dcsimg

Mucorales

provided by wikipedia EN

The Mucorales is the largest and best studied order of zygomycete fungi. Members of this order are sometimes called pin molds. The term mucormycosis is now preferred for infections caused by moulds belonging to the order Mucorales.[citation needed]

Systematics

The order includes 12-13 families, 56 genera and approximately 300 species. Mucoralean classification has traditionally been based on morphological, developmental, and ecological characters. Recently, molecular data have revealed that some aspects of traditional classification are quite artificial. For example, the Mucoraceae is believed to be polyphyletic, as are the Thamnidiaceae, Chaetocladiaceae and Radiomycetaceae. Some of the genera, (including Mucor, Absidia and Backusella) appear to be polyphyletic. Today, the traditional system is still largely in use, as further studies are needed to reconcile morphological and molecular concepts of families and genera.

Characteristics

 src=
Micrograph showing mucorales and demonstrating the characteristic variation thickness.

Mucoralean fungi are typically fast-growing, and their wide hyphae lack septa (multiperforate septa are present only in sporangiophores and gametangia). The hyphae grow mostly within the substrate. Sporangiophores are upright (simple or ramified) hyphae that support sac-like sporangia filled with asexual sporangiospores.

Many are known by the damage they do to stored food. Others can cause a mycosis (infection), generally in patients already infected with other diseases. various types of spores in Mucorales

  1. Merosporangia
  2. Oidia
  3. Sporangiola

Life cycle

The sporangiospores are asexual mitospores (formed via mitosis) that are produced inside sporangia (thousands of spores) or sporangioles (single or few spores). They are released when mature by the disintegration of the sporangium wall, or as a whole sporangiole that separates from the sporangiophore.

The sporangiospores germinate to form the haploid hyphae of a new mycelium. Asexual reproduction often occurs continuously.

In heterothallic species, sexual reproduction occurs when opposite mating types (designated + and -) come into close proximity, inducing the formation of specialized hyphae called gametangia. The gametangia grow toward each other, then fuse, forming a diploid zygote at the point of fusion. The zygote develops a resistant cell wall, forming a single-celled zygospore, the characteristic that gives its name to this group of fungi. Meiosis occurs within the zygospore (see article Phycomyces). Upon germination, a new haploid mycelium or sporangium is formed. Some species are homothallic.

The original report of sex in fungi occurred two centuries ago based on observations of the fungus Syzygites mealocarpus (Mucoromycotina) (reviewed by Idnurm[1]). This species was also subsequently used in 1904 to represent self-fertile species when the concept of two major mating strategies were developed for the fungi. These strategies are homothallism for self-fertile fungi and heterothallism for self-incompatible, outcrossing fungi.

Ecology

Most Mucoralean species are saprotrophic, and grow on organic substrates (such as fruit, soil, and dung). Some species are parasites or pathogens of animals, plants and fungi. A few species cause human and animal disease zygomycosis, as well as allergic reactions.

References

  1. ^ Idnurm A (November 2011). "Sex determination in the first-described sexual fungus". Eukaryotic Cell. 10 (11): 1485–91. doi:10.1128/EC.05149-11. PMC 3209044. PMID 21908600..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
.mw-parser-output .refbegin{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul{list-style-type:none;margin-left:0}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd{margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100{font-size:100%}
  • Voigt & Wöstemeyer, 2001 [1]
  • Mucorales in Bryce Kendrick's textbook, The Fifth Kingdom.
  • Mucorales at Zygomycetes.org
DikaryaAscomycota
(sac fungi)PezizomycotinaLeotiomycetaDothideomyceta SordariomycetaOther Saccharomycotina Taphrinomycotina Basidiomycota
(with basidia)Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina AgaricomycotinaHymenomyceteOther Entorrhizomycota Zygomycota
(paraphyletic)Glomeromycota Mucoromycota Calcarisporiellomycota Mortierellomycota Kickxellomycota Entomophthoromycota Olpidiomycota Basidiobolomycota Zoosporic fungi
(paraphyletic)Neocallimastigomycota Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota
Fungal phyla are underlined. See also: fungi imperfecti (polyphyletic group).
Superficial and
cutaneous
(dermatomycosis):
Tinea = skin;
Piedra (exothrix/
endothrix) = hairAscomycotaDermatophyte
(Dermatophytosis)By locationBy organismOther Basidiomycota Subcutaneous,
systemic,
and opportunisticAscomycotaDimorphic
(yeast+mold)OnygenalesOther Yeast-like Mold-like Basidiomycota Zygomycota
(Zygomycosis)Mucorales
(Mucormycosis) Entomophthorales
(Entomophthoramycosis) Microsporidia
(Microsporidiosis) MesomycetozoeaUngrouped
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Mucorales: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Mucorales is the largest and best studied order of zygomycete fungi. Members of this order are sometimes called pin molds. The term mucormycosis is now preferred for infections caused by moulds belonging to the order Mucorales.[citation needed]

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN