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Nepticulidae
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Nepticulidae is a family of very small moths with a worldwide distribution.[2] They are characterised by eyecaps over the eyes (see also Opostegidae, Bucculatricidae, Lyonetiidae). These pigmy moths or midget moths, as they are commonly known, include the smallest of all living moths, with a wingspan that can be as little as 3 mm. in the case of the European pigmy sorrel moth,[3] but more usually 3.5–10 mm. The wings of adult moths are narrow and lanceolate, sometimes with metallic markings, and with the venation very simplified compared to most other moths.

The minute larvae usually are leaf miners[4] but some species also mine seeds or bark of trees.[5] Much is known about their host plants.[6] The Pectinivalvinae, characterised by a "pectinifer" on the valve of the male genitalia, are endemic to Australia, where they mine the leaves of the tree families Myrtaceae (Scoble, 1983) or Cunoniaceae (Eucryphiaceae), and Elaeocarpaceae (Hoare, 2000). This Australian group probably constitutes the sister group of other pigmy moths (the subfamily Nepticulinae), which is distributed across the world except Antarctica (Davis, 1999). Many species undoubtedly await description and the study of some tropical faunas is just commencing (Puplesis et al., 2002).

Typical nepticulid moth leaf mines referable to the genera Stigmella and Ectoedemia are known from mid-Cretaceous fossils around 97 million years old (Labandeira et al., 1994; Grimaldi and Engel, 2005: 52).

References

  1. ^ "Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness - Lepidoptera" (PDF). mapress.com. Retrieved 3 April 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Nieukerken, E.J. van et al. 2016: Revised classification and catalogue of global Nepticulidae and Opostegidae (Lepidoptera, Nepticuloidea). ZooKeys, 628: 65-246. doi:10.3897/zookeys.628.9799
  3. ^ "Enteucha acetosae - UKMoths". ukmoths.org.uk. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  4. ^ "Nepticulidae". www.leafmines.co.uk. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  5. ^ "Nepticulidae Images @ Insect Images". www.insectimages.org. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  6. ^ "HOSTS - The Hostplants and Caterpillars Database at the Natural History Museum". internt.nhm.ac.uk. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
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Nepticulidae: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

Nepticulidae is a family of very small moths with a worldwide distribution. They are characterised by eyecaps over the eyes (see also Opostegidae, Bucculatricidae, Lyonetiidae). These pigmy moths or midget moths, as they are commonly known, include the smallest of all living moths, with a wingspan that can be as little as 3 mm. in the case of the European pigmy sorrel moth, but more usually 3.5–10 mm. The wings of adult moths are narrow and lanceolate, sometimes with metallic markings, and with the venation very simplified compared to most other moths.

The minute larvae usually are leaf miners but some species also mine seeds or bark of trees. Much is known about their host plants. The Pectinivalvinae, characterised by a "pectinifer" on the valve of the male genitalia, are endemic to Australia, where they mine the leaves of the tree families Myrtaceae (Scoble, 1983) or Cunoniaceae (Eucryphiaceae), and Elaeocarpaceae (Hoare, 2000). This Australian group probably constitutes the sister group of other pigmy moths (the subfamily Nepticulinae), which is distributed across the world except Antarctica (Davis, 1999). Many species undoubtedly await description and the study of some tropical faunas is just commencing (Puplesis et al., 2002).

Typical nepticulid moth leaf mines referable to the genera Stigmella and Ectoedemia are known from mid-Cretaceous fossils around 97 million years old (Labandeira et al., 1994; Grimaldi and Engel, 2005: 52).

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cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
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5f2d7e8476d47db42f581114de5c14fb