dcsimg
542.6919795922.130x130
Life » » Plants » » Pottiaceae »

Syntrichia ruralis (Hedw.) F. Weber & D. Mohr

Comprehensive Description

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Distribution: China, India, northern Africa, Europe, Russia, North and South America, and Australia.

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    Syntrichia ruralis generally has conspicuously squarrose-recurved leaves when wet, with margins recurved nearly to the apex, distal portions of the costa toothed abaxially because of projecting cell ends, and relatively small laminal cells. The decurrent, hyaline base of the awn sometimes used to distinguish S. ruraliformis is not reliable and can, on occasion, be found in S. princeps, S. papillosissima, and S. norvegica. Specific distinctions in the S. ruralis complex are subtle, for the most part, requiring cross sections of leaves and stems, and careful measurements. The leaves of S. princeps and S. obtusissima are narrowed near the middle, whereas those of S. papillosissima, S. norvegica, and S. ruralis are widest about one-third the way up from the base and then taper to the apex. The stem of S. princeps and S. obtusissima has a strong central strand of thinner-walled cells, the costa has a group of hydroids just abaxial to the guide cells, and the basal cells in the leaf are relatively wide. In S. papillosissima, S. norvegica, and S. ruralis, the stem lacks a central strand, the costa lacks hydroids, and the basal cells in the leaf are relatively narrow.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Stems 5-15 mm. Leaves clasping at base, infolded and twisted around the stem when dry, wide-spreading (in smaller forms) to squarrose-recurved when moist, lingulate-ovate, 1.5-3.5 × 0.75-1.25 mm, canaliculate to keeled; margins tightly revolute in the proximal 7/8 or more, entire; apices emarginate to acute; costa excurrent into a serrate (or occasionally only faintly serrulate), hyaline awn that is often red or sometimes broadly hyaline at base, weakly to strongly papillose on the abaxial surface and often serrate near the apex because of projecting cell ends, red-brown; basal cells abruptly differentiated, narrowly rectangular, 35-70(-90) × 11-18 µm, quadrate to narrowly rectangular at the margins; distal cells quadrate to polygonal, 8-12 µm, with 3-6 papillae per cell, bulging, somewhat obscure. Specialized asexual reproduction absent. Sexual condition dioicous. Seta red, 5-10 mm. Capsule red-brown, 2-3.5 mm, straight, with an abrupt neck; operculum 1.25-1.75 mm, brown; peristome ca. 1.25 mm, the upper divisions twisted ca. 2 turns, red, the basal membrane white, about 1/3 the total length. Spores 11-15 µm, papillose.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Plants large to rather robust, 5.0–8.0 cm high, dark green to reddish brown, in loose tufts. Stems erect, simple or irregularly branched, radiculose at base; central strand absent. Leaves appressed or erecto-patent to contorted-curved when dry, spreading or sometimes reflexed when moist, oblong-spathulate, rounded-obtuse to broadly acute at apex, upper lamina broadly channeled or keeled, sheathing at base; margins often recurved, crenulate by projecting papillae; costa rather stout, often reddish brown below, excurrent, ending in a rather long, hyaline awn, denticulate on the back or at tips; upper leaf cells subquadrate to rounded-hexagonal, each cell densely covered with several C-shaped papillae; basal cells distinctly differentiated, narrowly rectangular, thin-walled, hyaline, smooth. Dioicous. Setae elongate, straight, 1–2 cm long, reddish brown; capsules erect, cylindrical; peristome teeth filiform, twisted, papillose; basal membrane high, 1/2 –1/3 the peristome teeth length; annuli differentiated, of 2–3 rows of vesiculose cells, deciduous; opercula conic-rostrate, with a long oblique beak.

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Barbula ruralis Hedwig, Sp. Musc. Frond., 121. 1801; Syntrichia ruraliformis (Bescherelle) Dixon; Tortula ruraliformis (Bescherelle) W. Ingham; T. ruralis (Hedwig) P. Gaertner, B. Meyer & Scherbius
    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Tortula ruralis (Hedw.) Gaertn., Oekon. Fl. Wetterau 3(2): 91. 1802. Tortula reflexa X.-J. Li, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 3: 109, f. 6. 1981, hom. illeg. Type. China. Xizang, Ding-qing Co., M. Zang 5340a (holotype HKAS).

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    Habitat: on forest ground, rocks, or soil in shade.