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Celtis laevigata Willd.

Brief Summary

    Celtis laevigata: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Celtis laevigata is a medium-sized tree native to North America. Common names include sugarberry, Southern hackberry, or in the southern U.S. sugar hackberry or just hackberry.

    Sugarberry is easily confused with common hackberry (C. occidentalis) where the range overlaps. Sugarberry has narrower leaves which are smoother above. The species can also be distinguished by habitat: where the ranges overlap, common hackberry occurs primarily in upland areas, whereas sugarberry occurs mainly in bottomland areas.

    Sugarberry's range extends from the Eastern United States west to Texas and south to northeastern Mexico. It is also found on the island of Bermuda.

    Brief Summary
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Ulmaceae -- Elm family

    Harvey E. Kennedy, Jr.

    Sugarberry (Celtis laevigata), a common medium-size tree of moderate to fast growth, is most often found on clay soils of broad flats or shallow sloughs within the flood plains of major southern rivers. It is also called sugar hackberry, hackberry, Texas sugarberry, southern hackberry, and lowland hackberry. Sugarberry is short lived, probably not living more than 150 years. The wood is of medium strength and hardness and much of the light yellow wood is used by furniture manufacturers. The abundant crops of fruits are eaten by wildlife, especially birds. The tree is planted as an ornamental and as a street tree in residential areas in the lower South.

Comprehensive Description

    Celtis laevigata
    provided by wikipedia

    Celtis laevigata is a medium-sized tree native to North America. Common names include sugarberry, Southern hackberry, or in the southern U.S. sugar hackberry or just hackberry.

    Sugarberry is easily confused with common hackberry (C. occidentalis) where the range overlaps. Sugarberry has narrower leaves which are smoother above. The species can also be distinguished by habitat: where the ranges overlap, common hackberry occurs primarily in upland areas, whereas sugarberry occurs mainly in bottomland areas.

    Sugarberry's range extends from the Eastern United States west to Texas and south to northeastern Mexico.[1] It is also found on the island of Bermuda.[2]

    Ecology

    Sugarberry occurs primarily along streams and in moist soils on floodplains. Its fruit are eaten by birds, helping to disperse the seeds. The leaves are eaten by a number of insects, for example caterpillars of the Io moth (Automeris io).

    Sugarberry's leaf litter contains allelopathic chemicals that inhibit seed germination and growth in many other plant species.[3]

    Cultivation and uses

    Sugarberry mixed with hackberry supplies the lumber known as hackberry. Small amounts are used for dimension stock, veneer, and containers, but the main use of sugarberry wood is for furniture. The light-colored wood can be given a light- to medium-brown finish that in other woods must be achieved by bleaching.[4] The wood is also used to produce sporting goods and plywood.[5]

    Sugarberry is frequently planted as a shade-tree within its range. It is well-adapted to urban areas; its elm-like shape and warty bark make it an attractive landscape tree.

    References

    1. ^ a b "Celtis laevigata". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2010-04-24..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ "Southern Hackberry (Celtis laevigata)". Bermuda's Species. Department of Conservation Services, Government of Bermuda. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
    3. ^ M.A.K. Lodhi, E.L. Rice. 1971. Allelopathic effects of Celtis laevigata. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. Vol. 98, No. 2, pg. 83-89.
    4. ^ Kennedy Jr., Harvey E. (1990). "Celtis laevigata". In Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H. Hardwoods. Silvics of North America. Washington, D.C.: United States Forest Service (USFS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2 – via Southern Research Station (www.srs.fs.fed.us).
    5. ^ Florida Forest Trees: Sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) Archived June 26, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Kans., Ky., La., Md., Miss., Mo., N.C., Okla., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va.; n Mexico.
    Distribution
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Sugarberry ranges south from southeastern Virginia to southern Florida, west to central Texas and northeastern Mexico, and north to western Oklahoma, southern Kansas, Missouri, southern Illinois, southern Indiana, and western Kentucky. It is local in Maryland, the Rio Grande Valley, and northeastern Mexico. Its range overlaps the southern part of the range of hackberry (C. occidentalis).


    -The native range of sugarberry.


Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    The Houma used preparations from the bark of Celtis laevigata to treat sore throats and venereal disease (D. E. Moerman 1986).
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Trees , to 30 m; trunks to 1 m diam., crowns broad, spreading. Bark light gray, smooth or covered with corky warts. Branches without thorns, often pendulous, young branches pubescent at first, then glabrous. Leaves: petiole 6-10 mm. Leaf blade typically elliptic-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, (4-)6-8(-15) × (2-)3-4 cm, thin and membranaceous to leathery, base broadly cuneate to rounded, margins entire or rarely with a few long teeth, apex sharply acute to acuminate; surfaces glabrous or nearly so, margins ciliate. Inflorescences: flowers solitary or few-flowered clusters at base of leaves. Drupes orange to brown or red when ripe, nearly orbicular, 5-8 mm diam., beakless; pedicel 6-15 mm. Stones 4.5-7 × 5-6 mm. 2 n = 20, 30, and 40.

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Celtis laevigata var. anomala Sargent; C. laevigata var. brachyphylla Sargent; C. laevigata var. smallii (Beadle) Sargent; C. laevigata var. texana Sargent; C. mississippiensis Bosc; C. smallii Beadle

Habitat

    Climate
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Sugarberry grows in a humid climate except for part of its range in Oklahoma and Texas which lies west of a north-south line through Galveston Bay. There the climate is semihumid to semiarid. The average precipitation varies from 510 to 1520 mm (20 to 60 in) per year, the lightest being in central Texas and Oklahoma. An average of 380 to 760 mm (15 to 30 in) occurs during the frost-free period. Annual snowfall ranges from 0 to 51 cm (0 to 20 in).

    Summer temperatures vary from an average of 27° C (80° F) to extremes of 46° C (115° F). Average winter temperatures are from -1° to 10° C (30° to 50° F), with an extreme of -29° C (-20° F).

    The average length of the growing season varies from 150 to 270 days.

    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    In rich bottomlands along streams, in flood plains, and on rocky slopes; 0-300m.
    Key Plant Community Associations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: codominant, cover, cover type, forest, hardwood, swamp

    In many areas, sugarberry occurs as scattered individuals. After
    disturbances, a seral sugarberry-American elm (Ulmus americana)-green
    ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) forest cover type may develop, with
    sugarberry as a codominant. This type intermixes with sweetgum
    (Liquidambar styraciflua)-willow oak (Quercus phellos) types, which
    contain essentially the same species in different densities. The
    sugarberry-American elm-green ash type occurs most often on the central
    coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico, heavily concentrated on the
    Mississippi alluvial plain, and along major river basins [21,36].

    Publications in which sugarberry is listed as a dominant or codominant
    include:

    Woody vegetation of an old-growth creekbottom forest in north-central
    Texas. [41]
    Quadrat study of a bottomland forest in St. Martin Parish, Louisiana. [50]
    Woody species composition of the upper San Antonio River gallery
    forest. [6]
    Productivity and composition of a bald cypress-water tupelo site and a
    bottomland hardwood site in a Louisiana swamp. [10]
    Vegetative analysis of the floodplain of the Trinity River, Texas. [42]
    Plant communities of the Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, Texas. [62]
    The distribution of woody species in the Guadalupe River floodplain
    forest in the Edwards Plateau of Texas. [20]
    Soils and Topography
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Sugarberry is most common on Inceptisols and Entisols found in broad flats or shallow sloughs within flood plains of major southern rivers (9), but will grow under a considerable range of soil and moisture conditions. It is widely distributed on bottom lands except in deep swamps and is found to a minor extent on upland sites. It is also common on deep moist soils derived from limestones, notably in the Black Belt of Alabama (10).

Associations

    Associated Forest Cover
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Sugarberry appears with the following forest cover types (11): Cottonwood (Society of American Foresters Type 63), Sweetgurn-Willow Oak (Type 92), Sugarberry-American Elm-Green Ash (Type 93), Sycamore-Sweetgurn-American Elm (Type 94), Black Willow (Type 95), and Overcup Oak-Water Hickory (Type 96).

    Other tree associates are cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), winged elm (U. alata), water oak Quercus nigra), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), persimmon (Diospyros virginiana), honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos), red maple (Acer rubrum), and boxelder (A. negundo). Some important noncommercial tree and shrub associates are swamp-privet (Forestiera acuminata), roughleaf dogwood (Cornus drummondii), and hawthorn (Crataegus spp.).

Diseases and Parasites

    Damaging Agents
    provided by Silvics of North America
    The bark is thin and easily injured by fire. A light burn kills back reproduction. Heavier bums may kill even the largest trees and wound others, making them subject to serious butt rot, which in sugarberry advances rapidly. Butt rot is a common name used to indicate the area of the decay in the butt log which may be caused by any one of 30 or more species of fungi belonging to the genera Fomes, Polyporus, Hericium, and Plyeurotus.

    Ice also causes heavy damage to the crowns, breaking the main stem and branches which reduces growth and creates wounds that allow entrance of rot-causing fungi. There are some other diseases of the twigs and leaves, but none are of major importance.

    Eastern mistletoe (Phoraedendron flavescens) may cause serious damage in the western part of its range (7). A number of scales attack the twigs, small branches, and sometimes the trunks, but none are considered very damaging. Leaf petiole galls caused by the hackberry petiole gall maker (Pachypsylla venusta) are common. In recent years, defoliation of large acreages in several Southern States by larvae of the hackberry butterfly (Asterocampa celtis) have been reported (12). No deaths or crown die-back among the trees was observed in the following years. Research has shown that the hackberry butterfly can be controlled by spraying trees with certain registered insecticides (8).

General Ecology

    Fire Management Considerations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: basal area, succession

    Sugarberry occurs as scattered individuals in Florida pine flatwoods
    that are usually maintained by fire. When fire is eliminated,
    succession usually proceeds to either southern mixed hardwoods or
    bayhead communities, with a concomitant increase in basal area of
    sugarberry [38].
    Life Form
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: tree

    Tree
    Post-fire Regeneration
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: ground residual colonizer, secondary colonizer

    Tree with adventitious-bud root crown/root sucker
    Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
    Secondary colonizer - off-site seed
    Reaction to Competition
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Sugarberry is classed as tolerant of shade. It grows fast when released and often outgrows more desirable forest species (5). Sugarberry becomes established in the understory and generally has very poor form in this situation. In dense, even-aged stands, however, it prunes itself well and produces a straight stem.

    Rooting Habit
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Sugarberry is a relatively shallow-rooted tree and does not develop a distinct taproot. The root system is saucer-shaped with good lateral root development. The tree is about average in resistance to windthrow.

Cyclicity

    Flowering/Fruiting
    provided by eFloras
    Flowering late spring-early fall (May-Oct).
    Phenology
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    More info for the terms: fruit, tree

    Sugarberry flowers when the leaves first appear in spring, from March to
    May, depending on latitude. Fruit appears in July and August, ripening
    into October. The fruit is retained on the tree until midwinter [2].
    Most or all leaves are lost by mid-December in the Rio Grande Valley,
    Texas [63].

Reproduction

    Flowering and Fruiting
    provided by Silvics of North America
    The small, greenish flowers appear with the leaves in the early spring-from mid-March to May, depending on latitude (1). Sugarberry is polygamo-monoecious. The fruit ripens in September and October, and often remains on the trees until midwinter. Sugarberry fruits are spherical drupes 6 to 13 mm (0.25 to 0.5 in) in diameter with a thin pulp enclosing a single bony nutlet. Late spring frosts sometimes kill the flowers and reduce the seed crop.

    Seed Production and Dissemination
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Seed production starts when trees are about 15 years old (7). Optimum seed-bearing age is from 30 to 70 years old. Sugarberry bears good seed crops in most years and some nearly every year. There are between 4,400 and 5,300 cleaned seeds per kilogram (2,000 to 2,400/lb). The seed is widely dispersed by birds and water.

    Mature fruits can be picked by hand from trees as late as midwinter. Collection is easier after trees have completely dropped their leaves. Branches of sugarberry can be flailed to knock the fruits onto sheets of plastic or other suitable material spread under the trees.

    If seeds are to be used for seedling production in a nursery, then both fall sowing of untreated seeds and spring sowing of stratified seeds are satisfactory. Seeds may be broadcast or drilled in rows and should be covered with 6 to 13 mm (0.25 to 0.5 in) of firmed soil. Beds should be covered with bird screens until germination starts. Experience at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory, Stoneville, MS, has shown that if spring sowing is used, the seeds should be depulped before storage, dried to 8 to 10 percent moisture content, and stored in 6-mil-thick plastic bags or equivalent storage containers until stratification. Seeds should be stratified in moist sand or other suitable media for 60 to 90 days before sowing in the nursery. The seeds can be depulped by wet maceration. Depulping is not essential, but it has been reported to aid germination (1). Average germinative capacity is reported to be 55 percent for sugarberry.

    Seedling Development
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Sugarberry seeds lie dormant over winter and germinate early in the spring. Germination is epigeal (1). The seedlings become established under most stands of southern bottom land hardwoods. Best natural conditions for germination are moist, loamy soil, but the species is found mostly on clay soils. First-year growth usually produces a very slender but tough stem, 20 to 46 cm (8 to 18 in) in height. Under shade, the young seedling develops a crooked, short stem, often forked within a few feet of the ground. In the open, it tends to be very limby and short boled. Sugarberry is considered intolerant of flooding, at least in the seedling stage (2,3,4).

    Vegetative Reproduction
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Sugarberry can be propagated by cuttings (7). Small stumps sprout readily, and there is some sprouting from root collars of fire-damaged seedlings and saplings.

Growth

    Growth and Yield
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Sugarberry is a small- to medium-sized tree. It often attains a height of 24 to 30 in (80 to 100 ft) at maturity. On best sites, 10-year diameter growth can be in excess of 6 cm (2.5 in) for dominant trees (9). The overall average is about 2.5 to 5 cm (1 to 2 in) in 10 years. On average sites, mature forest-grown trees average about 46 cm (18 in) in diameter and 24 in (80 ft) in height, with trunks clear of branches for approximately 9 m (30 ft).

    An accurate estimate of the total growing stock is available for only a limited portion of the sugarberry range. Because of its scattered occurrence, forest surveys usually include sugarberry in a group of other species with limited frequencies. The only region containing enough sugarberry of sawtimber size to list separately is the Mississippi Delta (10). The principal States producing commercial quantities of sugarberry are Louisiana, Mississippi, and Arkansas. These States contain about 16 million m³ (560 million ft³) and about 9.4 million m³ (1,650 million fbm) of sugarberry sawtimber. In 1965, a rough estimate of the total sawtimber resource in the United States was in excess of 10.0 million m' (2,000 million fbm).

Genetics

    Genetics
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Sugarberry seems to present a considerable number of local variations that have prompted some botanists to name a number of varieties, while other botanists feel the distinctions are too slight to warrant such status (13).

    Some varieties listed are Texas sugar hackberry, C. laevigata var. texana; Uvalde sugar hackberry, C. laevigata var. brachyphylla; scrub sugar hackberry, C. laevigata var. anomala; small sugar hackberry, C. laevigata var. smallii; Arizona sugar hackberry, C. laevigata var. brevipes; net-leaf sugar hackberry, C. laevigata var. reticulata.

    There are no known races or hybrids of sugarberry.

Management

    Management considerations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: basal area, presence, tree

    In dense even-aged stands, sugarberry will self-prune and produce a
    straight stem [5].

    In cottonwood (Populus spp.) stands on alluvium, sugarberry (usually
    with poor growth forms) will take over openings created when cottonwoods
    are cut, and control sites that managers would prefer to be in more
    valuable species [30]. On a site that was logged then seeded with Nuttall
    oak (Quercus nuttallii), sugarberry (probably carried in by animals)
    naturally established in sufficient numbers to make up one of four species
    accounting for 83 percent of stems [33,39].

    Sugarberry is susceptible to damage by ice, which breaks main stems and
    branches [5].

    Defoliation of sugarberry by hackberry butterfly (Asterocampa celtis)
    has been reported, though no tree death or crown die-back was observed.
    Hackberry butterfly can be controlled by spraying trees with
    insecticides [5].

    Sugarberry is used as an ornamental, even though leaf leachate can
    reduce growth of grasses under the trees due to the presence of ferulic,
    caffeic, and p-coumaric acids [5].

    Good stands of sugarberry are able to establish naturally after logging
    [22]. In a study of logging practices in Mississippi, sugarberry
    reached the highest densities in regeneration after all sawtimber-sized
    stems were removed and either all stems greater than 2 inches in d.b.h.
    (5 cm) were injected with 2,4-D or stems of desirable species left
    untreated with 2,4-D. Sugarberry was considered a desirable species in
    this study [29]. Seven years after clearcutting on a site where
    sugarberry was a canopy dominant, sugarberry accounted for 32 percent of
    total regeneration stems [23]. After patch clearcutting, sugarberry
    dominated both sapling and seedling regeneration on a site where, prior
    to harvest, it had been second in basal area (after sweetgum) [25].

    Sugarberry has no major diseases of the twigs and leaves, but eastern
    mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens) may cause serious damage in the
    western part of sugarberry's range [5].

Benefits

    Special Uses
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Sugarberry mixed with hackberry supplies the lumber known as hackberry. Small amounts are used for dimension stock, veneer, and containers, but the main use of sugarberry wood is for furniture. The light-colored wood can be given a light- to medium-brown finish that in other woods must be achieved by bleaching.

    The dry sweet fruit is eaten by at least 10 species of birds, as well as other game and nongame animals (13).

    Sugarberry is often used for street planting in the lower South and is also used as an ornamental in residential areas. A problem in such use is that leachates from the leaves reduce germination and growth of a number of grasses under the trees (6). These leachates have been identified in the soil as ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid.

Taxonomy

    Common Names
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: tree

    sugarberry
    hackberry
    lowland hackberry
    sugar hackberry
    Arizona sugarberry
    netleaf hackberry
    Small's hackberry
    southern hackberry
    Texas sugarberry

    TAXONOMY:
    The accepted scientific name for sugarberry is Celtis laevigata Willd. (Ulmaceae) [17,59].

    Recognized varieties are as follows [59]:

    Celtis laevigata var. brevipes Sarg., Arizona sugarberry
    Celtis laevigata var. laevigata, sugarberry
    Celtis laevigata var. reticulata (Torr.) L.D. Benson, netleaf hackberry
    Celtis laevigata var. smallii (Beadle) Sarg., Small's hackberry
    Celtis laevigata var. texana (Scheele) Sarg., Texas sugarberry

    See the FEIS review of netleaf hackberry for detailed information on that variety.

    LIFE FORM:
    Tree

    FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
    No special status

    OTHER STATUS:
    NO-ENTRY





    DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
    SPECIES: Celtis laevigata
    GENERAL DISTRIBUTION:
    Sugarberry is native to the southeastern part of the United States,
    ranging south from southeastern Virginia to southern Florida; west to
    central Texas and including northeastern Mexico; north to western
    Oklahoma and southern Kansas; and east to Missouri, extreme southern
    Illinois, and Indiana. It occurs locally in Maryland [5,17,36].
    Taxonomy
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    The accepted scientific name for sugarberry is Celtis laevigata Willd. (Ulmaceae) [17,59].

    Recognized varieties are as follows [59]:

    Celtis laevigata var. brevipes Sarg., Arizona sugarberry
    Celtis laevigata var. laevigata, sugarberry
    Celtis laevigata var. reticulata (Torr.) L.D. Benson, netleaf hackberry
    Celtis laevigata var. smallii (Beadle) Sarg., Small's hackberry
    Celtis laevigata var. texana (Scheele) Sarg., Texas sugarberry

    See the FEIS review of netleaf hackberry for detailed information on that variety.