dcsimg

Brief Summary

    Rubus idaeus: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Rubus idaeus (raspberry, also called red raspberry or occasionally as European raspberry to distinguish it from other raspberries) is a red-fruited species of Rubus native to Europe and northern Asia and commonly cultivated in other temperate regions.

Comprehensive Description

    Rubus idaeus
    provided by wikipedia

    Rubus idaeus (raspberry, also called red raspberry or occasionally as European raspberry to distinguish it from other raspberries) is a red-fruited species of Rubus native to Europe and northern Asia and commonly cultivated in other temperate regions.[2][3]

    Taxonomy

    A closely related plant in North America, sometimes regarded as the variety Rubus idaeus var. strigosus, is more commonly treated as a distinct species, Rubus strigosus (American Red Raspberry), as is done here.[4] Red-fruited cultivated raspberries, even in North America, are generally Rubus idaeus or horticultural derivatives of hybrids of R. idaeus and R. strigosus; these plants are all addressed in the present article.

    Description

    Plants of Rubus idaeus are generally perennials which bear biennial stems ("canes") from a perennial root system. In its first year, a new, unbranched stem ("primocane") grows vigorously to its full height of 1.5–2.5 m (5.0–8.3 feet), bearing large pinnately compound leaves with five or seven leaflets, but usually no flowers. In its second year (as a "floricane"), a stem does not grow taller, but produces several side shoots, which bear smaller leaves with three or five leaflets. The flowers are produced in late spring on short racemes on the tips of these side shoots, each flower about 1 cm (0.4 inches) diameter with five white petals. The fruit is red, edible, and sweet but tart-flavoured, produced in summer or early autumn; in botanical terminology, it is not a berry at all, but an aggregate fruit of numerous drupelets around a central core. In raspberries (various species of Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus), the drupelets separate from the core when picked, leaving a hollow fruit, whereas in blackberries and most other species of Rubus, the drupelets stay attached to the core.[5][6][7][8]

    Biotope

    As a wild plant, R. idaeus typically grows in forests, forming open stands under a tree canopy, and denser stands in clearings. In the south of its range (southern Europe and central Asia), it only occurs at high altitudes in mountains.[7] The species name idaeus refers to its occurrence on Mount Ida near Troy in northwest Turkey, where the ancient Greeks were most familiar with it.[8]

    Cultivation and uses

     src=
    A red raspberry plant in a nursery in Cranford, New Jersey.
     src=
    A bowl of fresh-picked wild red raspberries in Riverdale, New Jersey.

    R. idaeus is grown primarily for its fruits, but occasionally for its leaves, roots, or other parts.

    Fruits

    Main article: Raspberry

    The fruit of R. idaeus is an important food crop, though most modern commercial raspberry cultivars derive from hybrids between R. idaeus and R. strigosus.[8] The fruits of wild plants have a sweet taste and are very aromatic.

    Leaves and other parts

    Main article: Red raspberry leaf

    Red raspberries contains 31 μg/100 g of folate.[9] Red raspberries have antioxidant effects that play a minor role in the killing of stomach and colon cancer cells.[10][11]

    Young roots of Rubus idaeus prevented kidney stone formation in a mouse model of hyperoxaluria.[12] Tiliroside from raspberry is a potent tyrosinase inhibitor and might be used as a skin-whitening agent and pigmentation medicine.[13]

    Raspberry fruit may protect the liver.[14]

    Chemistry

    Vitamin C and phenolics are present in red raspberries. Most notably, the anthocyanins cyanidin-3-sophoroside, cyanidin-3-(2(G)-glucosylrutinoside) and cyanidin-3-glucoside, the two ellagitannins sanguiin H-6 and lambertianin C are present together with trace levels of flavonols, ellagic acid and hydroxycinnamate.[15]

    Polyphenolic compounds from raspberry seeds have antioxidant effects in vitro,[16][17] but have no proven antioxidant effect in humans.[18] Raspberry ketones are derived from various fruits and plants, not raspberries, and are marketed as having weight loss benefits.[19] There is no clinical evidence for this effect in humans.[20]

    See also

    References

    1. ^ "Rubus idaeus L.". Richard Pankhurst et al. Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh – via The Plant List..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ "Rubus idaeus". Flora Europaea.
    3. ^ "Rubus idaeus". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 15 December 2017.
    4. ^ "Rubus idaeus var. strigosus". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 15 December 2017.
    5. ^ "Rubus idaeus". Flora of NW Europe.
    6. ^ Lu, Lingdi; Boufford, David E. "Rubus idaeus". Flora of China. 9 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    7. ^ a b Blamey, M.; Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-340-40170-2..
    8. ^ a b c Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-47494-5..
    9. ^ Martin, H; Comeskey, D; Simpson, RM; Laing, WA; McGhie, TK (2010). "Quantification of folate in fruits and vegetables: a fluorescence-based homogeneous assay". Anal Biochem. 402 (2): 137–145. doi:10.1016/j.ab.2010.03.032.
    10. ^ Nutr Res. 30(11):777-782
    11. ^ McDougall, GJ; Ross, HA; Ikeji, M; Stewart, D (2008). "Berry extracts exert different antiproliferative effects against cervical and colon cancer cells grown in vitro". J Agric Food Chem. 56 (9): 3016–3023. doi:10.1021/jf073469n.
    12. ^ Ghalayini, IF; Al-Ghazo, MA; Harfeil, MN (2011). "Prophylaxis and therapeutic effects of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) on renal stone formation in Balb/c mice". Int Braz J Urol. 37 (2): 259–267.
    13. ^ Lu, YH; Chen, J; Wei, DZ; Wang, ZT; Tao, XY (2009). "Tyrosinase inhibitory effect and inhibitory mechanism of tiliroside from raspberry". J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 24 (5): 1154–1160. doi:10.1080/14756360802694252.
    14. ^ Gião, MS; Pestana, D; Faria, A; Guimarães, JT; Pintado, ME; Calhau, C; Azevedo, I; Malcata, FX (2010). "Effects of extracts of selected medicinal plants upon hepatic oxidative stress". J Med Food. 13 (1): 131–136. doi:10.1089/jmf.2008.0323.
    15. ^ Mullen, W.; Stewart, A. J.; Lean, M. E.; Gardner, P.; Duthie, G. G.; Crozier, A. (2002). "Effect of freezing and storage on the phenolics, ellagitannins, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity of red raspberries". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 50 (18): 5197–5201. doi:10.1021/jf020141f. PMID 12188629.
    16. ^ Godevac, D; Tesević, V; Vajs, V; Milosavljević, S; Stanković, M (2009). "Antioxidant properties of raspberry seed extracts on micronucleus distribution in peripheral blood lymphocytes". Food Chem Toxicol. 47 (11): 2853–2859. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2009.09.006.
    17. ^ Aiyer, HS; Kichambare, S; Gupta, RC (2008). "Prevention of oxidative DNA damage by bioactive berry components". Nutr Cancer. 60 (Suppl 1): 36–42.
    18. ^ Gross, P (2009). "New Roles for Polyphenols. A 3-Part report on Current Regulations & the State of Science". Nutraceuticals World. Rodman Media. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
    19. ^ "The Sweet Taste of Weight Loss". Ohio State University Food Innovation Center. 2014. Retrieved 3 Sep 2014.
    20. ^ "Raspberry Ketone". WebMD.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Red raspberry occurs throughout most of the temperate regions of the
    world [20].  In North America it grows from Alaska through Canada to
    Newfoundland, southward to North Carolina and Tennessee in the East, and
    to Arizona, California, and northern Mexico in the West [36,93,98].  The
    native North American red raspberry is Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus [36].
    R. i. ssp. idaeus grows across northern Europe to northwestern Asia
    [36].  It is cultivated in Hawaii [109] and throughout much of North
    America and has naturalized in many locations [36].
    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Hebei, S Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shanxi, Xinjiang [Japan, Russia; Europe, North America].
    Occurrence in North America
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
         AK  AL  AZ  AR  CA  CO  CT  DE  GA  HI
         ID  IL  IN  IA  KY  ME  MD  MA  MI  MN
         MO  MT  NV  NH  NJ  NM  NY  NC  ND  OH
         OR  PA  RI  SC  SD  TN  UT  VA  WA  WV
         WI  WY  AB  BC  MB  NB  NF  ON  PQ  SK
         MEXICO
    Regional Distribution in the Western United States
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

        1  Northern Pacific Border
        2  Cascade Mountains
        3  Southern Pacific Border
        5  Columbia Plateau
        8  Northern Rocky Mountains
        9  Middle Rocky Mountains
       10  Wyoming Basin
       11  Southern Rocky Mountains
       12  Colorado Plateau
       13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont
       14  Great Plains
       15  Black Hills Uplift
       16  Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    The fruit are eaten raw and are used for making jam, jelly, juice, wine, and vinegar. The dried fruit are used in medicine. The stems and roots are a source of tannin.
    Description
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: cyme, fruit, perfect, rootstock, shrub

    Red raspberry is a deciduous, erect or arching, thicket-forming shrub
    which grows from 1.6 to 9.8 feet (0.5-3 m) in height [36,80,86,93].  The
    total height and extent of growth is largely attributable to climatic
    factors [101].  Woody stems are bristly or prickly with shreddy,
    exfoliating yellow-brown bark [36,93].  Leaves are alternate and
    pinnately compound in leaflets of three to five [86,93].  Leaves are
    green and glabrous to hairy above but white or gray, hairy to glabrate
    and greenish beneath [98].  Small showy perfect white flowers are
    borne in clusters of one to four in a compound cyme [36,55,80,93].
    Fruit of the red raspberry is made up of many to several, red or
    pinkish-purple drupelets [80,98].  Aggregates of drupelets are commonly
    referred to as a "berry."

    Red raspberry is made up of mostly biennial canes (stems) on a
    long-lived perennial rootstock [45,99].  This rootstock initially forms
    from seedling establishment or the production of root suckers [99],
    which gradually separate from parent plants as the connecting root
    tissue dies [45].  Sterile first-year stems, or primocanes, develop from
    buds at or below the ground surface and generally bear only leaves
    [36,99].  During the second year, lateral branches, known as floricanes,
    develop in the axils of the primocanes which produce both leaves and
    fruit [36,100].  A "typical" raspberry rootstock system is made up of at
    least one floricane and several primocanes [99].  It should be noted
    that some commercially grown strains of red raspberry are
    primocane-fruiting; that is, they are capable of bearing fruit during
    the fall of the first year of development [21,92].  Primocane-fruiting
    appears to be absent entirely or represents an atypical situation in
    native-growing populations of red raspberry.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Shrubs 1–2 m tall. Branchlets brown or reddish brown, terete, sparsely tomentose when young, with sparse prickles, without stalked glands. Leaves imparipinnate, 5–7-foliolate, rarely 3-foliolate; petiole 3–6 cm, petiolule of terminal leaflet ca. 1 cm, petiolule and rachis tomentose, with sparse, minute prickles, without glandular hairs; stipules linear, pubescent; blade of leaflets narrowly ovate or elliptic, often ovate on terminal leaflet, 3–8 × 1.5–4.5 cm, abaxially densely tomentose, adaxially glabrous or pilose, base rounded, sometimes subcordate on terminal leaflet, margin unevenly coarsely serrate or doubly serrate, sometimes lobed on terminal leaflet, apex shortly acuminate. Inflorescences terminal, short racemes, rarely several flowers in clusters in leaf axils; rachis, pedicels, and abaxial surface of calyx densely tomentose, with dense or sparse, needle-like prickles, without glandular hairs; bracts linear, soft hairy. Pedicel 1–2 cm. Flowers 1–1.5 cm in diam. Sepals erect, ovate-lanceolate, margin gray tomentose, apex caudate. Petals white, spatulate, puberulous or glabrous, base broadly clawed. Stamens many, shorter than petals; filaments broadened and flattened. Pistils shorter than stamens; ovary and base of style densely gray tomentose. Aggregate fruit red or orange, subglobose, 1–1.4 cm in diam. densely shortly tomentose; pyrenes prominently pitted. 2n = 14*.

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    Forests, forest margins, thickets, valleys, slopes, meadows, roadsides, waste places; 500--2500 m.
    Habitat characteristics
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: shrub

    Red raspberry grows across a wide range of sites throughout most of the
    world's temperate regions [20].  It commonly occurs in clearings or
    borders in boreal forests, in ravines, on bluffs and streambanks of
    prairie regions, and on talus or scree above timberline [39,86,93,95].

    Soil:  Raspberries are tolerant of a wide range of soil pH and texture
    but do require adequate soil moisture [14].  Red raspberry grows on
    imperfectly to well-drained sandy loam to silty clay loam, but best
    growth occurs on moderately well-drained soils [95].  Although red
    raspberry grows well on barren and infertile soils, it reportedly has a
    relatively high demand for soil nutrients and is most abundant on
    nutrient-rich soils [39].  This shrub is moderately tolerant of acidic
    soils [95].

    Elevation:  Generalized elevational ranges for selected locations are as
    follows [23,98]:

                   from 6,500 to 11,700 feet (1,981 to 3,569 m) in CO
                        2,400 to 7,000 feet (732 to 2,134 m) in MT
                        5,500 to 9,600 feet (1,676 to 3,420 m) in UT
                        6,500 to 11,000 feet (1,981 to 3,355 m) in WY
    Habitat: Cover Types
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

         1  Jack pine
         5  Balsam fir
        12  Black spruce
        13  Black spruce - tamarack
        15  Red pine
        16  Aspen
        17  Pin cherry
        18  Paper birch
        21  Eastern white pine
        22  White pine - hemlock
        25  Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch
        30  Red spruce - yellow birch
        31  Red spruce - sugar maple - beech
        32  Red spruce
        33  Red spruce - balsam fir
        35  Paper birch - red spruce - balsam fir
        37  Northern white cedar
        39  Black ash - American elm - red maple
        42  Bur oak
        60  Beech - sugar maple
       107  White spruce
       108  Red maple
       109  Hawthorn
       201  White spruce
       202  White spruce - paper birch
       204  Black spruce
       210  Interior Douglas-fir
       211  White fir
       212  Western larch
       213  Grand fir
       215  Western white pine
       217  Aspen
       218  Lodgepole
       222  Black cottonwood - willow
       224  Western hemlock
       226  Coastal true fir - hemlock
       227  Western redcedar - western hemlock
       228  Western redcedar
       229  Pacific Douglas-fir
       230  Douglas-fir - western hemlock
       235  Cottonwood - willow
       236  Bur oak
       237  Interior ponderosa pine
       239  Pinyon - juniper
       252  Paper birch
       253  Black spruce - white spruce
       254  Black spruce - paper birch
    Habitat: Ecosystem
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

    More info for the term: shrub

       FRES10  White - red - jack pine
       FRES11  Spruce - fir
       FRES15  Oak - hickory
       FRES17  Elm - ash - cottonwood
       FRES18  Maple - beech - birch
       FRES19  Aspen - birch
       FRES20  Douglas-fir
       FRES21  Ponderosa pine
       FRES22  Western white pine
       FRES23  Fir - spruce
       FRES24  Hemlock - Sitka spruce
       FRES25  Larch
       FRES26  Lodgepole pine
       FRES28  Western hardwoods
       FRES34  Chaparral - mountain shrub
       FRES35  Pinyon - juniper
       FRES37  Mountain meadows
       FRES38  Plains grasslands
       FRES39  Prairie
       FRES44  Alpine
    Habitat: Plant Associations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

    More info for the terms: forest, woodland

       K001  Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest
       K002  Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest
       K004  Fir - hemlock forest
       K011  Western ponderosa forest
       K012  Douglas-fir forest
       K014  Grand fir - Douglas-fir forest
       K015  Western spruce - fir forest
       K016  Eastern ponderosa forest
       K017  Black Hills pine forest
       K018  Pine - Douglas-fir forest
       K020  Spruce - fir - Douglas-fir forest
       K021  Southwestern spruce - fir forest
       K023  Juniper - pinyon woodland
       K025  Alder - ash forest
       K037  Mountain mahogany - oak scrub
       K052  Alpine meadows and barren
       K064  Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass
       K067  Wheatgrass - bluestem - needlegrass
       K074  Bluestem prairie
       K081  Oak savanna
       K093  Great Lakes spruce - fir forest
       K095  Great Lakes pine forest
       K096  Northeastern spruce - fir forest
       K097  Southeastern spruce - fir forest
       K098  Northern floodplain forest
       K102  Beech - maple forest
       K106  Northern hardwoods
       K107  Northern hardwoods - fir forest
       K108  Northern hardwoods - spruce forest
    Key Plant Community Associations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: association, bog, codominant, hardwood, taiga

    Red raspberry is well represented in many plant communities throughout
    North America.  It grows within the understory of many quaking aspen
    (Populus tremuloides), mixed conifer, cottonwood (Populus spp.), cedar
    (Thuja spp.)-hemlock (Tsuga spp.), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa),
    spruce (Picea spp.)-fir (Abies spp.), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga
    menziesii) forests of the West [6,23,37].  In the Lake States and
    Northeast, red raspberry frequently grows in old-field communities, or in
    association with jack pine (Pinus banksiana), white spruce (Picea
    glauca), black spruce (P. mariana), red spruce (P. rubens), Atlantic
    white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), aspen
    (Populus spp.), beech (Fagus spp.), maple (Acer spp.), red pine (Pinus
    resinosa), and eastern white pine (P. strobus) [1,3,29,30,34,41,40,77].
    It is a common component of northern hardwood forests and often assumes
    dominance on sites which have been subject to windthrow, fire, or timber
    harvest [100].  Red raspberry is a prominent component of many taiga
    communities in Alaska [25] and the Canadian North.

    Associated species:  Red raspberry grows with a wide variety of plants
    across its extensive geographic range.  The following species are
    particularly common plant associates [1,40,12,13,95]:  Canada beadruby
    (Maianthemum canadense), thimbleberry, bunchberry (Cornus canadensis),
    huckleberry (Vaccinium spp.), fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium),
    bluejoint reedgrass (Calamagrostis canadensis), kinnikinnick
    (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), Virginia strawberry (Fragaria virginiana),
    green alder (Alnus viridis ssp. crispa), twinflower (Linnaea borealis),
    sedges (Carex spp.), prickly rose (Rosa acicularis), twinberry (Lonicera
    spp.), lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium), bog Labrador tea
    (Ledum groenlandica), red currant (Ribes triste), highbush cranberry
    (Viburnum edule), and red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea).

    Red raspberry occurs as a dominant in a number of plant communities.  It
    has been included as a codominant in rocky, high elevation alpine scree
    communities with Colorado columbine (Aquilegia coerulea) and
    littleflower alumroot (Heuchera parvifolia).  Red raspberry has been
    listed as an indicator or dominant member of a plant community in the
    following publications:

    Plant associations of Region Two: Potential plant communities of
      Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and Kansas [51]
    Habitat types on selected parts of the Gunnison and Uncompahgre National
      Forests [56]

General Ecology

    Broad-scale Impacts of Fire
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: fuel

    In an Alberta study, both dead and live woody stems remained where fuel
    loadings of 0.00, 0.17, and 0.87 kg/m sq were recorded [52].  However,
    all foliage was completely consumed on plots with fuel loadings of 3.94
    and 9.65 kg/m sq [52].
    Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: prescribed fire, severity

    In some areas, significant differences in postfire recovery of red
    raspberry have been noted after fires of varying intensity and severity.
    The following data document postfire recovery in ponderosa pine stands
    of the southern Black Hills of South Dakota [7,6]:

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                      # of stems per subplot
    fire type       preburn     1st year     2nd year      5th year

      light burn       0            0          0.07         ---
      crown fire      ---          ---         0.01        116.8

                           # of individuals
    fire type               1st year     2nd year     3rd year     5th year

      cool ground fire          0            0           3           ---
      hot crown fire           ---          ---         ---         4,672
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
       
    For further information on red raspberry response to fire, see Fire Case Studies. Hamilton's Research Papers (Hamilton 2006a, Hamilton 2006b)
    also provide information on prescribed fire and postfire response
    of plant community species, including red raspberry, that was not
    available when this species review was originally written.
    Fire Ecology
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: fire regime, fire suppression, seed

    The life cycle of red raspberry is integrally associated with
    disturbances such as fire.  In many areas of vigorous fire suppression,
    both plant vigor and abundance have decreased [66].  Red raspberry
    typically flourishes, completes its life cycle and declines within the
    early years after disturbance [73].  As shade levels increase in the
    postfire community and soil nitrate levels drop (generally during the
    first 5 years after fire), red raspberry shifts resource allocation from
    vegetative growth to seed production [39,99].

    Although the plants themselves soon senesce and die, viable seed
    persists for decades [62,73], germinating in great numbers after the
    next fire [100] creates favorable conditions for growth and
    establishment.  Seed is effectively scarified by heat [78,94], and
    exposed mineral soil serves as a favorable substrate for early growth
    and development [26].  Underground regenerative structures appear to be
    well protected from the damaging effects of heat [28,52], and
    reestablishment is typically rapid where plants were present in the
    preburn community.

    FIRE REGIMES :
    Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
    species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
    "Find FIRE REGIMES".
    Fire Management Considerations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: bulb, duff, duff moisture code, fire intensity, fire management, fire severity, forest, fuel, fuel loading, fuel moisture, prescribed fire, severity

    Fire generally benefits animals that consume the fruits of species
    within the genus Rubus [58].

    FIRE CASE STUDY
    SPECIES: Rubus idaeus
    FIRE CASE STUDY CITATION :
    Tirmenstein, D., compiler. 1990. Effects of prescribed fire on red raspberry
    on Elk Island, Alberta. In: Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information
    System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
    Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
    Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [
    var months = new Array(12);
    months[0] = "January";
    months[1] = "February";
    months[2] = "March";
    months[3] = "April";
    months[4] = "May";
    months[5] = "June";
    months[6] = "July";
    months[7] = "August";
    months[8] = "September";
    months[9] = "October";
    months[10] = "November";
    months[11] = "December";
    var date = new Date();
    var year = date.getFullYear();
    var month = date.getMonth();
    var day = date.getDate();
    document.write(year+", "+months[month]+" "+day);
    ].


    REFERENCE :
    Johnston, Mark; Woodard, Paul. 1985. The effect of fire severity level
    on postfire recovery of hazel and raspberry in east-central Alberta.
    Canadian Journal of Botany. 63: 672-677. [52].


    SEASON/SEVERITY CLASSIFICATION :
    May 5, 1980/variable


    STUDY LOCATION :
    The study site is located in Elk Island National Park, approximately 23
    miles (37 km) east of Edmonton, Alberta.



    PREFIRE VEGETATIVE COMMUNITY :
    Preburn overstory vegetation was made up of quaking aspen (Populus
    tremuloides) and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera), which ranged from 50 to
    70 years of age.  Understory vegetation was dominated by red raspberry
    (Rubus idaeus), beaked hazelnut (Corylus cornuta), strawberry (Fragaria
    spp.), fleabane (Erigeron spp.), and reedgrass (Calamagrostis spp.).



    TARGET SPECIES PHENOLOGICAL STATE :
    not reported.



    SITE DESCRIPTION :
         Soil - orthic gray luvisol
         Elevation - not reported
         Topography - not reported
         Size of treated area - 9.9 acres (4 ha)
         Weather conditions - dry



    FIRE DESCRIPTION :
    Seven artificial fuel beds (24 x 24 inches [60 x 60 cm]) were
    constructed of varying amounts of excelsior, or excelsior mixed with
    white spruce slats.  The prescribed head fire did not spread to the beds
    because of discontinuous fuels.  The beds were ignited with matches
    after the passage of the flame front.  Specific weather and fire
    behavior characteristics were as follows:

         Fire weather:

         Dry bulb temperature (C) - 14.5
         Relative humidity (%) - 33
         Wind speed at 10 m (kh/h) - 6
         Fine fuel moisture code - 88
         Duff moisture code - 57
         Drought code - 106
         Initial spread index - 4
         Buildup index - 58
         Fire weather index - 12

         Estimated fire behavior characteristics recorded for the seven
         fuel beds ignited with matches -
        
         fuel loading     flame length     frontal fire     residence time
         (kg/m sq.)       (m)              intensity        (minutes)
                                           (kW/m)
         0.17             0.5                  57            1.5
         0.87             1                   258            2
         0.87             1                   258            2
         3.94             1.5                 622            4
         3.94             1.5                 622            4
         9.65             1.5               1,162           10
         9.65             2.5               1,905           10    


    FIRE EFFECTS ON TARGET SPECIES :
    All aboveground red raspberry stems were killed where fuels were added.
    On fuel-free plots, only portions of the aboveground stems were killed.
    Plants sprouted from underground regenerative structures where
    aboveground mortality was complete, but from both aboveground and
    belowground tissues where portions of the aerial stems were killed.
    Depth of underground regenerative structures ranged from 0 to 2 inches
    (0-5 cm), with mortality of tissues occasionally extending to 0.4 to 1.2
    inches (1-3 cm) below the duff surface.  Portions of most deeper
    "rhizomes" apparently survived.  Red raspberry also reproduces through
    lateral buds located on small, shallow, succulent, poorly protected
    roots which can be damaged by fires of high intensity.

    The number of sprouts produced per plant did not vary according to burn
    treatment.  Height growth and the number of leaves did vary by
    treatment, indicating that red raspberry recovery may be affected by
    fire intensity and severity.  Specific recovery rate data for red
    raspberry were as follows:

      date     response                     fuel loading (kg/m sq.)
               parameter              0.00    0.17    0.87    3.94    9.65

      July 4   #sprouts/plot          5       4       4       4       5
               ht. growth/sprout(cm)  52.0    32.7    17.4    12.2    8.8
               avg. # leaves/sprout   --      8       6       5       3

      July 22  #sprouts/plot          6       4       5       4       7
               ht. growth/sprout(cm)  58.7    36.5    19.5    16.1    12.8
               avg. # leaves/sprout   --      8       6       5       5

      Aug. 1   #sprouts/plot          3       4       4       4       7
               ht. growth/sprout(cm)  58.4    36.8    19.1    16.2    13.5
               avg. # leaves/sprout   --      8       6       5       5

      Aug. 16  #sprouts/plot          3       4       5       4       7
               ht. growth/sprout(cm)  60.0    37.2    21.0    16.7    13.5
               avg. # leaves/sprout   --      7       7       6       6

      Aug. 30  #sprouts/plot          3       2       4       3       7
               ht. growth/sprout(cm)  60.2    37.0    20.8    16.8    13.8
               avg. # leaves/sprout   --      7       6       5       6

    Mean abovegrd. ovendry biomass
               (grams/plot)           2.5     4.1     5.0     4.6     4.4


    FIRE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS :
    Red raspberry may be somewhat susceptible to high intensity fires
    because of shallow, fairly poorly protected root buds.  This study
    suggests that hot prescribed fires may be useful in reducing red
    raspberry in some carefully selected instances.
    Fire Management Implications
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Red raspberry may be somewhat susceptible to high intensity fires
    because of shallow, fairly poorly protected root buds.  This study
    suggests that hot prescribed fires may be useful in reducing red
    raspberry in some carefully selected instances.
    Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    More info for the term: hemicryptophyte

      
       Hemicryptophyte
    Immediate Effect of Fire
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: duff, fire intensity, fuel, seed, severity

    Red raspberry is described as "resistant" to fire [39,103].  However,
    foliage is extremely susceptible to fire-induced mortality [52].  In an
    Alberta study, all aboveground stems were completely killed wherever
    supplemental fuels contributed to relatively intense fires [52].  Where
    fuels were reduced and fires less intense, the stems of many plants were
    only partially killed [52].  However, all aerial stems experienced at
    least partial mortality, regardless of fire intensity.

    Belowground regenerative structures appear to be relatively resistant to
    fire [39].  Johnston and Woodard [52] observed belowground mortality
    only on plots with high surface fuel loadings (3.94 or 9.65 kg/m sq).
    Here, tissue mortality extended as far as 0.4 to 1.2 inches (1-3 cm)
    below the duff surface.  Raspberry is capable of sprouting from lateral
    buds on relatively shallow roots.  These roots, which are small and
    succulent, are poorly protected by duff and can be damaged by fires of
    high intensity and severity [52].  However, at least some regenerative
    structures typically grow to 2 inches (5 cm) below the soil surface, and
    many are apparently unharmed by fires of even high intensity and
    severity [52].  In general, the effects of fire on red raspberry are
    much less pronounced wherever nutrients and water are abundant [39].
    The long-lived seed of red raspberry is generally unharmed by fire when
    protected by overlying soil [39,78,94].
    Life Form
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: shrub

    Shrub
    Plant Response to Fire
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: cover, duff, fire intensity, forest, scarification, seed, severity, tree

    Red raspberry is well adapted to reoccupy a site quickly after fire.
    This common "fire follower" is favored by increased amounts of nitrates
    present on burned sites and generally exhibits rapid and vigorous
    postfire growth through sprouting and/or seedling establishment [4,95].

    Vegetative response:  Red raspberry typically sprouts readily after fire
    wherever present in preburn communities [18,95].  Most belowground
    regenerative structures appear to be well protected from the damaging
    effects of heat [52].  Postfire sprouting of root buds is commonly
    observed.  Although more shallow root buds may be damaged or killed by
    heat, root bud depths can range from 1.9 to 2.4 inches (5-6 cm) or
    greater [28,52] and many escape serious damage.  Postfire sprouting from
    rhizomes may also occur [39], although a number of researchers have
    reported no evidence of any rhizomes with regenerative capabilities in
    the red raspberry [28].  Where light fires damage but do not kill the
    aboveground foliage, aerial stems generally sprout and quickly resume
    growth [52].  Consequently, red raspberry is reported to be
    "rejuvenated" by fire [103].

    Johnston and Woodard [52] reported that fire intensity and severity had
    little effect on the sprouting ability of red raspberry in aspen
    communities of east-central Alberta.  Both the number of sprouts
    produced per plant and total biomass appeared unaffected by fire
    intensity and severity.  However, the height growth of individual
    sprouts was greatest after fires of low severity.  Thus, although high
    severity fires reduced the rate of sprout growth, they did not affect
    the number of sprouts produced by each plant [52].

    Seedling establishment:  Rapid postfire establishment through on-site
    seed is common in the red raspberry [95].  Long-lived seed, which is
    produced in abundance, accumulates in seed banks in the soil or duff
    [35,38].  Germination is enhanced by exposure to heat [78,94], and large
    numbers of seed germinate soon after disturbance [100].  Mineral soil
    creates a favorable seedbed [26] and elevated nitrate levels enhance
    early seedling growth.  Most germination occurs within the first year
    after fire [38]. 

    Limited evidence suggests that fires of high intensity and severity may
    promote red raspberry seedling establishment more than light fires.
    Bock and Bock [6] observed vigorous seedling establishment after crown
    fires in ponderosa pine forest of the southern Black Hills.  However,
    large increases in red raspberry did not occur after lighter, cooler
    ground fires in the same area [6,7].  Extremely light fires may provide
    insufficient heat scarification and do little to prepare a seedbed.

    Postfire recovery:  Postfire recovery of red raspberry is generally
    rapid, with vigorous expansion in cover during early seral stages.  This
    shade-intolerant species [95,100] declines as tree cover increases [29].
    In many communities, red raspberry begins to decline within only 3 or 4
    years after fire [18,103].  It is important to note that many variables
    can significantly influence the speed of postfire recovery and
    subsequent persistence within the community.  Such variables may include
    season of burn, fire intensity and severity, site characteristics,
    genetic variation, and climatic factors.  Specific postfire response of
    red raspberry by community is discussed in the 'Successional Status'
    slot.
    Post-fire Regeneration
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: geophyte, ground residual colonizer, rhizome, root crown, shrub

       Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown
       Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil
       Geophyte, growing points deep in soil
       Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
       Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)
    Regeneration Processes
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: apomixis, competition, forest, fresh, fruit, layering, natural, root crown, root sucker, seed, severity, shrub, stratification

    Red raspberry reproduces through seed and also regenerates vegetatively.
    It is capable of forming dense thickets through sprouting.  Reproductive
    versatility is well represented in the Rubus genus, with sexual
    reproduction, parthenogenesis (development of the egg without
    fertilization), pseudogamy (a form of apomixis in which pollination is
    required), and parthenocarpy (production of fruit without fertilization)
    occurring widely [17].  The following types of reproduction have been
    documented within the genus:  (1) sexual reproduction, (2) nonreduction
    at meiosis on the female, male, or both sides, (3) apomixis with
    segregation, (4) apomixis without segregation, and (5) haploid
    parthenogenesis [17].  These modes of asexual reproduction are important
    because they help contribute to the vigorous, aggressive spread of red
    raspberry.

    Red raspberry is capable of vigorous sprouting after disturbance [18]
    but also expands in clonal area through vegetative regeneration
    [95,100].  Natural vegetative regeneration occurs through root sprouts
    or "suckers" [95,100,101], "stolons" [95], "rhizomes" [39,52], and basal
    stem buds or root crowns [45,95,101].  The precise mode of vegetative
    regeneration depends on the type and severity of disturbance.  Dense
    raspberry thickets form from the roots or stems of parent plants which
    separate to form individual plants with the deterioration of connecting
    tissue [45].  Red raspberry allocates most energy to vegetative
    regeneration on recently disturbed sites with favorable growing
    conditions [99].  With time, initially elevated nutrient levels decline,
    and shading increases.  As growing conditions deteriorate, red raspberry
    shifts its reproductive effort to the production of large numbers of
    seed [39,100].

    Red raspberry sprouts readily from portions of aboveground stems which
    survive disturbance [52].  Many raspberry species are capable of rooting
    from the stem nodes, and layering has been widely reported in the red
    raspberry [95].  This shrub is also capable of sprouting from axillary
    buds located "well above the ground level" [45].  Root crown or stembase
    sprouting is an important regenerative mode, which in the raspberry
    gives rise to biennial stems even in the absence of disturbance [36,45].
    Red raspberry typically sprouts from the root crown if aerial foliage is
    cut late in the growing season [95].  In related species such as
    salmonberry (R. spectabilis), apical dominance exerted by extant
    root crowns inhibits sprouting from belowground structures such as roots
    or rhizomes [106].

    Root "suckering" is a normal, on-going process in red raspberry stands
    [45,101].  However, particularly vigorous root suckering is often
    observed after the aboveground vegetation is damaged or destroyed.  This
    shrub regenerates from buds located on the larger main roots as well as
    those present on lateral roots which are often located fairly close to
    the soil surface [52,101].  The mean depth of these underground
    regenerative structures (root buds) was estimated at 2.4 inches (6 cm)
    in a New Brunswick study [28].  During the first 2 to 3 years after
    establishment, root suckers fill in spatial gaps in the clone [100].
    Root sucker mortality is generally high during the third and fourth
    years because of intense intraspecific competition for sunlight, space,
    and nutrients which result in "self thinning" of stands [45,100].
    Suckering ability declines with age, with production decreasing from an
    average of 1.5 per square foot (16.0/sq m) in 3-year-old stands to 0.77
    per square foot (8.25/sq m) in 4-year-old stands [100].  Although
    relatively few root suckers actually reach the canopy, survival rates of
    those that do is high [100].  Most root suckers live for only 1 or 2
    months [100].  Several researchers report that red raspberry is capable
    of sprouting from rhizomes after fire or other disturbance [39,52].
    However, others have observed that red raspberry lacks rhizomes with any
    regenerative capability [28].  The term "rhizome" may have been loosely
    applied to rhizomelike roots which do possess the ability to sprout.
    Geographic or genetic differences in red raspberry morphology and
    physiology are also possible.

    Seed:  Immature fruit, commonly referred to as "berries," are pink and
    hard [10].  Ripe fruit is generally red, but less commonly white or
    yellow [43].  Several to many small individual drupelets form an
    aggregate fruit [10,98].  Fruit size appears to be related to soil
    moisture [72], although significant genotypic variation has also been
    noted in the size and number of fruits produced annually [22].
    Decreased stored nutrient availability and water stress can influence
    overall fruit production [16].  It is estimated that 70 to 90 percent of
    red raspberry flowers eventually mature into fruit which results in an
    abundance of seed [99].  Whitney [100] observed that 77 percent of all
    plants flowered, with 85 percent of those flowering producing seed.
    Most species of raspberry produce good seed crops nearly every year
    [10], but seed production does vary annually in the red raspberry
    according to climatic factors and the age of the cane.  Whitney [100]
    observed average seed production of 65 seeds per square foot (700 seeds/
    sq m) in 2-year-old canes, with maximum production of 1,301 seeds per
    square foot (14,000 seeds/sq m) in 4-year-old canes.  Annual seed
    production averaged 604 seeds per square foot (6,500 seeds/sq m) over a
    4-year period [100].

    Pollination:  Red raspberry is primarily pollinated by bees, although
    flies and beetles also pollinate some flowers [40].  Under natural
    conditions, it is almost exclusively self-incompatible [55] which
    contributes to morphological variability.

    Germination:  Seed of the red raspberry is relatively large [31], with
    viability averaging up to 92 to 99 percent in laboratory tests [95].  Red
    raspberry seeds have a hard, thick, impermeable coat and dormant embryo
    [10].  Seeds have the ability to become dormant a second time in
    response to environmental factors [50].  Consequently, germination is
    often slow.  Most raspberry seeds require, as a minimum, warm
    stratification at 68 to 86 degrees F (20 to 30 degrees C) for 90 days,
    followed by cold stratification at 36 to 41 degrees F (2 to 5 degrees C)
    for an additional 90 days [10].  Cold stratification alone is
    insufficient to induce germination in red raspberry [59].  Laboratory
    tests indicate that exposure to sulfuric acid solutions or sodium
    hyperchlorite prior to cold stratification can improve germination
    [10,43,50,95].  Evidence suggests that the digestive enzymes of mammals
    can also enhance germination, with seeds eaten by chipmunks and deer
    mice exhibiting better germination than untreated seeds [59].  Sowing
    seeds at greater depths with subsequent exposure to light can produce
    better germination than shallow plantings, presumably because of greater
    soil moisture [50].  Results of specific germination tests have been
    documented in a number of studies [10,50,59].

    Seed banking:  Red raspberry amasses large numbers of seed which persist
    in the soil until favorable germination conditions are encountered
    [31,35,100].  Often, many seeds remain buried in the soil of stands
    which lack any sign of the parent plants [31].  Red raspberry seed can
    remain viable for 60 to 100 years or more [62,73,100].  Seeds are less
    likely to germinate when fresh [50,62], and may reach maximum viability
    at 50 to 100 years of age [34].  In a New Hampshire study, approximately
    90 percent of Rubus (R. idaeus and R. alleghaniensis) seed germinated
    during the first summer after disturbance in 38-, 95-, and >
    200-year-old stands, whereas only 60 percent of those in 5-year-old
    stands germinated [34].  More than 4,048,583 Rubus seeds per acre (10
    million/ha) have been found in the soil of 5-year-old beech (Fagus
    spp.)-birch (Betula spp.)-maple (Acer spp.) stands [34].  Numbers
    declined to 48,588 per acre (120,000/ha) in 200-year-old stands [34].
    Annual reductions in stored seed have been attributed to: (1)
    degeneration resulting in death, (2) fungi or animal predation, and (3)
    annual germination of some seeds.  Fyles [31] reported 237 to 1,883
    seeds per foot square (22-175/m sq) in organic soil and 0 to 2,582 per
    foot square (0-240 m sq) in mineral soil of upland coniferous forests of
    central Alberta.  Distribution of germinating seeds by stand age in
    beech-birch-maple forests of New Hampshire were as follows [34]:

                               stand age in years

                              5       38        95        200 +
    #seeds/m sq.            1,016    286        68        12

    Seed dispersal:  Red raspberry seed is readily dispersed by birds and
    mammals [87,100].  After they mature, the highly sought-after fruit
    rarely remains on the plants for long [10].  Birds have been observed to
    deposit 2,429 to 2,834 viable seeds per acre (6,000 to 7,000/ha)
    annually in beech-birch-maple forests of New Hampshire [34].  Mammals
    such as mice and chipmunks may be important dispersal agents in some
    areas [59].

    Seedling establishment:  Most seedlings germinate during the first year
    after disturbance [99,100] and produce stands which are primarily
    even aged.  In many instances, as much as 70 to 90 percent of all
    individuals establish during the first year after disturbance [100].
    Researchers have observed minimal recruitment in the second, third, and
    fourth years after fire [100].  Little seedling establishment occurs
    beneath the shade of a closed forest canopy [100].
    Season/Severity Classification
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    May 5, 1980/variable
    Site Description
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
         Soil - orthic gray luvisol
         Elevation - not reported
         Topography - not reported
         Size of treated area - 9.9 acres (4 ha)
         Weather conditions - dry
    Successional Status
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    More info for the terms: duff, forest, hardwood, mesic, shrubs

    Red raspberry vigorously invades and colonizes many types of disturbed
    sites [62,95,100].  It is generally considered a pioneer or early seral
    species [35] which flourishes and completes its life cycle during the
    first years after disturbance [100].  This shade-intolerant species
    often dominates sites during early successional stages but decreases as
    the canopy closes [62,100].  Although the plants themselves remain
    prominent for only a relatively brief period, viable seeds can persist
    for 60 years or more in the soil or duff [73].  Widespread germination
    after disturbance frequently leads to the development of even-aged
    stands [100].  In many areas, red raspberry is absent beneath the canopy
    of mature forests but persists in forest openings [39].  Whitney [99]
    reports that few stands of red raspberry persist for longer than 5 to 12
    years.

    Red raspberry invades black and white spruce stands in Alaska during the
    first years after disturbance but declines as taller shrubs and trees
    become established [29,39].  In many northern black spruce forests, red
    raspberry is present only in early successional stages [29].  On mesic
    and submesic sites in sub-boreal forests of British Columbia it
    typically increases during the first 10 years after timber harvest or
    fire but is virtually eliminated within 14 years because of rapid
    increases in shade [39].  Red raspberry often dominates jack pine stands
    of Minnesota within 5 years after disturbance [2,39] and subsequently
    declines as the canopy develops.  In parts of western Montana, red
    raspberry initially grows rapidly but begins to decline within 3 to 4
    years after disturbance as nutrient levels decrease [18].  Red raspberry
    can persist for up to 4 or 5 years in northern hardwood forests as long
    as stands remain relatively open [47,73].  In birch-maple forests of New
    Hampshire, red raspberry reaches peak abundance in the second through
    fourth years after disturbance [100].  However, it rarely persists for
    more than 10 years [100].  Red raspberry is subsequently replaced by
    species such as aspen, chokecherry (Prunus spp.), and birch [100].

Cyclicity

    Phenology
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    More info for the terms: fruit, phase

    Red raspberry is typically biennial, with each shoot passing through
    well-defined phenological stages during its 2-year lifespan [45].
    Vegetative shoots develop from the roots or stems of parent plants, or
    as seedlings, during the first year [45,99,100,101].  Lateral flowering
    stalks (floricanes) are produced during the second year [22,99,100].
    Floricanes leaf out early and exhibit rapid growth [99].  After
    producing fruit in late summer, the leaves of floricanes senesce and the
    cane gradually dies [99].  Stages of the 2-year growth cycle of red
    raspberry are detailed below [45]:

                           
                                YEAR 1
           Phases              

    phase 1:  initiation of root buds                 
    phase 2:  subterranean suckering          
    phase 3:  emergent suckers; elongation slows or stops
              as sucker reaches surface; leaves form a rosette
              at or above the soil surface.
    phase 4:  1st winter dormancy-most leaves shed    

                                YEAR 2

    phase 5:  elongating shoot; rapid elongation.     
    phase 6:  initiation of flower buds; shoot stops  
              elongation at end of growing season. 
              secondary rosettes form; axillary meristems
              initiate flower primordia; dormant fruit buds;
              leaves become senescent and fall.
    phase 7:  breaking dormancy of flower buds; require
              cold to break dormancy; buds grow in spring
              (some cultivars produce fruit before dormancy).
    phase 8:  flowering and fruiting; basal buds elongate
              into a vegetative replacement shoot which
              repeats the biennial cycle.
    phase 9:  senescence and death.  (after fruiting the
              shoot dies back "to the position from which
              a replacement shoot has grown").

    Flowering:  Flowerbud initiation is influenced by temperature, genetics
    (cultivar), and geographic location [21,48,69,92].  Flowering is also
    related to the age and vigor of the plant and the date at which
    vegetative growth terminates [16,67].  Flowerbud initiation is triggered
    by low temperatures and short days and generally begins in late summer
    or autumn [16,21].  Flowerbud initiation can be induced by exposure to
    temperatures of 55 degrees F (12.8 degrees C) at 9 hour days or 50
    degrees F (10.0 degrees C) at 16 hour days [21].  Although flowerbud
    initiation occurs over winter in most red raspberries, initiation in
    primocane-fruiting cultivars begins in summer [92].  Bud break typically
    occurs in early spring [16].  Evidence suggests that higher spring
    temperatures may promote earlier and more rapid flowering [67].

    Fruiting:  Fruit maturation begins soon after flowering [88].  Timing of
    flowerbud initiation largely determines fruiting season [21], although
    fruiting dates also vary according to cultivar and geographic location
    [21].  Annual variation in fruit ripening has also been reported [21].
    Both flowering and fruiting proceeds from the top of the floricane
    downward [22].  After maturation, fruit spoils rapidly [88].
    Generalized fruiting and flowering dates by geographic location are as
    follows [21,23,36,54,80,84,86,88,93]:

         location        flowering             fruiting

           AK            June-July             July-September
           AZ            June-July             -----
           BC            -----                 July-August
           CO            June-July             -----
         East            -----                 July-October
     Great Plains        May-July              -----
           MT            June-August           -----
        NC, SC           June-August           July-August (or later)
           ND            June                  -----
      New England        ----                  late June-August
      nc Plains          June-July             July-August
           UT            May-July              -----
           WY            June-August           -----

Management

    Management considerations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: competition, forest, hardwood, seed, shrub

    Competition:  Red raspberry typically increases dramatically after fire
    or timber harvest [27,39].  In many areas this shrub can compete
    vigorously with conifer seedlings for light, moisture, nutrients, and
    space [30,34,62,74].  Dense thickets of red raspberry reportedly
    suppress the growth of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and spruce (Picea
    spp.) seedlings after spruce-fir forests of northern Maine are clearcut
    [30] and after timber harvest in the boreal forests of Ontario [82].
    Raspberries also compete effectively with jack pine (Pinus banksiana)
    and red pine (P. resinosa) following timber harvest in northeastern
    Minnesota and Manitoba [3,74].  Graber and Thompson [34] observed that
    relatively few red raspberry seeds are present within the soil of
    northeastern hardwood forest harvested at 100-year intervals.  However,
    in forests harvested at more frequent intervals, large numbers of red
    raspberry seed are present and massive simultaneous germination results
    in intense competition with conifer seedlings [34].
     
    Chemical control:  Red raspberry is susceptible to a number of
    herbicides [9].  Glyphosate is commonly used as a mid-to-late summer
    foliar spray [82].  A number of herbicides have been suggested for use
    in reducing weeds in cultivated red raspberry patches [8].

Benefits

    Cover Value
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Dense red raspberry thickets serve as favorable nesting habitat for many
    small birds [14].  Small mammals such as rabbits and squirrels also find
    shelter in raspberry thickets [91].  The degree to which red raspberry
    provides environmental protection during one or more seasons is rated as
    follows [23]:

                          CO      UT      WY
    Pronghorn            ----    poor    poor
    Elk                  ----    poor    poor 
    Mule deer            ----    poor    poor
    White-tailed deer    ----    ----    poor  
    Small mammals        fair    fair    fair
    Small nongame birds  ----    fair    fair
    Upland game birds    ----    good    fair
    Waterfowl            ----    poor    poor
    Importance to Livestock and Wildlife
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: cover, fruit

    Raspberries provide food and cover for a wide range of wildlife species
    [10,100].  Some herbivores browse raspberry, but in general, it offers
    relatively poor forage.  Red raspberry is browsed by moose in Alaska
    but is not considered to be of primary importance [79].  In some
    locations, deer, rabbits, mountain beaver, and elk eat the foliage of
    raspberries [14,91].  Porcupine and beaver occasionally consume buds,
    twigs, or cambium of species within the genus Rubus [91].  However,
    thorns generally prevent excessive wildlife use of red raspberry [95].
    In general, raspberries have little forage value for domestic livestock
    [91].

    Fruits of many species within the genus Rubus are eaten by ruffed
    grouse, blue grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, greater
    prairie chicken, California quail, northern bobwhite, gray catbird,
    northern cardinal, yellow-breasted chat, American robin, thrushes,
    towhees, brown thrasher, orchard oriole, summer tanager, pine grosbeak,
    gray (Hungarian) partridge, and band-tailed pigeon [14,91].  Mammals
    such as the coyote, raccoon, black bear, common opossum, squirrels,
    Townsend's chipmunk, skunks, red fox, and gray fox also seek out the
    fruits of many raspberries [14,91].  The eastern chipmunk, western
    chipmunk, deer mice, and grizzly bear consume red raspberry fruit where
    available [59,105].  Flowers of red raspberry provide nutritious food
    for bees [40].
    Nutritional Value
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Browse:  Red raspberry browse is rated as poor in both energy and
    protein value [23].  Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentrations
    are highest in young leaves but decrease as leaves mature [46].
    Conversely, calcium and magnesium concentrations are generally highest
    in mature leaves but lowest in young, developing leaves [46].  Zinc
    typically increases through the growing season whereas manganese
    decreases [46].  Levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium
    generally decline as the growing season progresses but may increase in
    the fall if additional rainfall allows plants to resume growth [46].

    Fruit:  Raspberry fruits are sweet and contain relatively high amounts
    of both mono and disaccharides [88].  Relative glucose, starch, and
    sugar content has been documented for a number of red raspberry
    cultivars [16].
    Other uses and values
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: fresh, fruit

    The red raspberry was traditionally an important food of many Native
    American peoples.  It was eaten fresh or preserved for winter use [66].
    Approximately 0.27 quarts (250 ml) of wild red raspberry fruit can be
    hand-harvested within 30 minutes in good stands [66].  The fruit, bark
    of roots, and stems of raspberries have been used to make various
    medicinal preparations [10].

    The unique edible fruit of the red raspberry is delicious fresh or
    preserved.  Raspberries make excellent jams and jellies [93] and provide
    flavorful additions to pies and other baked goods, candies, and dairy
    products such as yogurt or ice cream.  Raspberry tea is commercially
    available and good although mild in flavor.  The raspberry industry in
    North America is a growing, multimillion dollar business [63].  Five
    primary regions produce most of the raspberries grown commercially in
    North America [63]:

         1)  Northeast-Atlantic Provinces: southern Quebec through
                  Pennsylvania
         2)  Central Atlantic Region:  Maryland to South Carolina, eastern
                  Kentucky and Tennessee, northern Georgia and Alabama
         3)  Central Great Lakes Region:  Michigan, southern Ontario, Indiana,
                  Illinois, Ohio to Iowa, Missouri, western Kentucky and
                  Tennessee
         4)  Prairie States Region:  Minnesota, southern Manitoba, eastern North 
                  and South Dakota, and Wisconsin
         5)  Pacific Northwest:  southern British Columbia, western Washington
                  and Oregon

    Cultivars:  Many cultivars have been developed to meet the needs of
    raspberry growers in a variety of climatic situations.  Most are derived
    from the European subspecies idaeus [98].  Desirable traits for red
    raspberry cultivars include spinelessness, winter hardiness, high fruit
    yields, resistance to disease, perennial stems, and primocane (or
    autumn) fruiting [49].  Reviews of particular cultivars document the
    extreme plasticity of this species and consider the suitability of each
    to various geographic locations [20,20,22,69,83,67,63,97,16,48].
    Cultivars exhibit great genetic variation in time of flowerbud
    initiation, number of drupelets produced per fruit, time of fruit
    ripening, amount and timing of root suckering, length of dormancy,
    winter hardiness, fruit yield, and disease resistance
    [19,22,48,67,69,71,83,92].  Consequently, care should be taken to select
    cultivars with desirable traits which would enhance suitability for
    growth in a specific location [20].  The commonly cultivated loganberry
    may have been derived from a red raspberry-trailing blackberry hybrid
    [17].

    Commercial cultivation:  A wide array of studies detail commercial
    propagation of the red raspberry.  Traditional techniques include hill
    culture of canes (stems), removal of weeds, and elimination of intercane
    suckers to increase fruit yield [64].  Older and weaker canes may be
    mowed or otherwise pruned annually to improve yield, enhance access to
    fruit, and to maintain the general health of the cane [67,102].  Trends
    in red raspberry propagation include increasing mechanization [63].
    Various cultivation techniques have been shown to improve fruit yields
    [16,65,72].  In some instances, application of nitrogen fertilizers can
    increase both cane growth and the number of flowers produced per node
    [67].  However, in other situations fertilizers appear to be of little
    benefit [33].  Following the addition of nitrogen fertilizer, Lawson and
    Waister [65] observed increased yields for two years, little effect
    during the third year, and decreased yields during the next two years.
    Similarly, irrigation appears to increase yields in some locations while
    having little effect elsewhere [72].
    Palatability
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Red raspberry browse appears to be relatively unpalatable to most
    ungulates.  However, the fruits are highly palatable to many birds and
    mammals.  The degree of use shown by livestock and wildlife species for
    red raspberry is rated as follows [23]:

                           CO       MT       ND       UT       WY
    Cattle                poor     poor     poor     fair     poor
    Sheep                 poor     fair     fair     good     fair
    Horses                poor     poor     poor     poor     poor
    Pronghorn             poor     ----     ----     poor     poor
    Elk                   ----     poor     ----     fair     fair
    Mule deer             ----     fair     ----     good     fair
    White-tailed deer     fair     ----     ----     ----     ----
    Small mammals         good     ----     ----     good     fair
    Small nongame birds   poor     ----     ----     good     fair
    Upland game birds     ----     ----     ----     good     fair
    Waterfowl             ----     ----     ----     poor     poor  
    Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: natural, reclamation, seed

    Some ecotypes of red raspberry have value in reclamation [95].  Suitable
    ecotypes are rated as having low to moderate value for short-term
    revegetation, and at least moderate value for long-term revegetation
    projects [23].  Red raspberry exhibits good potential for erosion
    control on some sites [10,91,95].  It has been successfully used to
    stabilize roadcuts and other disturbed sites in Utah and to revegetate
    bare soils in subalpine zones of Colorado [95].  Red raspberry is
    recommended for revegetation projects on well-drained sites in interior
    Alaska where maximum spacing of 3.3 feet by 3.3 feet (1 meter x 1 meter)
    is suggested [95].  Natural seedling establishment has been observed on
    many types of harsh sites, such as on tailings and surface soil of oil
    sand extraction plants in northern Alberta [95].  Red raspberry is
    capable of establishing on acidic tailings which have been treated with
    lime and on tar sands [95].

    Propagation:  Red raspberry can be propagated through leaf bud cuttings,
    "rooted handles," stem cuttings, or root cuttings (suckers)
    [24,67,89,95].  Success of establishment through root cuttings varies
    according to the cultivar and planting date [89].  However, root cutting
    success has ranged up to 60 percent in experimental tests [89].  Correct
    choice of planting dates and techniques are important and significantly
    influence subsequent growth and establishment [14,89].  In vitro
    micropropagation techniques have also been developed for mass production
    of red raspberry [97].

    Red raspberry seedlings may be transplanted, or seed may be sown
    directly onto disturbed sites.  Seed which has been scarified can be
    successfully planted in the late summer or fall [10].  Cold treatment is
    not required for fall seedings.  Previously stratified and scarified
    seed can be planted in the spring [10].  Good results have been obtained
    after seeds were planted with a drill and covered with 1/8 to 3/16 inch
    (0.3-0.5 cm) of soil.  Cleaned seed averages approximately 328,000 per
    pound (722,467/kg) [10].  Detailed information is available on
    appropriate methods to obtain and plant red raspberry seed [95].

Taxonomy

    Common Names
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    red raspberry
    American red raspberry
    black-haired red raspberry
    brilliant red raspberry
    raspberry
    smoothleaf red raspberry
    wild raspberry
    wild red raspberry

    grayleaf raspberry
    Synonyms
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    R. idaeus ssp. sachalinensis (Levl.) Focke = R. i. ssp. strigosus
    Taxonomy
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: shrub

    The scientific name of red raspberry is Rubus idaeus L. There
    are two subspecies [53]:

    Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus, red raspberry
    Rubus idaeus subsp. strigosus (Michx.) Focke, grayleaf raspberry

    Numerous red raspberry hybrids have been reported, although many are
    infertile [43,104]. This shrub hybridizes with many species in the
    Rubus genus including R. arcticus, R. ursinus, R. occidentalis, R.
    rubrisetus, and R. odoratus [49,55,68,104]. Red raspberry has
    hybridized with thimbleberry (R. parviflorus) in the laboratory [49].