dcsimg

Brief Summary

    Cuckoo wasp: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Commonly known as cuckoo wasps or emerald wasps, the hymenopteran family Chrysididae is a very large cosmopolitan group (over 3000 described species) of parasitoid or kleptoparasitic wasps, often highly sculptured, with brilliant metallic colors created by structural coloration. They are most diverse in desert regions of the world, as they are typically associated with solitary bee and wasp species, which are also most diverse in such areas.

    Brief Summary
    provided by Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico
    The cuckoo or ruby-tailed wasps constitute one of the most attractive families of Hymenoptera because of their brilliantly metallic coloration. Almost all of our species are either purple, blue or green, but many Palaearctic species are marked also with golden or ruby in specific patterns. ~The behavior and life history also make this a very fascinating group. All species are parasitic, and, as one common name implies, many of them exhibit behavior in the host nests similar to that of cuckoos in the nests of their bird hosts. Members of the small subfamilies Cleptinae and Amiseginae parasitize, respectively, the resting larvae of sawflies in their cocoons and eggs of walking sticks. Almost all species belonging to the Elampinae, Chrysididinae and Parnopinae have as their hosts solitary wasps or bees which nest in the ground or in cavities in wood or which build mud cells; one exotic species of Chrysis L. is known to parasitize the resting larva of the oriental moth in its cocoon. The parasite egg is deposited in the host cell while it is being provisioned by the mother wasp or bee. In most species the newly hatched chrysidid larva devours the host egg or young larva and then feeds on the provisions stored for the host. However, in species of Chrysura Dahlb. the parasite larva attaches to the host larva, sucks only a small amount of body fluids, and does not devour the host larva until the latter attains full growth and spins its cocoon. Eggs of Parnopes Latr. and Chrysis pellucidula Aar. are deposited in the host nest while the host wasp is provisioning; these parasite larvae also devour the resting host larva in its cocoon. The female of Chrysis fuscipennis Br. chews a hole in the host mud cell, oviposits therein, and the parasite larva develops on the resting larva of the host. ~The arrangement of genera in the Chrysididinae and division into Species Groups in Chrysis Linnaeus are by R. M. Bohart who also contributed new synonymy and distribution in both the Chrysididinae and Elampinae.

Comprehensive Description

    Cuckoo wasp
    provided by wikipedia

    Commonly known as cuckoo wasps or emerald wasps, the hymenopteran family Chrysididae is a very large cosmopolitan group (over 3000 described species) of parasitoid or kleptoparasitic wasps, often highly sculptured,[1] with brilliant metallic colors created by structural coloration.[2] They are most diverse in desert regions of the world, as they are typically associated with solitary bee and wasp species, which are also most diverse in such areas.

    Nomenclature

     src=
    Chrysura refulgens

    The term "cuckoo wasp" refers to the cuckoo-like way in which wasps in the family lay eggs in the nests of unrelated host species.[1]

    Chrysididae, the scientific name of the family, refers to their shiny bodies and is derived from Greek chrysis, chrysid-, "gold vessel, gold-embroidered dress", plus the familial suffix -idae. The common names of many species pay similar tribute to their appearance: jewel wasp, gold wasp, emerald wasp, ruby wasp and so on (cf. French guêpe de feu, fire-wasp, and German Goldwespe, gold-wasp).[3]

    Ecology and behavior

     src=
    Cuckoo Wasp on pine needle, North Carolina Piedmont

    Members of the largest subfamily, Chrysidinae, are the most familiar; they are generally kleptoparasites, laying their eggs in host nests, where their larvae consume the host egg or larva while it is still young, then the food provided by the host for its own juvenile. Chrysidines are distinguished from the members of other subfamilies in that most have flattened or concave lower abdomens and can curl into a defensive ball when attacked by a potential host, in the manner of a pill bug.[1] Members of the other subfamilies are parasitoids, of either sawflies or walking sticks, cannot fold up into a ball.

    Chrysidids are always solitary. They fly mainly in the hottest and driest months of summer, preferring subtropical and Mediterranean climates. They favor dry areas and sandy soils; each species is confined to a narrow type of microhabitat where adults may rest or find hosts to parasitize, for example on bare soil or on dead wood where other solitary wasps have their nest holes. Some species visit flowers such as of the Umbelliferae, Compositae and Euphorbiae.[3]

    References

    1. ^ a b c Agnoli, Gian Luca; Rosa, Paolo (20 September 2013). "Chrysidid generalities". Chrysis.net. Retrieved 9 March 2015..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ Agnoli, Gian Luca; Rosa, Paolo (20 September 2013). "Chrysidid coloration". Chrysis.net. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
    3. ^ a b Agnoli, Gian Luca; Rosa, Paolo (17 March 2013). "Chrysidids: Family overview". Chrysis.net. Retrieved 9 March 2015.