, Claude W. (2016-02-01). "Detecting and Characterizing the Highly Divergent Plastid Genome of the Nonphotosynthetic Parasitic Plant Hydnora visseri (Hydnoraceae)". Genome Biology and Evolution. 8 (2): 345–363. doi:10.1093/gbe/evv256. ISSN 1759-6653. PMC 4779604. PMID 26739167.
  7. ^ List of sequenced plastomes: Flowering plants.
  8. ^ Evolution and Diversification of Land Plants by Kunio Iwatsuki and Peter H. Raven, Springer Science & Business Media, 6. des. 2012
  9. ^ The first fossil Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae, Piperales) leaves from Austria by Barbara Meller, Article number: 17.2.21A, https://doi.org/10.26879/420, Palaeontological Association, May 2014

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Aristolochiaceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Aristolochiaceae (English: /əˌrɪstəˈloʊkiəsii/) are a family, the birthwort family, of flowering plants with seven genera and about 400 known species belonging to the order Piperales. The type genus is Aristolochia L.

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Hydnoraceae

provided by wikipedia EN

Hydnoroideae is a subfamily of parasitic flowering plants in the order Piperales. Traditionally, and as recently as the APG III system it given family rank under the name Hydnoraceae.[1] It is now submerged in the Aristolochiaceae.[2][3] It contains two genera, Hydnora and Prosopanche:[2]

Members of this subfamily have been described as the strangest plants in the world.[4]

Description

The most striking aspect of the Hydnoroideae is probably the complete absence of leaves (not even in modified forms such as scales).[2] Some species are mildly thermogenic (capable of producing heat), presumably as a means to dispersing their scent.[5]

Morphology in pictures

Ecology

The plants are pollinated by insects such as dermestid beetles or carrion flies, attracted by the fetid odor of the flowers.[2] In Hydnora africana there are bait bodies with a strong smell, whereas in Hydnora johannis the scent comes from a region at the tip of the perianth called a cucullus.[2] The flowers may be above ground or underground.[2] The fruits have edible, fragrant pulp, which attracts animals such as porcupines, monkeys, jackals, rhinoceros, and armadillos, as well as humans. The host plants, in the case of Hydnora, generally are in the family Euphorbiaceae and the genus Acacia.[2] Hosts for Prosopanche include various species of Prosopis and other legumes.

Biochemistry

The plants contain high levels of tannins.[6]

Genomics

 src=
The highly reduced plastid genome map of a member of Hydnoroideae, Hydnora visseri

The complete plastid genome sequence of one species of Hydnoroideae, Hydnora visseri, has been determined. As compared to the chloroplast genome of its closest photosynthetic relatives, the plastome of Hydnora visseri shows extreme reduction in both size (27,233 bp) and gene content (24 genes appear to be functional).[7] The plastome of Hydnora visseri is therefore one of the smallest among flowering plants.[8]

Classification

Like many parasitic plants, the affinities with non-parasitic plants are not obvious, and 19th and 20th century botanists proposed a variety of placements for the taxon. Molecular data places them in the Piperales, and nested within the Aristolochiaceae and allied with the Piperaceae or Saururaceae.[3][2][9][10]

References

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-05-25. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Nickrent, D. L.; Blarer, A.; Qiu, Y.-L.; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P. S.; Zanis, M. (2002), "Molecular data place Hydnoraceae with Aristolochiaceae", American Journal of Botany, 89 (11): 1809–17, doi:10.3732/ajb.89.11.1809, PMID 21665609
  3. ^ a b The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 181: 1–10, doi:10.1111/boj.12385
  4. ^ Musselman, L.J.; Visser, J.H. (1986-12-01). "The strangest plant in the world". Veld & Flora. 72 (4). ISSN 0042-3203.
  5. ^ Seymour, Rs; Maass, E; Bolin, Jf (Jul 2009), "Floral thermogenesis of three species of Hydnora (Hydnoraceae) in Africa", Annals of Botany, 104 (5): 823–32, doi:10.1093/aob/mcp168, ISSN 0305-7364, PMC 2749535, PMID 19584128
  6. ^ The Genus Hydnora
  7. ^ Naumann, Julia; Der, Joshua P.; Wafula, Eric K.; Jones, Samuel S.; Wagner, Sarah T.; Honaas, Loren A.; Ralph, Paula E.; Bolin, Jay F.; Maass, Erika; Neinhuis, Christoph; Wanke, Stefan; dePamphilis, Claude W. (2016-02-01). "Detecting and Characterizing the Highly Divergent Plastid Genome of the Nonphotosynthetic Parasitic Plant Hydnora visseri (Hydnoraceae)". Genome Biology and Evolution. 8 (2): 345–363. doi:10.1093/gbe/evv256. ISSN 1759-6653. PMC 4779604. PMID 26739167.
  8. ^ List of sequenced plastomes: Flowering plants.
  9. ^ Barkman, Tj; Mcneal, Jr; Lim, Sh; Coat, G; Croom, Hb; Young, Nd; Depamphilis, Cw (Dec 2007), "Mitochondrial DNA suggests at least 11 origins of parasitism in angiosperms and reveals genomic chimerism in parasitic plants", BMC Evolutionary Biology, 7: 248, doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-248, PMC 2234419, PMID 18154671
  10. ^ Corradi, Nicolas; Naumann, Julia; Salomo, Karsten; Der, Joshua P.; Wafula, Eric K.; Bolin, Jay F.; Maass, Erika; Frenzke, Lena; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie; Neinhuis, Christoph; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Wanke, Stefan (2013). "Single-Copy Nuclear Genes Place Haustorial Hydnoraceae within Piperales and Reveal a Cretaceous Origin of Multiple Parasitic Angiosperm Lineages". PLoS ONE. 8 (11): e79204. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079204. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3827129. PMID 24265760.
 title=
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wikipedia EN

Hydnoraceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Hydnoroideae is a subfamily of parasitic flowering plants in the order Piperales. Traditionally, and as recently as the APG III system it given family rank under the name Hydnoraceae. It is now submerged in the Aristolochiaceae. It contains two genera, Hydnora and Prosopanche:

Prosopanche is native to Central and South America ; Hydnora can be found in semi-arid to desert regions of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and Madagascar.

Members of this subfamily have been described as the strangest plants in the world.

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