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Reproduction

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Like parrotfishes, many wrasses utilize some of the most complex and unusual reproduction systems known to fishes. Males can be either primary (born male), or secondary (females that have undergone sex change). In some species there are no secondary males while in others all individuals are born female (monandric) and change sex when necessary. In the most complex systems, species are diandric – both primary and secondary males exist in the population. In these species, individuals proceed through three distinct phases, marked by color differences. In fact, the color differences are so pronounced that for over 200 years researchers regarded some phases as distinct species. Sexually immature juveniles represent the first phase. The second, known as the initial, phase (IP) can include sexually mature males or females, which are impossible to tell apart without internal examination or observation during spawning. IP males and females may group spawn in some species. The terminal phase (TP) includes only mature males, which display brilliant colors. TP males usually dominate reproductive activity through a harem-based social system. The death of a TP male serves as a social cue for an IP female to change sex and behavior. The morphology of IP males may also change in response to the death of a TP male. In some cases, IP males attempt to fertilize IP females by following a TP male and IP female pair during spawning. In this behavior, called “streaking,” IP males follow the pairs at peak spawning and release a large cloud of gametes in an attempt to overwhelm fertilization by the TP male. This is thought to increase the fecundity (ability to produce offspring) of IP males. IP males are well equipped to perform streaking as they have larger gonads and so are able to produce more gametes, while TP males have smaller testes and rely on aggression to deter other males. The larger volume of milt (gametes) produced by IP males is related to group spawning events with IP females, in which competition for fertilization is intense and more milt is needed.

Some specific examples of wrasse mating systems demonstrate the complexity and variation of the phase system described above. For instance, the cleaner wrasse, which is monandric (all individuals are born female), forms harems that are held together by male aggression towards subordinate females. With the death of the dominant male, subordinate females jockey for position and the newly dominant female adopts aggressive male behavior within a few hours. Each individual moves a step up in the dominance hierarchy and the last position is filled by a juvenile. If the newly dominant female is able to withstand attempts by neighboring males to take over the vacant harem, she will become a fully functional male within a two to four days. Some other harem-forming species are Cirrhilabrus temminckii, Cirrhilabrus jordani, Labroides bicolor, Hemipteronotus splendens, Pseudocheilinus hexataenia and Macropharyngodon moyeri. The Caribbean species Halichoeres garnoti is also monandric, but individuals do not exhibit territoriality or conspicuous dominance relationships, nor do they use aggressive actions to maintain sexual state. Instead, size or some size-related factor determines which individual will fill the male role. In Halichoeres garnoti males are larger than females and both sexes behave similarly. While these examples focus on the mating extremes of wrasses, most species fall between the systems of the cleaner wrasse and Halichoeres garnoti in terms of the influence of social control on sex reversal. Other hermaphroditic but non-harem-forming species include Halichoeres bivittatus and Halichoeres poeyi, Halichoeres maculipinna and possibly Thalassoma lunare. Finally, some species, such as Oxyjulis californica and Crenilabrus melops, do not follow the phase system at all as they are not hermaphroditic, and there are probably more non-hermaphroditic species yet to be found.

Mating System: polygynous ; polygynandrous (promiscuous)

In tropical wrasses spawning occurs year-round but some temperate species seem to restrict spawning to warmer parts of the year. Spawning typically occurs along the outer edge of patch reefs or along the outer edges of more extensive reef complexes. The correlation between spawning and lunar periodicity (the lunar cycle) is sketchy in some species and non-existent in most that have been investigated. Spawning in several species corresponds with outgoing tides, however, many species spawn at a particular time in the day, regardless of tidal patterns. This variation may be due to local conditions. For instance, in areas where tidal forces are weak, factors like time of day or light intensity may have more influence. However, evidence from different species on the same reef suggests that temporal (measured time) differences in spawning evolved to decrease the probability of hybridization with other species.

Wrasses may spawn in groups or pairs depending on the species or phase of individuals. Typically, group or aggregate spawning occurs between initial phase (IP) individuals, which are diandric (containing male and female IP individuals). However, in some species, such as Thalassoma cupido, Thalassoma lucasanum, and Halichoeres bivitattus, terminal phase (TP) males have been observed participating in group spawning. The size of the spawning groups ranges from a dozen to several hundred individuals. Males outnumber females, sometimes by as much as ten to one. Paired spawning is found in many, if not all, tropical wrasses and involves a TP male and IP female. In rare cases, IP individuals also spawn in pairs. Most species defend small territories only during spawning. Currently Anampses cuvieri is the only known species of tropical wrasse to produce demersal eggs (eggs laid on the bottom as opposed to being released in the water column). Demersal spawning of Anampses cuvieri was only observed in captivity and still needs to be confirmed, but work on other species of this genus seems to support this observation.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sequential hermaphrodite (Protogynous ); sexual ; fertilization (External ); oviparous

Some temperate wrasse species, such as the ballan wrasse and Anampses cuvieri, are demersal nest builders. The nests are usually made out of plant material and the male guards the eggs after they are deposited.

Parental Investment: male parental care

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Untitled

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The fossil history of Labridae dates back to the lower Tertiary and Paleocene epochs.

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Behavior

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Most wrasses rely on vision to find their prey. Visual recognition may also be important for terminal phase (TP) males to identify harem members. Although TP males are susceptible to streaking attempts by initial phase (IP) males (see Reproduction: Mating Systems), no IP males have been found in harem-forming species. This suggests that IP males are unable to mimic IP females, despite very similar morphology.

Communication Channels: visual

Other Communication Modes: mimicry

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; chemical

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Conservation Status

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Four labrid species are listed as vulnerable: Cheilinus undulates, Lachnolaimus maximus, Thalassoma ascensionis, and Xyrichtys virens.

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Life Cycle

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Wrasses occupy a wide range of water temperatures and incubation time is directly affected by water temperature. In laboratory experiments incubation took approximately 24 hours at 27˚C. The planktonic stage is estimated to be around one month, although very little is known about this stage. The age or size at which individuals reach sexual maturity depends on the maximum size of the species.

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Comprehensive Description

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Wrasses (the family Labridae), are the most abundant and conspicuous fishes on tropical reefs around the world. Wrasses also comprise an important element of the coldwater fish population on temperate reefs. They are second largest family of marine fishes and the third largest family in the Perciformes order, containing approximately 60 genera and roughly 500 species. Wrasses appear in a diverse range of colors, shapes, and sizes, often varying considerably within individual species (see Physical Description). This morphological diversity is matched by the wide variety of prey consumed. Wrasses fill the roles of piscivores, zooplanktivores, molluscivores, herbivores, planktivores, polychaete predators, decapod crab predators, and coral predators, as well as many others (see Food Habits). Many wrasses are organized into harem-based social systems and hermaphroditism is common (see Reproduction: Mating Systems). Finally, as suggested by their diverse food habits, wrasses fill many important ecological roles on reefs of tropical and temperate regions around the world.

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Benefits

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No specific information was found concerning any negative impacts to humans.

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Benefits

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Wrasses from the Coris genera are popular aquarium fishes and two species from the Atlantic coast of North America, the cunner and the tautog, are valued as commercial and sport fish. Some other medium to large wrasses are popular food fishes as well.

Positive Impacts: pet trade ; food ; research and education

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Associations

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The ecological role of cleaner wrasses of the Indo-Pacific region provides a good example of the complexity of seemingly mutualistic relationships between fishes. Typically, cleaner fishes are elaborately colored and perform displays over a patch of reef while larger fish approach and assume a relaxed posture. Cleaner fishes are commonly thought to benefit the host by removing dead or damaged tissue and ectoparasites. Accordingly, investigators reported higher recovery rates for wounded fish in the presence of cleaners. However, in experiments where all cleaners were removed from an environment there was no incidence of fishes leaving the area or becoming particularly unhealthy. Further, when levels of parasitic infections are high the host benefits from cleaning but when infection levels are low, which they usually are, some cleaners feed on healthy tissue, such as scales, pieces of fin, mucous, or in some cases the eggs of other reef fishes. Despite these parasitic qualities of the relationship, fishes being cleaned have a positive response to the tactile stimulation from cleaners, suggesting that some cleaners are mildly beneficial while others have taken advantage of the cleaning arrangement.

The relationship between wrasse species and their invertebrate prey is a spectacular example of coevolution. As invertebrates have developed anti-predator adaptations, such as spines, toxins, heavy armor, and adherence to the substrate, wrasses have evolved simultaneously. Some physical changes include the development of strong, hard beaks and a second set of strong teeth in the throat ( pharyngeal jaw), making it possible to crush hard-shelled invertebrates. A conspicuous behavioral adaptation is “following behavior.” As larger fish disturb the substrate, some wrasses follow close behind to capture exposed invertebrates. Other small wrasses have become adept at combing the reef for invertebrates too small for most fishes to prey upon. Finally, some wrasses use their snouts to flip rocks and pieces of coral to expose hidden invertebrates.

Ecosystem Impact: parasite

Species Used as Host:

  • some fishes

Mutualist Species:

  • many fish species
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Trophic Strategy

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Many wrasses are specialized and voracious feeders, as reflected by the highly variable skull and body shape, modified pharyngeal jaw, and prominent canines. The type of nourishment ranges widely: fish, ectoparasites, mollusks, polychaete worms, decapod crabs, corals, coral mucous, amphipods, various echinoderms, plankton, and several types of vegetation. Many small wrasses follow larger fishes and exploit any benthic (reef bottom) disturbances that help to reveal the well-camouflaged invertebrates. A considerable number are plankton feeders, forming schools in reef gaps, reef fronts or other areas with current. The food habits of cleaner wrasses are probably most well known. Cleaner wrasses remove mucous, parasites and scales from the bodies of larger fishes. Cleaning is not limited to the Labroides genus however; young bluehead and young Spanish hogfish in the Bahamas have also been observed cleaning larger fishes. Finally, some piscivorous (fish-eating) wrasses mimic harmless fishes (Randall and Kuiter, 1989 in Nelson, 1994).

Primary Diet: carnivore (Piscivore , Eats eggs, Eats body fluids, Eats non-insect arthropods, Molluscivore ); herbivore ; omnivore

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Distribution

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Wrasses occupy all tropical seas and penetrate considerable distances into temperate waters, reaching as far north as Norway. Many temperate species in the genera Oxyjulius, Tautoga, Tautogolabrus, Semicossyphus, and Labrus can be found in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Wrasses are most highly concentrated off the coasts of Australia where about 165 species and 42 genera are represented.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); palearctic (Native ); oriental (Native ); ethiopian (Native ); neotropical (Native ); australian (Native ); oceanic islands (Native ); indian ocean (Native ); atlantic ocean (Native ); pacific ocean (Native ); mediterranean sea (Native )

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Habitat

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Wrasses can be found in a wide variety of habitats, such as tidal pools, grass beds, rocky or coral reefs, or open sand bottoms. Many wrasses prefer specific environments. Doratonotus, for example, prefer turtle grass beds, Hemipteronotus, mixed turtle grass and sandy patch areas, and hogfishes, weed-covered rocky flats. Plankton feeders, such as Clepticus, often concentrate in large schools at reef fronts, reef gaps, or other areas where plankton is concentrated in the water column. However, some species, such as the slippery dick, can be found in a broad range of habitats.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; saltwater or marine

Aquatic Biomes: benthic ; reef ; coastal ; brackish water

Other Habitat Features: estuarine ; intertidal or littoral

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Life Expectancy

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No information was found concerning the lifespan of wrasses but, in general, reef species live between three and five years.

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Morphology

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Most wrasses are quite small, usually below 20 cm. The smallest species, Minilabrus striatus of the Red Sea, reaches a maximum length of only 4.5 cm. The genera Pseudocheilinus and Doratonotus contain several other dwarf wrasses. One species, Conniella apterygia, is so small that it lacks even pelvic fins and a supporting skeleton. The largest wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus, can reach a length of about 2.3 m and weighs more than 150 kg. Wrasses are most easily identified by their pointed snouts and prominent canine teeth in the front of the jaws, which often project forward. Wrasses characteristically have a protractile mouth, cycloid scales , and a single continuous dorsal fin lacking an obvious notch between the soft and spiny portions. The lateral line may be continuous or interrupted. (Click here to see a fish diagram).

Wrasses display myriad colors and shapes. Razorfishes are elongate and laterally compressed, while members of Cheilinus, Choerodon, and many of Bodianus are large and stocky. However, most are elongate and tapered at both ends, often referred to as “cigar-shaped.” Cigar-shaped fishes are found in the genera Thalassoma, Halichoeres, and Labroides. Often, there is considerable diversity of colors and shapes within individual species. As in parrotfishes, some wrasses progress through “phases” (see Reproduction: Mating Systems), and each phase corresponds with a change in morphology (shape and color). Dominant males (and sometimes females) are the most distinctly colored, with complex patterns of red, yellow, green, blue and black. Subordinate males and females are smaller than dominant individuals and are often drab-colored with cryptic patterns. Juveniles range in coloration from bright yellow and orange to drab gray and brown, and some have camouflaging patterns. (See Reproduction: Mating Systems for details). Some wrasses exhibit sexual dimorphism.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; bilateral symmetry ; polymorphic

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger; sexes colored or patterned differently; male more colorful; sexes shaped differently

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Associations

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Many juvenile wrasses are cryptically colored to avoid predation while others find protection among the tentacles of sea anemones. Nearly all adult wrasses bury themselves in sand at night to avoid predators. A few species seek out reef crevices and produce a foul-smelling mucous bag to deter predators while sleeping. Razorfishes (Hemipteronotus, Xyrichtys) also use the sand for protection during the day by diving into the bottom. Razorfishes are apparently quite agile in this environment, sometimes resurfacing several meters from the point of entry.

Known Predators:

  • fish (Actinopterygii)

Anti-predator Adaptations: mimic; cryptic

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Comprehensive Description

provided by CoralReefFish

The wrasses are a particularly diverse and abundant family of reef fishes, with numerous species that occupy essentially all reef, rock, and grassbed habitats in the Caribbean. The bluehead wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatum, is the single regional representative of a prominent labrid genus and is ubiquitous on Western Atlantic coral reefs. Another large genus of wrasses, Halichoeres, has more than 80 species throughout the tropics with many regional representatives, not all of which are closely related. There are three local razorfishes in Xyrichtys (note that Xyrichtys is frequently misspelled as Xyrichthys) and two hogfishes in Bodianus. The remaining labrid genera in the region are mostly monotypic: Doratonotus megalepis, Lachnolaimus maximus, Clepticus parrae, and the deep-water wrasse Decodon puellaris (the latter two species have a sibling species in the eastern Atlantic and in the eastern Pacific, respectively).

Labrid larvae can be recognized by the absence of head spines, long and continuous dorsal and anal fins with slender spines, a relatively wide caudal peduncle, stub-like pelvic fins, a pointed snout with a small terminal mouth and typically light markings (none or melanophores mostly on the fin-ray membranes). Notably, there is no row of melanophores along the anal-fin base, which separates labrid larvae from many similar-appearing groups, such as larval scarids, labrisomids, chaenopsids, dactyloscopids, and gobies. While most tropical labrid larvae fit this general pattern of small and mostly unpigmented larvae, two genera are exceptions: larval Lachnolaimus maximus are fully-pigmented and Decodon melasma have an unusual and large late larval stage with a pattern of bars on the body.

While genera are relatively easily distinguished, congeneric labrid larvae can appear similar, if not identical. Several species of Halichoeres share melanophore patterns and only become recognizable to species during transition. Larval razorfishes, Xyrichtys, have no melanophores and do not diverge in appearance until juvenile markings develop (however their evanescent chromatophore patterns may be species-specific). Some Caribbean labrid larvae require DNA sequencing for identification to species.

The labrids below are presented in order of increasing numbers of dorsal-fin spines: from 8 to 14 in the regional labrids. Fin-ray counts generally separate Caribbean genera well.

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Brief Summary

provided by Ecomare
The name wrasse comes from the Welsh word gwrach, meaning old woman or hag. Perhaps people used to think that wrasses looked like an old hag with their fleshy lips. There are more than 500 species of wrasses. Most of them live on coral reefs. However, there are a number of species found in the North Sea. The ballan wrasse and the goldsinny are the most common species here. Another member, Baillon's wrasse (Crenilabrus bailloni), has been reported five times in the Netherlands. A corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops) was caught in 2008 south of Terschelling.
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Scaridae: The Parrotfishes

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Parrotfishes are abundant on coral reefs, where they often are the largest component of the fish biomass. They are generally small to medium-sized herbivorous fishes. Depth distribution is primarily 1-30m, with some species occurring down to 80m. Adult scarids are grazing animals, feeding on the close-cropped algal and bacterial mat covering dead corals and rocks, seagrasses, and by crushing bits of coral that may contain invertebrate prey. Juveniles feed on small invertebrates. Parrotfishes feed continuously during the day, often in mixed schools, biting at rocks and corals. They usually scrape some of the coral or ingest sand while feeding and grind this in their pharyngeal mill with the plant food. In pulverizing the coral rock fragments and sand they create substantial quantities of sediment. In many areas they are probably the principal producers of sand. Two types of spawning behaviour have been observed for some scarids. Spawning may take place in an aggregation of initial-phase fish; individual groups of fish dart upward from the aggregation, releasing eggs and sperm at the peak of these upward dashes. The second pattern of reproduction consists of pair-spawning; a terminal male defends a territory from other males, courts females within his territory, and spawns individually with them. At night, some species of Scarus are capable of secreting an enveloping cocoon of mucus in which the fish sleeps until daylight.
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Odacidae

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The Odacidae are a small family of ray-finned fishes formerly classified within the order Perciformes, commonly known as cales, and weed whitings. They are related to the much larger families of the wrasses and parrotfish.[2] More recent workers have classified this family within the order Labriformes, alongside the wrasses and parrotfishes, within the clade Percomorpha.[3]

Odacids are found in coastal waters off Southern Australia and New Zealand. They include species that feed on small invertebrates, as well as herbivorous grazers, some of which are able to feed on chemically unpleasant varieties of kelp otherwise unpalatable to fish.[2]

Genera

The following genera are classified in the family Odacidae:[4]

Fishbase places six species in the genus Siphonognathus,[5] the Catalog of Fishes places four of the six species in the separate genus Sheardichthys and places S. caninis on the monospecific genus Parodax, leaving Siphonognathus as a monospecific genus containing only S. argyrophanes.[6]

References

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2014). "Odacidae" in FishBase. February 2014 version.
  2. ^ a b Choat, J.W. & Bellwood, D.R. (1998). Paxton, J.R. & Eschmeyer, W.N. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. xxx. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.
  3. ^ J. S. Nelson; T. C. Grande; M. V. H. Wilson (2016). Fishes of the World (5th ed.). Wiley. pp. 427–430. ISBN 978-1-118-34233-6.
  4. ^ Eschmeyer, W. N.; R. Fricke & R. van der Laan (eds.). "Odacidae genera". Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  5. ^ a b c Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2006). Species of Siphonognathus in FishBase. August 2006 version.
  6. ^ Eschmeyer, W. N.; R. Fricke & R. van der Laan (eds.). "Siphonognathus species". Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
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Odacidae: Brief Summary

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The Odacidae are a small family of ray-finned fishes formerly classified within the order Perciformes, commonly known as cales, and weed whitings. They are related to the much larger families of the wrasses and parrotfish. More recent workers have classified this family within the order Labriformes, alongside the wrasses and parrotfishes, within the clade Percomorpha.

Odacids are found in coastal waters off Southern Australia and New Zealand. They include species that feed on small invertebrates, as well as herbivorous grazers, some of which are able to feed on chemically unpleasant varieties of kelp otherwise unpalatable to fish.

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Parrotfish

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Parrotfishes are a group of about 95 fish species regarded as a family (Scaridae), or a subfamily (Scarinae) of the wrasses.[1] With about 95 species, this group's largest species richness is in the Indo-Pacific. They are found in coral reefs, rocky coasts, and seagrass beds, and can play a significant role in bioerosion.[2][3][4]

Description

Parrotfish are named for their dentition,[5] which is distinct from other fish, including other labrids. Their numerous teeth are arranged in a tightly packed mosaic on the external surface of their jaw bones, forming a parrot-like beak with which they rasp algae from coral and other rocky substrates[6] (which contributes to the process of bioerosion).

Maximum sizes vary within the family, with the majority of species reaching 30–50 cm (12–20 in) in length. However, a few species reach lengths in excess of 1 m (3 ft 3 in), and the green humphead parrotfish can reach up to 1.3 m (4 ft 3 in).[7] The smallest species is the bluelip parrotfish (Cryptotomus roseus), which has a maximum size of 13 cm (5.1 in).[8][9][10]

Mucus

 src=
Scarus zelindae in its mucus cocoon

Some parrotfish species, including the queen parrotfish (Scarus vetula), secrete a mucus cocoon, particularly at night.[11] Prior to going to sleep, some species extrude mucus from their mouths, forming a protective cocoon that envelops the fish, presumably hiding its scent from potential predators.[12][13] This mucus envelope may also act as an early warning system, allowing the parrotfish to flee when it detects predators such as moray eels disturbing the membrane.[13] The skin itself is covered in another mucous substance which may have antioxidant properties helpful in repairing bodily damage,[11][13] or repelling parasites, in addition to providing protection from UV light.[11]

Feeding

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The strong beak of Bolbometopon muricatum is able to grind the sturdiest corals.

Most parrotfish species are herbivores, feeding mainly on epilithic algae.[14][15][16] A wide range of other small organisms are sometimes eaten, including invertebrates (sessile and benthic species, as well as zooplankton), bacteria and detritus.[17] A few mostly larger species such as the green humphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) feed extensively on living coral (polyps).[6][15][16] None of these are exclusive corallivores, but polyps can make up as much as half their diet[16] or even more in the green humphead parrotfish.[14] Overall it has been estimated that less than one percent of parrotfish bites involve live corals and all except the green humphead parrotfish prefer algae-covered surfaces over live corals.[16] Nevertheless, when they do eat coral polyps, localized coral death can occur.[16] Their feeding activity is important for the production and distribution of coral sands in the reef biome, and can prevent algal overgrowth of the reef structure. The teeth grow continuously, replacing material worn away by feeding.[9] Whether they feed on coral, rock or seagrasses, the substrate is ground up between the pharyngeal teeth.[16][18] After they digest the edible portions from the rock, they excrete it as sand, helping create small islands and the sandy beaches. The humphead parrotfish can produce 90 kg (200 lb) of sand each year.[19] Or, on average (as there are so many variables i.e. size/species/location/depth etc.), almost 250 g (9 oz) per parrotfish per day. While feeding, parrotfish must be cognizant of predation by one of their main predators, the lemon shark.[20] On Caribbean coral reefs, parrotfish are important consumers of sponges.[21] An indirect effect of parrotfish grazing on sponges is the protection of reef-building corals that would otherwise be overgrown by fast-growing sponge species.[22][23]

Analysis of parrotfish feeding biology describes three functional groups: excavators, scrapers and browsers.[14] Excavators have larger, stronger jaws that can gouge the substrate,[24] leaving visible scars on the surface.[14] Scrapers have less powerful jaws that can but infrequently do leave visible scraping scars on the substrate.[14][24] Some of these may also feed on sand instead of hard surfaces.[14] Browsers mainly feed on seagrasses and their epiphytes.[14] Mature excavating species include Bolbometopon muricatum, Cetoscarus, Chlorurus and Sparisoma viride.[14] These excavating species all feed as scrapers in early juvenile stages, but Hipposcarus and Scarus, which also feed as scrapers in early juvenile stages, retain the scraping feeding mode as adults.[14][24] Browsing species are found in the genera Calotomus, Cryptotomus, Leptoscarus, Nicholsina and Sparisoma.[14] Feeding modes reflect habitat preferences, with browsers chiefly living in grassy seabed, and excavators and scrapers on coral reefs.[25][14]

Recently, the microphage feeding hypothesis [26] challenged the prevailing paradigm of parrotfish as algal consumers by proposing that:- “most parrotfishes are microphages that target cyanobacteria and other protein-rich autotrophic microorganisms that live on (epilithic) or within (endolithic) calcareous substrata, are epiphytic on algae or seagrasses, or endosymbiotic within sessile invertebrates.”

Life cycle

 src=
The bicolor parrotfish (Cetoscarus bicolor) was described by Rüppell in 1829. In 1835, he mistakenly described the terminal phase, featured on this photo, as a separate species, C. pulchellus

The development of parrotfishes is complex and accompanied by a series of changes in sex and colour (polychromatism). Most species are sequential hermaphrodites, starting as females (known as the initial phase) and then changing to males (the terminal phase). In many species, for example the stoplight parrotfish (Sparisoma viride), a number of individuals develop directly to males (i.e., they do not start as females). These directly developing males usually most resemble the initial phase, and often display a different mating strategy than the terminal phase males of the same species.[27] A few species such as the Mediterranean parrotfish (S. cretense) are secondary gonochorists. This means that some females do not change sex (they remain females throughout their lives), the ones that do change from female to male do it while still immature (reproductively functioning females do not change to males) and there are no males with female-like colors (the initial phase males in other parrotfish).[28][29][30] The marbled parrotfish (Leptoscarus vaigiensis) is the only species of parrotfish known not to change sex.[9] In most species, the initial phase is dull red, brown, or grey, while the terminal phase is vividly green or blue with bright pink, orange or yellow patches.[9][31] In a smaller number of species the phases are similar,[9][31] and in the Mediterranean parrotfish the adult female is brightly colored, while the adult male is gray.[32] In most species, juveniles have a different color pattern from adults. Juveniles of some tropical species can alter their color temporarily to mimic other species.[33] Where the sexes and ages differ, the remarkably different phases often were first described as separate species.[31] As a consequence early scientists recognized more than 350 parrotfish species, which is almost four times the actual number.[27]

Most tropical species form large schools when feeding and these are often grouped by size. Harems of several females presided over by a single male are normal in most species, with the males vigorously defending their position from any challenge.

As pelagic spawners, parrotfish release many tiny, buoyant eggs into the water, which become part of the plankton. The eggs float freely, settling into the coral until hatching.

The sex change in parrotfishes is accompanied by changes in circulating steroids. Females have high levels of estradiol, moderate levels of T and undetectable levels of the major fish androgen 11-ketotestosterone. During the transition from initial to terminal coloration phases, concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone rise dramatically and estrogen levels decline. If a female is injected with 11-ketotestosterone, it will cause a precocious change in gonadal, gametic and behavioural sex.

Economic importance

A commercial fishery exists for some of the larger species, particularly in the Indo-Pacific,[9] but also for a few others like the Mediterranean parrotfish.[34] Protecting parrotfishes is proposed as a way of saving Caribbean coral reefs from being overgrown with seaweed[35] and sponges.[22][23] Despite their striking colors, their feeding behavior renders them highly unsuitable for most marine aquaria.[9]

A new study has discovered that the parrotfish is extremely important for the health of the Great Barrier Reef; it is the only one of thousands of reef fish species that regularly performs the task of scraping and cleaning inshore coral reefs.[36]

Taxonomy

Traditionally, the parrotfishes have been considered to be a family level taxon, Scaridae. Although phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of parrotfishes are ongoing, they are now accepted to be a clade in the tribe Cheilini, and are now commonly referred to as scarine labrids (subfamily Scarinae, family Labridae).[1] Some authorities have preferred to maintain the parrotfishes as a family-level taxon,[31] resulting in Labridae not being monophyletic (unless split into several families).

Nonetheless, according to the World Register of Marine Species the group is divided into two subfamilies as follows :

More recent studies retain the Scaridae as a family but place it alongside the wrasses of the family Labridae and the weed whitings Odacidae in the order Labriformes, part of the Percomorpha. They also do not support the division of the Scaridae into two subfamilies.[37]

Gallery

Timeline of genera

References

  1. ^ a b Westneat, MW; Alfaro, ME (2005). "Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the reef fish family Labridae". Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution. 36 (2): 370–90. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.02.001. PMID 15955516.
  2. ^ Streelman, J. T., Alfaro, M. E.; et al. (2002). "Evolutionary History of The Parrotfishes: Biogeography, Ecomorphology, and Comparative Diversity" (PDF). Evolution. 56 (5): 961–971. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2002.tb01408.x. PMID 12093031. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 May 2014.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Bellwood, D. R., Hoey, A. S., Choat, J. H. (2003). "Limited functional redundancy in high diversity systems: resilience and ecosystem function on coral reefs". Ecology Letters. 6 (4): 281–285. doi:10.1046/j.1461-0248.2003.00432.x.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Lokrantz, J., Nyström, Thyresson, M., M., C. Johansson (2008). "The non-linear relationship between body size and function in parrotfishes". Coral Reefs. 27 (4): 967–974. Bibcode:2008CorRe..27..967L. doi:10.1007/s00338-008-0394-3.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ Ostéologie céphalique de deux poissons perroquets (Scaridae: Teleostei) TH Monod, JC Hureau, AE Bullock - Cybium, 1994 - Société française d'ichtyologie
  6. ^ a b Choat, J.H. & Bellwood, D.R. (1998). Paxton, J.R. & Eschmeyer, W.N. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 209–211. ISBN 978-0-12-547665-2.
  7. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2009). "Bolbometopon muricatum" in FishBase. December 2009 version.
  8. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2015). "Cryptotomus roseus" in FishBase. September 2015 version.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Lieske, E., and Myers, R. (1999). Coral Reef Fishes. 2nd edition. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00481-1
  10. ^ Shah, A.K. (2016). Cryptotomus roseus (Slender Parrotfish). The Online Guide to the Animals of Trinidad and Tobago. The University of the West Indies. Accessed 11 March 2018.
  11. ^ a b c Cerny-Chipman, E. "Distribution of Ultraviolet-Absorbing Sunscreen Compounds Across the Body Surface of Two Species of Scaridae." DigitalCollections@SIT 2007. Accessed 2009-06-21.
  12. ^ Langerhans, R.B. "Evolutionary consequences of predation: avoidance, escape, reproduction, and diversification. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine" pp. 177–220 in Elewa, A.M.T. ed. Predation in organisms: a distinct phenomenon. Heidelberg, Germany, Springer-Verlag. 2007. Accessed 2009-06-21.
  13. ^ a b c Videlier, H.; Geertjes, G.J.; Videlier, J.J. (1999). "Biochemical characteristics and antibiotic properties of the mucous envelope of the queen parrotfish". Journal of Fish Biology. 54 (5): 1124–1127. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1999.tb00864.x.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bellwood, David R. (14 July 1994). "A phylogenetic study of the parrotfish family Scaridae (Pisces: Labroidea), with a revision of genera". Records of the Australian Museum, Supplement. 20: 1–86. doi:10.3853/j.0812-7387.20.1994.51. ISSN 0812-7387.
  15. ^ a b Bellwood, D.R. & J.H. Choat (1990). A functional analysis of grazing in parrotfishes (family Scaridae): the ecological implications. J.H. Environ Biol Fish 28(1–4): 189–214. doi:10.1007/BF00751035
  16. ^ a b c d e f Bonaldo, R.M. & R.D. Rotjan (2018). The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Parrotfishes as Coral Predators. in Hoey, A.S. & R.M. Bonaldo, eds. Biology of Parrotfishes. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1482224016
  17. ^ Comeros-Raynal, Choat, Polidoro, Clements, Abesamis, Craig, Lazuardi, McIlwain, Muljadi, Myers, Nañola Jr., Pardede, Rocha, Russell, Sanciangco, Stockwell, Harwell & Carpenter (2012). The Likelihood of Extinction of Iconic and Dominant Herbivores and Detritivores of Coral Reefs: The Parrotfishes and Surgeonfishes. PLoS ONE 7(7): e39825. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039825
  18. ^ Murphy, Richard C. (2002). Coral Reefs: Cities Under The Seas. The Darwin Press, Inc. ISBN 978-0-87850-138-0.
  19. ^ Thurman, H.V; Webber, H.H. (1984). "Chapter 12, Benthos on the Continental Shelf". Marine Biology. Charles E. Merrill Publishing. pp. 303–313. Accessed 2009-06-14.
  20. ^ Bright, Michael (2000). The private life of sharks : the truth behind the myth. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-2875-1.
  21. ^ Dunlap, M; Pawlik, JR (1996). "Video-monitored predation by Caribbean reef fishes on an array of mangrove and reef sponges". Marine Biology. 126: 117–123. doi:10.1007/BF00571383.
  22. ^ a b Loh, T-L; Pawlik, JR (2014). "Chemical defenses and resource trade-offs structure sponge communities on Caribbean coral reefs". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111 (11): 4151–4156. Bibcode:2014PNAS..111.4151L. doi:10.1073/pnas.1321626111. PMC 3964098. PMID 24567392.
  23. ^ a b Loh, TL; et al. (2015). "Indirect effects of overfishing on Caribbean reefs: sponges overgrow reef-building corals". PeerJ. 3: e901. doi:10.7717/peerj.901. PMC 4419544. PMID 25945305.
  24. ^ a b c Price, Samantha A.; Wainwright, Peter C.; Bellwood, David R.; Kazancioglu, Erem; Collar, David C.; Near, Thomas J. (1 October 2010). "Functional Innovations and Morphological Diversification in Parrotfish". Evolution. 64 (10): 3057–3068. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2010.01036.x. ISSN 1558-5646. PMID 20497217.
  25. ^ Environmental Biology of Fishes 28: 189-214, 1990
  26. ^ Clements, Kendall D.; German, Donovan P.; Piché, Jacinthe; Tribollet, Aline; Choat, John Howard (November 2016). "Integrating ecological roles and trophic diversification on coral reefs: multiple lines of evidence identify parrotfishes as microphages". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. doi:10.1111/bij.12914.
  27. ^ a b Bester, C. Stoplight parrotfish. Florida Museum of Natural History, Ichthyology Department. Accessed 15-12-2009
  28. ^ Afonso, Pedro; Morato, Telmo; Santos, Ricardo Serrão (2008). "Spatial patterns in reproductive traits of the temperate parrotfish Sparisoma cretense" (PDF). Fisheries Research. 90 (1–3): 92–99. doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2007.09.029.
  29. ^ de Girolamo, Scaggiante & Rasotto (1999). Social organization and sexual pattern in the Mediterranean parrotfish Sparisoma cretense (Teleostei: Scaridae). Marine Biology 135(2): 353-360. doi:10.1007/s002270050634
  30. ^ Sadovy & Shapiro (1987). Criteria for the diagnosis of hermaphroditism in fishes. Copeia 1987(1): 136–156. doi:10.2307/1446046
  31. ^ a b c d Randall, J. E. (2007). Reef and Shore Fishes of the Hawaiian Islands. ISBN 978-1-929054-03-9
  32. ^ Debelius, H. (1997). Mediterranean and Atlantic Fish Guide: From Spain to Turkey - From Norway to South Africa. ConchBooks. p. 221. ISBN 978-3925919541.
  33. ^ Cardwell JR1, Liley NR.Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1991 Jan;81(1):7-20
  34. ^ Cardigos, F. (2001). "Vejas" (PDF). Revista Mundo Submerso. 58 (V): 48–51. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2018.
  35. ^ Morelle, Rebecca (1 November 2007) Parrotfish to aid reef repair. BBC
  36. ^ Australian Geographic (September 2014). "Single species may be key to reef health". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  37. ^ J. S. Nelson; T. C. Grande; M. V. H. Wilson (2016). Fishes of the World (5th ed.). Wiley. pp. 429–430. ISBN 978-1-118-34233-6.
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Parrotfish: Brief Summary

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Parrotfishes are a group of about 95 fish species regarded as a family (Scaridae), or a subfamily (Scarinae) of the wrasses. With about 95 species, this group's largest species richness is in the Indo-Pacific. They are found in coral reefs, rocky coasts, and seagrass beds, and can play a significant role in bioerosion.

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Wrasse

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The wrasses are a family, Labridae, of marine fish, many of which are brightly colored. The family is large and diverse, with over 600 species in 81 genera, which are divided into 9 subgroups or tribes.[1][2][3] They are typically small fish, most of them less than 20 cm (7.9 in) long, although the largest, the humphead wrasse, can measure up to 2.5 m (8.2 ft). They are efficient carnivores, feeding on a wide range of small invertebrates. Many smaller wrasses follow the feeding trails of larger fish, picking up invertebrates disturbed by their passing.[4] Juveniles of some representatives of the genera Bodianus, Epibulus, Cirrhilabrus, Oxycheilinus, and Paracheilinus hide among the tentacles of the free-living mushroom coral Heliofungia actiniformis.[5][6]

The word "wrasse" comes from the Cornish word wragh, a lenited form of gwragh, meaning an old woman or hag, via Cornish dialect wrath. It is related to the Welsh gwrach and Breton gwrac'h.[7]

Distribution

Most wrasses inhabit the tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans, though some species live in temperate waters: the Ballan wrasse is found as far north as Norway. Wrasses are usually found in shallow-water habitats such as coral reefs and rocky shores, where they live close to the substrate.

Anatomy

Drawing of wrasse profile showing eye, lips, and teeth
Lips of Labrus festivus

Wrasses have protractile mouths, usually with separate jaw teeth that jut outwards.[8] Many species can be readily recognized by their thick lips, the inside of which is sometimes curiously folded, a peculiarity which gave rise the German name of "lip-fishes" (Lippfische).[9] and the Dutch name of lipvissen. The dorsal fin has eight to 21 spines and six to 21 soft rays, usually running most of the length of the back. Wrasses are sexually dimorphic. Many species are capable of changing sex. Juveniles are a mix of males and females (known as initial-phase individuals), but the largest adults become territory-holding (terminal-phase) males.[8]

The wrasses have become a primary study species in fish-feeding biomechanics due to their jaw structures. The nasal and mandibular bones are connected at their posterior ends to the rigid neurocranium, and the superior and inferior articulations of the maxilla are joined to the anterior tips of these two bones, respectively, creating a loop of four rigid bones connected by moving joints. This "four-bar linkage" has the property of allowing numerous arrangements to achieve a given mechanical result (fast jaw protrusion or a forceful bite), thus decoupling morphology from function. The actual morphology of wrasses reflects this, with many lineages displaying different jaw morphology that results in the same functional output in a similar or identical ecological niche.[8]

Reproductive behavior

Most labrids are protogynous hermaphrodites within a haremic mating system.[10] [11] A good example of this reproductive behavior is seen in the California sheep head. Hermaphroditism allows for complex mating systems. Labroids exhibit three different mating systems: polygynous, lek-like, and promiscuous .[12] Group spawning and pair spawning occur within mating systems. The type of spawning that occurs depends on male body size.[11] Labroids typically exhibit broadcast spawning, releasing high numbers of planktonic eggs, which are broadcast by tidal currents; adult labroids have no interaction with offspring.[13] Wrasses of a particular subgroup of the family Labridae, Labrini, do not exhibit broadcast spawning.

Sex change in wrasses is generally female-to-male, but experimental conditions have allowed for male-to-female sex change. Placing two male Labroides dimidiatus wrasses in the same tank results in the smaller of the two becoming female again.[14] Additionally, while the individual to change sex is generally the largest female,[15] evidence also exists of the largest female instead "choosing" to remain female in situations in which she can maximize her evolutionary fitness by refraining from changing sex.[16]

Broodcare behavior of the tribe

The subgroup Labrini arose from a basal split within family Labridae during the Eocene period.[3] Subgroup Labrini is composed of eight genera, wherein 15 of 23 species exhibit broodcare behavior,[13] which ranges from simple to complex parental care of spawn; males build algae nests or crude cavities, ventilate eggs, and defend nests against conspecific males and predators.[13] In species that express this behavior, eggs cannot survive without parental care.[17] Species of Symphodus, Centrolabrus, and Labrus genera exhibit broodcare behavior.

Cleaner wrasse

Photo of two small wrasses cleaning large wrasse's gills
Cleaner wrasses, Labroides sp., working on gill area of dragon wrasse Novaculichthys taeniourus, on a reef in Hawaii

Cleaner wrasses are the best-known of the cleaner fish. They live in a cleaning symbiosis with larger, often predatory, fish, grooming them and benefiting by consuming what they remove. "Client" fish congregate at wrasse "cleaning stations" and wait for the cleaner fish to remove gnathiid parasites, the cleaners even swimming into their open mouths and gill cavities to do so. A single wrasse works for around four hours a day, and in that time, it can inspect more than 2,000 clients. [18]

Cleaner wrasses are best known for feeding on dead tissue and scales and ectoparasites, although they are also known to 'cheat', consuming healthy tissue and mucus, which is energetically costly for the client fish to produce. The bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, is one of the most common cleaners found on tropical reefs. Few cleaner wrasses have been observed being eaten by predators, possibly because parasite removal is more important for predator survival than the short-term gain of eating the cleaner.[19]

When cleaner wrasses were experimentally removed from a reef in Australia, the total number of fish species halved, and their numbers fell by three-quarters. Also, some evidence, from another Australian study, shows that cleaned fish are smarter than those not served by the wrasse. [18]

Cleaner wrasses have become the first fish ever to pass the mirror test.[20]

Significance to humans

In the Western Atlantic coastal region of North America, the most common food species for indigenous humans was the tautog, a species of wrasse.[9] Wrasses today are commonly found in both public and home aquaria. Some species are small enough to be considered reef safe. They may also be employed as cleaner fish to combat sea-lice infestations in salmon farms.[21] Commercial fish farming of cleaner wrasse for sea-lice pest control in commercial salmon farming has developed in Scotland as lice busters, with apparent commercial benefit and viability.

Parasites

As all fish, labrids are the hosts of a number of parasites. A list of 338 parasite taxa from 127 labrid fish species was provided by Muñoz and Diaz in 2015.[22] An example is the nematode Huffmanela ossicola.

Gallery

Classification

Subgroups and tribes

Genera

Timeline

References

  1. ^ Parenti, Paolo; Randall, John E. (15 April 2011). "Checklist of the species of the families Labridae and Scaridae: an update". Smithiana Bulletin. 13: 29–44.
  2. ^ Parenti, Paolo; Randall, John E. (June 2000). "An annotated checklist of the species of the labroid fish families Labridae and Scaridae". Ichthyological Bulletin. 68: 1–97. hdl:10962/d1019894. ISSN 0073-4381.
  3. ^ a b Cowman, P.F.; Bellwood, D.R.; van Herwerden, L. (2009). "Dating the evolutionary origins of wrasse lineages (Labridae) and the rise of trophic novelty on coral reefs". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 52 (3): 621–631. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.05.015. PMID 19464378.
  4. ^ Choat, J.H.; Bellwood, D.R. (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-12-547665-2.
  5. ^ Bos, Arthur R (2012). "Fishes (Gobiidae and Labridae) associated with the mushroom coral Heliofungia actiniformis (Scleractinia: Fungiidae) in the Philippines". Coral Reefs. 31: 133. doi:10.1007/s00338-011-0834-3.
  6. ^ Bos, AR; Hoeksema, BW (2015). "Cryptobenthic fishes and co-inhabiting shrimps associated with the mushroom coral Heliofungia actiniformis (Fungiidae) in the Davao Gulf, Philippines". Environmental Biology of Fishes. 98 (6): 1479–1489. doi:10.1007/s10641-014-0374-0.
  7. ^ "Wrasse | Define Wrasse at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2012-06-28.
  8. ^ a b c Wainwright, Peter C.; Alfaro, Michael E.; Bolnick, Daniel I.; Hulsey, C. Darrin (2005). "Many-to-One Mapping of Form to Function: A General Principle in Organismal Design?". Integrative and Comparative Biology. 45 (2): 256–262. doi:10.1093/icb/45.2.256. PMID 21676769.
  9. ^ a b Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Wrasse" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 839.
  10. ^ Robertson, D.R.; Warner, R.R. (1978). "Sexual patterns in the labroid fishes of the Western Caribbean II: the parrotfishes (Scaridae)". Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 255 (255): 1–26. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.255.
  11. ^ a b Kazancioglu, E.; Alonzo, S.H. (2010). "A comparative analysis of sex change in Labridae supports the size advantage hypothesis". Evolution. 64 (8): 2254–226. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2010.01016.x. PMID 20394662.
  12. ^ Colin, P.L.; Bell, L. J. (1992). "Aspects of the spawning of labrid and scarid fishes (Pisces, Labroidei) at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands with notes on other families (corrected reprint.)". Environmental Biology of Fishes. 33 (3): 330–345. doi:10.1007/BF00005881.
  13. ^ a b c Hanel, R.; Westneat, M. W.; Sturmbauer, C. (December 2002). "Phylogenetic relationships, evolution of broodcare behavior, and geographic speciation in the Wrasse tribe Labrini". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 55 (6): 776–789. doi:10.1007/s00239-002-2373-6. PMID 12486536.
  14. ^ Kuwamura, T.; Tanaka, N.; Nakashima, Y.; Karino, K.; Sakai, Y (2002). "Reversed sex-change in the protogynous reef fish Labroides dimidiatus". Ethology. 108 (5): 443–450. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0310.2002.00791.x.
  15. ^ Munday, P. L.; Ryen, C. A.; McCormick, M. I.; Walker, S. P. W. (2009). "Growth acceleration, behaviour and otolith check marks associated with sex change in the wrasse Halichoeres miniatus". Coral Reefs. 28 (3): 623–634. doi:10.1007/s00338-009-0499-3.
  16. ^ Munoz, R. C.; Warner, R. R. (2003). "A new version of the size-advantage hypothesis for sex change: incorporating sperm competition and size-fecundity skew". American Naturalist. 161 (5): 749–761. doi:10.1086/374345. PMID 12858282.
  17. ^ Taborsky, M.; Hudde, B.; Wirtz, P. (1987). "Reproductive behavior and ecology of Symphodus (Crenilabrus) ocellatus, a European wrasse with four types of male behavior". Behaviour. 102 (1–2): 82–118. doi:10.1163/156853986x00063.
  18. ^ a b "The Fish That Makes Other Fish Smarter" by Ed Yong, The Atlantic, March 7, 2018
  19. ^ Trivers, R. L. 1971
  20. ^ "A species of fish has passed the mirror test for the first time".
  21. ^ "Sea Lice". Scottish Salmon Producers' Organisation. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
  22. ^ Muñoz G., Diaz P.E. 2015: Checklist of parasites of labrid fishes (Pisces: Labridae). Viña del Mar, Chile. PDF. open access

 title=
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wikipedia EN

Wrasse: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The wrasses are a family, Labridae, of marine fish, many of which are brightly colored. The family is large and diverse, with over 600 species in 81 genera, which are divided into 9 subgroups or tribes. They are typically small fish, most of them less than 20 cm (7.9 in) long, although the largest, the humphead wrasse, can measure up to 2.5 m (8.2 ft). They are efficient carnivores, feeding on a wide range of small invertebrates. Many smaller wrasses follow the feeding trails of larger fish, picking up invertebrates disturbed by their passing. Juveniles of some representatives of the genera Bodianus, Epibulus, Cirrhilabrus, Oxycheilinus, and Paracheilinus hide among the tentacles of the free-living mushroom coral Heliofungia actiniformis.

The word "wrasse" comes from the Cornish word wragh, a lenited form of gwragh, meaning an old woman or hag, via Cornish dialect wrath. It is related to the Welsh gwrach and Breton gwrac'h.

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Description

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Distribution: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. Protrusible mouth. Snout elongated in the genus Gomphosus. Most jaw teeth with gaps between them; teeth usually jutting outward. Spines in dorsal fin usually 8-21; soft rays 7-14. Three spines (very rarely 2) in anal fin; soft rays 7-14. Scales generally of large to moderate size; cycloid. Scales in lateral series 25-80, but may be over 100 if small. Lateral line interrupted or continuous. Vertebrae 23-41. To 3 m maximum size, only 6 cm for many. Shape, color and size very diversified. Most species are sand burrowers; some small species remove ectoparasites of larger fishes. Species of Coris are particularly popular aquarium fishes.
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bibliographic citation
Hansson, H. (2004). North East Atlantic Taxa (NEAT): Nematoda. Internet pdf Ed. Aug 1998. MASDEA (1997).
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Edward Vanden Berghe [email]