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Arthoniaceae

provided by wikipedia EN

The Arthoniaceae are a family of lichenized, lichenicolous and saprobic fungi in the order Arthoniales.[1] The Arthoniaceae is the largest family of Arthoniales, with around 800 species.[2] Most genera in Arthoniaceae belong in Arthonia which is the largest genus with 500 species.[3] The second and third largest genus is Arthothelium with 80 species, and Cryptothecia with 60 species.[4]

Arthonia is the type genus of Arthoniaceae, and it is known to be a polyphyletic and paraphyletic genus.[5] The process of splitting Arthonia into monophyletic groups is an ongoing process. In order to make Arthonia monophyletic, several genera have been described or resurrected.[6]

Distribution

The species in Arthoniaceae have a worldwide distribution, but are especially prevalent in tropical areas with a Mediterranean climate.[1] They are known from arctic to tropical latitudes, as well as variating altitudes from sea level to alpine regions, distributed in both humid forests and dry habitats.[6]

Ecology

Collectively, the family have a highly variable ecology with lichenized, lichenicolous and saprobic fungi.[1] The majority of species is lichenized with a photobiont from Trentepohliaceae and a few species in Arthonia is lichenized with a photobiont from Chlorococcaleae. They grow on leaves, bark, bryophytes and living leaves and rocks.[7] Other species are lichenicolous—growing on other lichens and a few species are known to be saprobic.[4]

History

The family was first described by Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig Reichenbach in 1841.[1]

Genera

Amazonomyces, Arthonia, Arthothelium, Bryostigma, Coniangium, Coniarthonia, Coniocarpon, Crypthonia, Cryptophaea, Cryptothecia, Eremothecella, Felipes, Glomerulophoron,

Herpothallon, Inoderma, Leprantha, Melarthonis, Myriostigma, Pachnolepia, Paradoxomyces, Reichlingia, Sporodophoron, Stirtonia, Tylophoron [6][8]

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Herbarium specimen of Arthonia radiata (magnified 40x) showing roughly star-shaped clusters of ascomata. Found growing on the bark of red oak.

References

  1. ^ a b c d Encyclopedia of Life, consulted at september the seventeenth 2013
  2. ^ Sundin, Rikard; Thor, Göran; Frisch, Andreas (2012-01-01). "A literature review of Arthonia s. lat". Biblioth. Lichenol. 108: 257–290..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  3. ^ Grube, M. "A taxonomic survey of arthonioid fungi with reddish K+ reactive pigments". Doctoral dissertation, Karl-Franzens-Universität, Graz.
  4. ^ a b "The Lichens of Great Britain and Ireland". www.nhbs.com. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
  5. ^ Sundin, Rikard; Tehler, Anders (July 1998). "Phylogenetic Studies of the Genus Arthonia". The Lichenologist. 30 (4–5): 381–413. doi:10.1006/lich.1998.0155. ISSN 1096-1135.
  6. ^ a b c Frisch, Andreas; Thor, Göran; Ertz, Damien; Grube, Martin (2014-08-28). "The Arthonialean challenge: Restructuring Arthoniaceae". Taxon. 63 (4): 727–744. doi:10.12705/634.20.
  7. ^ Cannon PF, Kirk PM (2007). Fungal Families of the World. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-0-85199-827-5.
  8. ^ Wijayawardene, Nalin N.; Hyde, Kevin D.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Liu, Jian Kui; Maharachchikumbura, Sajeewa S. N.; Ekanayaka, Anusha H.; Tian, Qing; Phookamsak, Rungtiwa (2018-01-01). "Outline of Ascomycota: 2017". Fungal Diversity. 88 (1): 167–263. doi:10.1007/s13225-018-0394-8. ISSN 1560-2745.

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Arthoniaceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Arthoniaceae are a family of lichenized, lichenicolous and saprobic fungi in the order Arthoniales. The Arthoniaceae is the largest family of Arthoniales, with around 800 species. Most genera in Arthoniaceae belong in Arthonia which is the largest genus with 500 species. The second and third largest genus is Arthothelium with 80 species, and Cryptothecia with 60 species.

Arthonia is the type genus of Arthoniaceae, and it is known to be a polyphyletic and paraphyletic genus. The process of splitting Arthonia into monophyletic groups is an ongoing process. In order to make Arthonia monophyletic, several genera have been described or resurrected.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN