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Brief Summary

provided by Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico
The cuckoo or ruby-tailed wasps constitute one of the most attractive families of Hymenoptera because of their brilliantly metallic coloration. Almost all of our species are either purple, blue or green, but many Palaearctic species are marked also with golden or ruby in specific patterns. ~The behavior and life history also make this a very fascinating group. All species are parasitic, and, as one common name implies, many of them exhibit behavior in the host nests similar to that of cuckoos in the nests of their bird hosts. Members of the small subfamilies Cleptinae and Amiseginae parasitize, respectively, the resting larvae of sawflies in their cocoons and eggs of walking sticks. Almost all species belonging to the Elampinae, Chrysididinae and Parnopinae have as their hosts solitary wasps or bees which nest in the ground or in cavities in wood or which build mud cells; one exotic species of Chrysis L. is known to parasitize the resting larva of the oriental moth in its cocoon. The parasite egg is deposited in the host cell while it is being provisioned by the mother wasp or bee. In most species the newly hatched chrysidid larva devours the host egg or young larva and then feeds on the provisions stored for the host. However, in species of Chrysura Dahlb. the parasite larva attaches to the host larva, sucks only a small amount of body fluids, and does not devour the host larva until the latter attains full growth and spins its cocoon. Eggs of Parnopes Latr. and Chrysis pellucidula Aar. are deposited in the host nest while the host wasp is provisioning; these parasite larvae also devour the resting host larva in its cocoon. The female of Chrysis fuscipennis Br. chews a hole in the host mud cell, oviposits therein, and the parasite larva develops on the resting larva of the host. ~The arrangement of genera in the Chrysididinae and division into Species Groups in Chrysis Linnaeus are by R. M. Bohart who also contributed new synonymy and distribution in both the Chrysididinae and Elampinae.
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Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. 1979. Prepared cooperatively by specialists on the various groups of Hymenoptera under the direction of Karl V. Krombein and Paul D. Hurd, Jr., Smithsonian Institution, and David R. Smith and B. D. Burks, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Insect Identification and Beneficial Insect Introduction Institute. Science and Education Administration, United States Department of Agriculture.

Cuckoo wasp

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Commonly known as cuckoo wasps or emerald wasps, the hymenopteran family Chrysididae is a very large cosmopolitan group (over 3000 described species) of parasitoid or kleptoparasitic wasps, often highly sculptured,[1] with brilliant metallic colors created by structural coloration.[2] They are most diverse in desert regions of the world, as they are typically associated with solitary bee and wasp species, which are also most diverse in such areas. Their brood parasitic lifestyle has led to the evolution of fascinating adaptations, including chemical mimicry of host odours by some species.[3]

Nomenclature

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Chrysura refulgens

The term "cuckoo wasp" refers to the cuckoo-like way in which wasps in the family lay eggs in the nests of unrelated host species.[1]

Chrysididae, the scientific name of the family, refers to their shiny bodies and is derived from Greek chrysis, chrysid-, "gold vessel, gold-embroidered dress", plus the familial suffix -idae. The common names of many species pay similar tribute to their appearance: jewel wasp, gold wasp, emerald wasp, ruby wasp and so on (cf. French guêpe de feu, fire-wasp, and German Goldwespe, gold-wasp).[4]

Ecology and behavior

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Cuckoo Wasp on pine needle, North Carolina Piedmont

Members of the largest subfamily, Chrysidinae, are the most familiar; they are generally kleptoparasites, laying their eggs in host nests, where their larvae consume the host egg or larva while it is still young, then the food provided by the host for its own juvenile. Chrysidines are distinguished from the members of other subfamilies in that most have flattened or concave lower abdomens and can curl into a defensive ball when attacked by a potential host, in the manner of a pill bug.[1] Members of the other subfamilies are parasitoids, of either sawflies or walking sticks, cannot fold up into a ball.

Chrysidids are always solitary. They fly mainly in the hottest and driest months of summer, preferring subtropical and Mediterranean climates. They favor dry areas and sandy soils; each species is confined to a narrow type of microhabitat where adults may rest or find hosts to parasitize, for example on bare soil or on dead wood where other solitary wasps have their nest holes. Some species visit flowers such as of the Umbelliferae, Compositae and Euphorbiae.[4]

Evolution

The fossil record of the group is fragmentary, the oldest fossil known being from the lower Aptian Turga Formation of Russia.[5] Other Cretaceous specimens are known from the Albian-Cenomanian amber of France,[6] a Cenomanian limestone in Morocco.[7] The upper Santonian Taimyr amber of Russia[8] and the upper Campanian Canadian amber.[9]

References

  1. ^ a b c Agnoli, Gian Luca; Rosa, Paolo (20 September 2013). "Chrysidid generalities". Chrysis.net. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  2. ^ Agnoli, Gian Luca; Rosa, Paolo (20 September 2013). "Chrysidid coloration". Chrysis.net. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  3. ^ Pauli, Thomas; Castillo‐Cajas, Ruth (25 August 2018). "Phylogenetic analysis of cuckoo wasps (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae) reveals a partially artificial classification at the genus level and a species‐rich clade of bee parasitoids". Systematic Entomology. 44 (2): 322–335. doi:10.1111/syen.12323.
  4. ^ a b Agnoli, Gian Luca; Rosa, Paolo (17 March 2013). "Chrysidids: Family overview". Chrysis.net. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  5. ^ A. P. Rasnitsyn. 1990. Pozdne-Mezozoyskie Nasekomye Vostochnogo Zabaykal'ya. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta 239:177-205
  6. ^ Cockx, Pierre F.D.; McKellar, Ryan C.; Perrichot, Vincent (December 2016). "First records of the subfamilies Bethylinae (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and Cleptinae (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae) in Upper Cretaceous amber from France". Cretaceous Research. 68: 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2016.07.008.
  7. ^ Martill, David M.; Ibrahim, Nizar; Brito, Paulo M.; Baider, Lahssen; Zhouri, Samir; Loveridge, Robert; Naish, Darren; Hing, Richard (August 2011). "A new Plattenkalk Konservat Lagerstätte in the Upper Cretaceous of Gara Sbaa, south-eastern Morocco". Cretaceous Research. 32 (4): 433–446. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2011.01.005. ISSN 0195-6671.
  8. ^ H. E. Evans. 1973. Cretaceous aculeate wasps from Taimyr, Siberia (Hymenoptera). Psyche 80:166-178
  9. ^ H. E. Evans. 1969. Three new Cretaceous aculeate wasps (Hymenoptera). Psyche 76:251-261

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Cuckoo wasp: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Commonly known as cuckoo wasps or emerald wasps, the hymenopteran family Chrysididae is a very large cosmopolitan group (over 3000 described species) of parasitoid or kleptoparasitic wasps, often highly sculptured, with brilliant metallic colors created by structural coloration. They are most diverse in desert regions of the world, as they are typically associated with solitary bee and wasp species, which are also most diverse in such areas. Their brood parasitic lifestyle has led to the evolution of fascinating adaptations, including chemical mimicry of host odours by some species.

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Distribution

provided by Zookeys
Omalus occurs in all zoogeographic regions, except Australia. There are 26 valid Omalus species, of which 19 are found in the Palaearctic, one in both the Holarctic and the Oriental, three in the Nearctic, two in the Afrotropical, and one in the Neotropical Regions.
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Na-sen Wei, Paolo Rosa, Jing-xian Liu, Zai-fu Xu
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Wei N, Rosa P, Liu J, Xu Z (2014) The genus Omalus Panzer, 1801 (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae) from China, with descriptions of four new species ZooKeys 407: 29–54
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Na-sen Wei
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Paolo Rosa
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Jing-xian Liu
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Zai-fu Xu
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