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Behavior
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Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Dewey, T. . "Salmonidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Salmonidae.html
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Morphology
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Other Physical Features: bilateral symmetry

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Dewey, T. . "Salmonidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Salmonidae.html
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Threats
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Many salmon species face a multitude of often devastating threats, including overfishing, habitat degradation (e.g., as a result of mining, timber cutting, agriculture, and urbanization), obstruction of migratory routes (e.g., by dams and hydroelectric plants), and interbreeding and other ecological interactions with hatchery-raised salmon (IUCN 2009).

In addition to these threats, salmon face additional challenges caused by rapid climate change (Battin et al. 2007; Crozier et al. 2008; IUCN 2009). For example, because the developmental rate of salmon is directly related to water temperature, it is possible that increasing temperatures could cause the more rapidly developing juveniles to enter the ocean before their planktonic food source has reached sufficiently high levels to sustain them (IUCN 2009). Increased water temperatures could cause other problems as well. Areas of particularly warm freshwater can present a thermal barrier to migrating salmon that then requires additional energy to navigate around. Such barriers can also delay or even prevent spawning. As air temperatures warm, much of the snow that feeds the river systems is expected to melt earlier. In many cases snow is predicted to be replaced by rain. This will lead to a reduction in the summer flows of many rivers, coupled with an increase in freshwater inputs during the winter. A reduction in summer flow levels will serve to increase water temperatures further and is likely to reduce the overall habitat available to salmon. Increased winter flows are likely to scour the river beds, disturbing nests and causing physical damage to both salmon eggs and juveniles. Coupled with an increase in freshwater inputs is an increase in the sedimentation of river and stream beds. Such sedimentation is likely to reduce the amount of gravel substrate available for spawning and to smother both eggs and juveniles (IUCN 2009).

Because salmon inhabit diverse habitats, and a single species may live in both freshwater and marine habitats during different parts of its life history, the impacts of climate change may be very complex and highly dependent on both the particular species and local geography and ecology. Predicting the specific effects of climate change on salmon in their marine environment is especially difficult as a consequence of our limited knowledge of the marine habits of salmon, combined with uncertainties about how marine habitats will be affected by climate change.

Some salmon populations at higher latitudes may actually benefit from warmer temperatures through increased productivity. It is possible that a warmer climate could make new spawning habitats available, as has been observed in parts of Alaska. Rapid climate change is likely to lead to unexpected consequences and shifts in ecosystems and fisheries, and humans will need to be prepared to adapt to these new conditions (IUCN 2009). Some evolutionary response on the part of salmon to changing environmental conditions is to be expected, but these environmental changes might produce conflicting selection pressures in different life stages, which will interact with plastic (i.e., nongenetic) changes in complex ways that are very challenging to predict (Crozier et al. 2008).

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Salmonidae
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Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only living family currently placed in the order Salmoniformes. It includes salmon, trout, chars, freshwater whitefishes, and graylings, which collectively are known as the salmonids. The Atlantic salmon and trout of the genus Salmo give the family and order their names.

Salmonids have a relatively primitive appearance among the teleost fish, with the pelvic fins being placed far back, and an adipose fin towards the rear of the back. They are slender fish, with rounded scales and forked tails. Their mouths contain a single row of sharp teeth.[2] Although the smallest species is just 13 cm (5.1 in) long as an adult, most are much larger, with the largest reaching 2 m (6.6 ft).[1]

All salmonids spawn in fresh water, but in many cases, the fish spend most of their lives at sea, returning to the rivers only to reproduce. This lifecycle is described as anadromous. They are predators, feeding on small crustaceans, aquatic insects, and smaller fish.[2]

Evolution

Current salmonids comprise three lineages, taxonomically treated as subfamilies: whitefish (Coregoninae), graylings (Thymallinae), and the char, trout, and salmons (Salmoninae). Generally, all three lineages are accepted to allocate a suite of derived traits indicating a monophyletic group.[3]

The Salmonidae first appear in the fossil record in the middle Eocene with the fossil Eosalmo driftwoodensis, which was first described from fossils found at Driftwood Creek, central British Columbia. This genus shares traits found in the Salmoninae, whitefish, and grayling lineages. Hence, E. driftwoodensis is an archaic salmonid, representing an important stage in salmonid evolution.[3]

A gap appears in the salmonine fossil record after E. driftwoodensis until about seven million years ago (mya), in the late Miocene, when trout-like fossils appear in Idaho, in the Clarkia Lake beds.[4] Several of these species appear to be Oncorhynchus—the current genus for Pacific salmon and some trout. The presence of these species so far inland established that Oncorhynchus was not only present in the Pacific drainages before the beginning of the Pliocene (~5–6 mya), but also that rainbow and cutthroat trout, and Pacific salmon lineages had diverged before the beginning of the Pliocene. Consequently, the split between Oncorhynchus and Salmo (Atlantic salmon) must have occurred well before the Pliocene. Suggestions have gone back as far as the early Miocene (about 20 mya).[3][5]

Genetics

Based on the most current evidence, salmonids diverged from the rest of teleost fish no later than 88 million years ago, during the late Cretaceous. This divergence was marked by a whole-genome duplication event in the ancestral salmonid, where the diploid ancestor became tetraploid.[6][7] This duplication is the fourth of its kind to happen in the evolutionary lineage of the salmonids, with two having occurred commonly to all bony vertebrates, and another specifically in the teleost fishes.[8]

Extant salmonids all show evidence of partial tetraploidy, as studies show the genome has undergone selection to regain a diploid state. Work done in the rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) has shown that the genome is still partially-tetraploid. Around half of the duplicated protein-coding genes have been deleted, but all apparent miRNA sequences still show full duplication, with potential to influence regulation of the rainbow trout’s genome. This pattern of partial tetraploidy is thought to be reflected in the rest of extant salmonids.[9]

The first fossil species representing a true salmonid fish (E. driftwoodensis) does not appear until the middle Eocene.[10] This fossil already displays traits associated with extant salmonids, but as the genome of E. driftwoodensis cannot be sequenced, it cannot be confirmed if triploidy was present in this animal at this point in time. This fossil is also significantly younger than the proposed salmonid divergence from the rest of the teleost fishes, and is the earliest confirmed salmonid currently known. This means that the salmonids have a ghost lineage of approximately 33 million years.

Given a lack of earlier transition fossils, and the inability to extract genomic data from specimens other than extant species, the dating of the whole-genome duplication event in salmonids was historically a very broad categorization of times, ranging from 25-100 million years in age.[9] New advances in calibrated relaxed molecular clock analyses have allowed for a closer examination of the salmonid genome, and has allowed for a more precise dating of the whole-genome duplication of the group, that places the latest possible date for the event at 88 million years ago.[8]

This more precise dating and examination of the salmonid whole-genome duplication event has allowed more speculation on the radiation of species within the group. Historically, the whole-genome duplication event was thought to be the reason for the variation within Salmonidae. Current evidence done with molecular clock analyses revealed that much of the speciation of the group occurred during periods of intense climate change associated with the last ice ages, with especially-high speciation rates being observed in salmonids that developed an anadromous lifestyle.[7]

Classification

Together with the closely related Esociformes (the pikes and related fishes), Osmeriformes (e.g. smelts), and Argentiniformes, the Salmoniformes comprise the superorder Protacanthopterygii.

The Salmonidae are divided into three subfamilies and around 10 genera. The concepts of the number of species recognised vary among researchers and authorities; the numbers presented below represent the higher estimates of diversity:[1]

Phylogeny of Salmonidae[11][12] .mw-parser-output table.clade{border-spacing:0;margin:0;font-size:100%;line-height:100%;border-collapse:separate;width:auto}.mw-parser-output table.clade table.clade{width:100%}.mw-parser-output table.clade td{border:0;padding:0;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label{width:0.8em;border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:bottom;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel{border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:top;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar{vertical-align:middle;text-align:left;padding:0 0.5em}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf{border:0;padding:0;text-align:left;vertical-align:middle}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leafR{border:0;padding:0;text-align:right}   Coregoninae

Prosopium

     

Stenodus

   

Coregonus

        Thymallinae

Thymallus

Salmoninae    

Brachymystax

   

Hucho

       

Salmo

     

Oncorhynchus

     

Parahucho

   

Salvelinus (incl. Salvethymus)

             

Order Salmoniformes

Hybrid crossbreeding

The following table shows results of hybrid crossbreeding combination in Salmonidae.[13]

Crossbreeding male Salvelinus Oncorhynchus Salmo leucomaenis
(white-spotted char) fontinalis
(Brook trout) mykiss
(Rainbow trout) masou masou
(masu salmon) masou ishikawae
(Amago Salmon) gorbuscha
(pink salmon) nerka
(Sockeye salmon) keta
(chum salmon) kisutsh
(coho salmon) tshawytscha
(king salmon) trutta
(Brown trout) salar
(Atlantic Salmon) female (Salvelinus) leucomaenis
(white-spotted char) - O X O O X X O fontinalis
(Brook trout) O - X O O X X O X X (Oncorhynchus) mykiss
(Rainbow trout) O O - O O O X X X X X masou masou
(masu salmon) O X X - O X X O O X masou ishikawae
(Amago Salmon) O O X O - X O gorbuscha
(pink salmon) X - O O O nerka
(Sockeye salmon) X X X X X O - O O O X keta
(chum salmon) X X X X O O - O X X kisutsh
(coho salmon) X X O O X - O X X tshawytscha
(king salmon) O O O X O - Salmo trutta
(Brown trout) O O X O O X X - O salar
(Atlantic Salmon) O X X X O -

note :- : The identical kind, O : (survivability) , X : (Fatality)

References

  1. ^ a b c Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2008). "Salmonidae" in FishBase. December 2008 version.
  2. ^ a b McDowell, Robert M. (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N., eds. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 114–116. ISBN 0-12-547665-5..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  3. ^ a b c McPhail, J.D.; Strouder, D.J. (1997). "Pacific Salmon and Their Ecosystems: Status and Future Options". The Origin and Speciation of Oncorhynchus. New York, New York: Chapman & Hall.
  4. ^ Smiley, Charles J. "Late Cenozoic History of the Pacific Northwest" (PDF). Association for the Advancement of Science: Pacific Division. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 4, 2004. Retrieved August 8, 2006.
  5. ^ Montgomery, David R. (2000). "Coevolution of the Pacific Salmon and Pacific Rim Topography" (PDF). Department of Geological Sciences, University of Washington. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 1, 2006. Retrieved August 8, 2006.
  6. ^ Allendorf FW, Thorgaard GH. (1984) Tetraploidy and the evolution of salmonid fishes. Evolutionary genetics of fishes (ed. Turner BJ), pp. 1–53. New York, NY: Plenum Press
  7. ^ a b Macqueen, D.J, Johnston, I.A. (2014). A well-constrained estimate for the timing of the salmonid whole genome duplication reveals major decoupling from species diversification. Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences. 281 (1778).
  8. ^ a b Macqueen, D.J, Johnston, I.A. (2014). A well-constrained estimate for the timing of the salmonid whole genome duplication reveals major decoupling from species diversification. Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences. 281(1778)
  9. ^ a b Berthelot, C; Brunet, F, et al., (2014). The rainbow trout genome provides novel insights into evolution after whole-genome duplication in vertebrates. Nature Communications. 5(3657), 1-10.
  10. ^ Zhivotovsky, L.A. (2015). Genetic history of salmonid fishes of the genus Oncorhynchus. Russian Journal of Genetics 51(5), 491-505.
  11. ^ Crête-Lafrenière, Alexis; Weir, Laura K.; Bernatchez, Louis (2012). "Framing the Salmonidae Family Phylogenetic Portrait: A More Complete Picture from Increased Taxon Sampling". PLOS ONE. 7 (10). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046662.
  12. ^ Shedko, S. V.; Miroshnichenko, I. L.; Nemkova, G. A. (2013). "Phylogeny of salmonids (salmoniformes: Salmonidae) and its molecular dating: Analysis of mtDNA data". Russian Journal of Genetics. 49 (6): 623–637. doi:10.1134/S1022795413060112.
  13. ^ Daisuke Ito, Atushi Fujiwara, Syuiti Abe, "Hybrid Inviability and Chromosome Abnormality in Salmonid Fish", The Journal of Animal Genetics Vol.34 (2006) No.1 P65-70

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Salmonidae: Brief Summary
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Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only living family currently placed in the order Salmoniformes. It includes salmon, trout, chars, freshwater whitefishes, and graylings, which collectively are known as the salmonids. The Atlantic salmon and trout of the genus Salmo give the family and order their names.

Salmonids have a relatively primitive appearance among the teleost fish, with the pelvic fins being placed far back, and an adipose fin towards the rear of the back. They are slender fish, with rounded scales and forked tails. Their mouths contain a single row of sharp teeth. Although the smallest species is just 13 cm (5.1 in) long as an adult, most are much larger, with the largest reaching 2 m (6.6 ft).

All salmonids spawn in fresh water, but in many cases, the fish spend most of their lives at sea, returning to the rivers only to reproduce. This lifecycle is described as anadromous. They are predators, feeding on small crustaceans, aquatic insects, and smaller fish.

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Distribution
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Distribution: Northern Hemisphere, but widely introduced in cold waters for sports and aquaculture. Many are anadromous, spending part of their life at sea, but returning to freshwater where all species spawn in a gravel bed in rivers or streams; most fish die after spawning. Small cycloid scales. Gill membranes reaching far forward, detached from isthmus. Axillary process on pelvics. Last three vertebrae directed upward. No spines. Adipose fin present. Attains 1.5 m (maybe 2 m) maximum length. Highly valuable in sport and commercial fisheries. There is disagreement about the status of some species and genera.
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