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Brief Summary

    Amphinomidae: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Amphinomidae, also known as the bristle worms or sea mice, are a family of marine polychaetes, many species of which bear chaetae mineralized with carbonate. The best-known amphinomids are the fireworms, which can cause great pain if their toxin-coated chaetae are touched or trodden on. Their relationship to other polychaete groups is somewhat poorly resolved.

    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors

    The Amphinomidae are a group of shallow water marine polychaetes.Most have bright, distinct color patterns, though deeper dwelling worms often have more muted coloration. All species bear tufts of sharp, hollow chaetae mineralized with carbonate in transverse strips across their dorsal surface.The Amphinomidae are commonly called fire worms, because their most noted representatives have setae filled with venom, and should be treated carefully.Slow-moving carnivores, they typically feeding on soft-skinned animals attached to hard substrates.

    The closest relatives of the amphionomid worms are the deeper water Euphrosinidae; they are considered together in some treatments as one family Amphinomidae sensu lato (e.g. Day, 1967). A recent molecular phylogenetic study determined that Amphinomidae also contains one known deep sea vent inhabitant, Archinome rosacea, previously placed in its own family, Archinomidae (Wiklund et al. 2008). Currently some 20-30 genera are described in the Amphinomidae, and it is thought many more species exist to be discovered.

    (Hutchings and Johnson, 2000; Wiklund et al. 2008; Wikipedia 2014)

Comprehensive Description

    Amphinomidae
    provided by wikipedia

    Amphinomidae, also known as the bristle worms or sea mice,[2] are a family of marine polychaetes, many species of which bear chaetae mineralized with carbonate.[3] The best-known amphinomids are the fireworms, which can cause great pain if their toxin-coated chaetae are touched or trodden on.[4] Their relationship to other polychaete groups is somewhat poorly resolved.[4]

    Complanine

    Complanine is a quaternary ammonium salt that has been isolated from the marine fireworm Eurythoe complanata. It causes an inflammatory effect upon contact with the skin or mucous membranes.

    It was previously known that handling the fireworm caused it to release a chemical that induces inflammation of the skin of marine predators and mammals (including humans). Complanine was the first compound isolated from the fireworm which causes these effects.[5][6] It is presumed that this compound's function is to deter predators of the fireworm.

    List of genera

    References

    1. ^ Pleijel, F.; Rouse, G. W.; Vannier, J. (2004). "Carboniferous fireworms (Amphinomida : Annelida), with a discussion of species taxa in palaeontology". Invertebrate Systematics. 18 (6): 693. doi:10.1071/IS04003..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ P. Gopalakrishnakone; National University of Singapore. Venom & Toxin Research Group (1990). A Colour Guide to Dangerous Animals. NUS Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-9971-69-150-9.
    3. ^ Barroso, R. M.; Paiva, P. C. (2010). "A new deep-sea species of Chloeia (Polychaeta: Amphinomidae) from southern Brazil". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 91 (2): 419. doi:10.1017/S0025315410001499.
    4. ^ a b Wiklund, H.; Nygren, A.; Pleijel, F.; Sundberg, P. (2008). "The phylogenetic relationships between Amphinomidae, Archinomidae and Euphrosinidae (Amphinomida: Aciculata: Polychaeta), inferred from molecular data". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK. 88 (3). doi:10.1017/S0025315408000982.
    5. ^ Kazuhiko Nakamura; Yu Tachikawa; Makoto Kitamura; Osamu Ohno; Masami Suganuma; Daisuke Uemura (2008). "Complanine, an inflammation-inducing substance isolated from the marine fireworm Eurythoe complanata". Org. Biomol. Chem. 6 (12): 2058–2060. doi:10.1039/b803107j. PMID 18528565.
    6. ^ Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Tachikawa, Yu; Uemura, Daisuke (2009). "(−)-Complanine, an inflammatory substance of marine fireworm: a synthetic study". Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry. 5. doi:10.3762/bjoc.5.12.