They are heteroecious rusts with two alternating hosts, typically a pine and a flowering plant, and up to five spore stages. Many of the species are plant diseases of major economic importance, causing significant damage and (in some cases) heavy mortality in conifers.
- Hiratsuka, Y. et al. (1991). Rusts of pine. Proceedings of the IUFRO Rusts of Pine Working Party Conference. Forestry Canada Information Report NOR-X-317.