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Ficus benjamina is commonly cultivated as a houseplant. The name probably refers to the supposed relation of the plant to the source of a resin or benzoin procured from the Orient in antiquity.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Description

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Trees , evergreen, to 10 m. Roots adventitious, occasionally hanging. Bark gray, smooth. Branchlets brown, glabrous. Leaves: stipules 0.8-1.2 cm; petiole 0.5-2(-3) cm. Leaf blade oblong, elliptic, lanceolate, or ovate, 4-6(-11) × 1.5-6 cm, nearly leathery, base rounded or cuneate, margins entire, apex acuminate or cuspidate; surfaces abaxially and adaxially glabrous; basal veins 1(-2) pairs, short; lateral veins (6-)12(-14) pairs, regularly spaced, uniform; secondary veins prominent. Syconia solitary or paired, sessile or subsessile, orange, yellow, or dark red, nearly globose, 8-12 × 7-10 mm, glabrous; subtending bracts 2-3, crescent-shaped, 0.5-1.5 mm, glabrous; ostiole closed by 3 small, flat, apical bracts 1.5-2 mm wide, umbonate.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Description

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Trees, to 20 m tall, crown wide, d.b.h. 30-50 cm. Bark gray to gray-white, smooth. Main branches producing aerial roots which can develop into new trunks; branchlets gray-white, pendulous, glabrous. Stipules caducous, lanceolate, 0.6-1.5 cm, membranous, glabrous. Petiole 1-2 cm, adaxially sulcate; leaf blade ovate to broadly elliptic, 4-8(-14) × 2-4(-8) cm, ± lea-thery, glabrous, base rounded to cuneate, margin entire, apex shortly acuminate; secondary veins 8-10 on each side of midvein, parallel, anastomosing near margin, indistinct from tertiary veins. Figs axillary on leafy branchlets, paired or solitary, purple, red, or yellow [or red with white dots] when mature, globose to depressed globose or sometimes pear-shaped, 0.8-2 cm in diam., glabrous or pubescent, base attenuate into stalk, sessile; involucral bracts inconspicuous, triangular-ovate, glabrous, persistent. Male, gall, and female flowers within same fig. Male flowers: few, shortly pedicellate; calyx lobes (3 or)4, broadly ovate; stamen 1; filament rather long. Gall flowers: many; calyx lobes (3 or)4 or 5, narrowly spatulate; ovary ovoid, smooth; style ± lateral, short. Female flowers: sessile; calyx lobes 3, shortly spatulate; style ± lateral, short; stigma enlarged. Achenes ovoid-reniform, shorter than persistent style. Fl. Aug-Nov.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 0: 45 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Description

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A large evergreen shrub or tree, up to 8 m or more tall, with nearly 10 m wide spreading crown and drooping shoots, aerial roots absent or very Bark light-grey, smooth, young twigs slender, brownish, glabrous. Leaves with 10-25 mm long petiole; lamina ovate-elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, (3-) 5-12 cm long, 2-6 cm wide, narrow to wide cuneate at the base, cuspidate at the apex, lateral naves numerous, close and nearly parallel, intercostals present, cystoliths present on both sides; stipules paired, lanceolate, 8-10 (-12) mm long, acute, glabrous. Hypanthodia sessile, in axillary pairs globose-ovoid, glabrous green, c. 1.5 cm in diam., subtended by 2-3 crescentric, often unequal sized basal bracts, apical orifice depressed, closed by 3 minute bracts; internal bristles absent. Male flowers: dispersed, Pedicellate, sepals. free; stamen solitary, slightly exserted. Female flowers: numerous, sessile; sepals 3-4, ± spathulate; ovary ovoid with lateral style. Figs orange-red, 2-2.5 cm in diameter, glabrous.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 16 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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Distribution

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introduced; Fla.; West Indies (Lesser Antilles); native to Asia.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Distribution

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SW Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, S Taiwan, Yunnan [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sikkim, Thailand, Vietnam; N Australia, Pacific Islands].
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 0: 45 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Distribution

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Distribution: Nepal , N. India, Bangla Desh, Burma, S. China, Malaysia to the Solomon Islands and N. tropical Australia; introduced and cultivated in Pakistan, Ceylon, U.S.A. and elsewhere.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 16 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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eFloras.org
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Flower/Fruit

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Fl. & Fr. Per.: October-Junuary.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 0: 16 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
editor
S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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eFloras.org
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Flowering/Fruiting

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Flowering all year.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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Habitat

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Disturbed thickets and hammocks; 0-10m.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Habitat

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Moist mixed forests, near villages; 400-800 m.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 0: 45 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Synonym

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Urostigma benjamina (Linnaeus) Miquel
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Ficus benjamina

provided by wikipedia EN

Ficus benjamina, commonly known as weeping fig, benjamin fig[3] or ficus tree, and often sold in stores as just ficus, is a species of flowering plant in the family Moraceae, native to Asia and Australia.[4] It is the official tree of Bangkok. The species is also naturalized in the West Indies and in the states of Florida and Arizona in the United States.[5][6] In its native range, its small fruit are favored by some birds, such as the superb fruit dove, wompoo fruit dove, pink-spotted fruit dove, ornate fruit dove, orange-bellied fruit dove, Torresian imperial pigeon, and purple-tailed imperial pigeon.[7]

Description

Ficus benjamina is a tree reaching 30 m (98 ft) tall in natural conditions, with gracefully drooping branchlets and glossy leaves 6–13 cm (2–5 in), oval with an acuminate tip. The bark is light gray and smooth. The bark of young branches is brownish. The widely spread, highly branching tree top often covers a diameter of 10 meters. It is a relatively small-leaved fig. The changeable leaves are simple, entire and stalked. The petiole is 1 to 2.5 cm long. The young foliage is light green and slightly wavy, the older leaves are green and smooth; the leaf blade is ovate to ovate-lanceolate with wedge-shaped to broadly rounded base and ends with a short dropper tip. The pale glossy to dull leaf blade is 5 to 12 cm long and 2 to 6 cm wide. Near the leaf margins are yellow crystal cells ("cystolites"). The two membranous, deciduous stipules are not fused, lanceolate and 6 to 12 mm (rarely to 15 mm) long.[8]

F. benjamina is monoecious. The inflorescences are spherical to egg-shaped, shiny green, and have a diameter of 1.5 cm. In the inflorescences are three types of flowers: male and fertile and sterile female flowers. The scattered, inflorescences, stalked, male flowers have free sepals and a stamen. Many fertile female flowers are sessile and have three or four sepals and an egg-shaped ovary. The more or less lateral style ends in an enlarged scar.

The ripe figs (collective fruit) are orange-red and have a diameter of 2.0 to 2.5 cm.

Cultivation

In tropical latitudes, the weeping fig makes a very large and stately tree for parks and other urban situations, such as wide roads. It is often cultivated for this purpose.

F. benjamina is a very popular houseplant in temperate areas, due to its elegant growth and tolerance of poor growing conditions; it does best in bright, sunny conditions, but also tolerates considerable shade. It requires a moderate amount of watering in summer, and only enough to keep it from drying out in the winter. Longer days, rather high and moderate day temperatures at night are favourable conditions for great appreciable growth in a short time. It does not need to be misted. The plant is sensitive to cold and should be protected from strong drafts. When grown indoors, it can grow too large for its situation, and may need drastic pruning or replacing. F. benjamina has been shown to effectively remove gaseous formaldehyde from indoor air.[9]

The NASA Clean Air Study determined that this plant was effective at removing common household air toxins formaldehyde and xylene.

The fruit is edible, but the plant is not usually grown for its fruit. The leaves are very sensitive to small changes in light. When it is turned around or relocated, it reacts by dropping many of its leaves and replacing them with new leaves adapted to the new light intensity.

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Used as decorative plant in gardens in Hyderabad, India

Cultivars

Numerous cultivars are available (e.g. 'Danielle', 'Naomi', 'Exotica', and 'Golden King'). Some cultivars include different patterns of colouration on the leaves, ranging from light green to dark green, and various forms of white variegation.

In cultivation in the UK, this plant[10] and the variegated cultivar 'Starlight'[11] have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[12]

The miniature cultivars, especially 'Too Little', are among the most popular plants for indoor bonsai.

Destructive roots & hurricane propensity

The United States Forest Service states, "Roots grow rapidly, invading gardens, growing under and lifting sidewalks, patios, and driveways." They conclude that its use in tree form is much too large for residential planting; therefore, in these settings, this species should only be used as a hedge or clipped screen.[13]

These trees are also considered a high risk to succumb to storm gale winds in hurricane-prone south Florida.[14] As a consequence in many jurisdictions in South Florida no permit is required for removal of these trees.[15]

Allergic reactions

The plant is a major source of indoor allergens, ranking as the third-most common cause of indoor allergies after dust and pets.[16] Common allergy symptoms include rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma. Ficus plants can be of particular concern to latex allergy sufferers due to the latex in the plants, and should not be kept in the environment of latex allergy sufferers.[16] In extreme cases, Ficus sap exposure can cause anaphylactic shock in latex allergy sufferers. The consumption of parts of plants leads to nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Exceptions are the edible fruits.

Allergy to Ficus plants develops over time and from exposure. The allergy was first observed in occupational settings amongst workers who regularly handled the plants. A study of workers at four plant-leasing firms showed that 27% of the workers had developed antibodies in response to exposure to the plants.[17]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ a b "Ficus benjamina L.". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2015-07-19 – via The Plant List.
  2. ^ FigWeb: Subsection Conosycea (retrieved 11 August 2019)
  3. ^ "Ficus benjamina". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2009-02-17.
  4. ^ Flora of China, Ficus benjamina Linnaeus, 垂叶榕 chui ye
  5. ^ Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution map
  6. ^ Flora of North America, Ficus benjamina Linnaeus, Mant. Pl. 129. 1767. Weeping fig
  7. ^ Frith et al. 1976
  8. ^ Wolverton, BC (1996) How to Grow Fresh Air . New York: Penguin Books.
  9. ^ Kwang Jin Kim, Mi Jung Kil, Jeong Seob Song, Eun Ha Yoo, Ki-Cheol Son, Stanley J. Kays (July 2008). "Efficiency of Volatile Formaldehyde Removal by Indoor Plants: Contribution of Aerial Plant Parts versus the Root Zone". Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 133 (4): 521–526. doi:10.21273/JASHS.133.4.521. ISSN 0003-1062.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  10. ^ "Ficus benjamina". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved December 9, 2014.
  11. ^ "Ficus benjamina 'Starlight' (v) Benjamin fig". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved December 9, 2014.
  12. ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 39. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  13. ^ Gilman, Edward F.; Watson, Dennis G. (November 1993). "Ficus benjamina Weeping Fig" (PDF). Fact Sheet ST-251. United States Forest Service. Retrieved December 6, 2014.
  14. ^ https://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/fl-xpm-2005-08-29-0508280215-story.html
  15. ^ https://www.miamidade.gov/permits/tree-removal.asp
  16. ^ a b Schenkelberger V, Freitag M, Altmeyer P (1998). "Ficus benjamina--the hidden allergen in the house". Hautarzt. 49 (1): 2–5. doi:10.1007/s001050050692. PMID 9522185.
  17. ^ "Ficus spp. - Setting the Standard". phadia.com. Thermo Fisher Scientific. 2012.
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Ficus benjamina: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Ficus benjamina, commonly known as weeping fig, benjamin fig or ficus tree, and often sold in stores as just ficus, is a species of flowering plant in the family Moraceae, native to Asia and Australia. It is the official tree of Bangkok. The species is also naturalized in the West Indies and in the states of Florida and Arizona in the United States. In its native range, its small fruit are favored by some birds, such as the superb fruit dove, wompoo fruit dove, pink-spotted fruit dove, ornate fruit dove, orange-bellied fruit dove, Torresian imperial pigeon, and purple-tailed imperial pigeon.

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