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Psychrolutidae

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The fish family Psychrotidae (commonly known as blobfishes,[2] toadfishes,[2] flathead sculpins,[2] tadpole sculpins,[2] and fathead sculpins[3]) contains about 40 recognized species in 9 genera.[4] This family consists of bottom-dwelling marine sculpins shaped like tadpoles, with large heads and bodies that taper back into small, flat tails. The skin is loosely attached and movable, and the layer underneath it is gelatinous. The eyes are placed high on the head, focused forward closer to the tip of the snout. Members of the family generally have small, leaf-like pectoral fins and lack scales, although some species are covered with soft spines. This is important to the species as the depths in which they live are low pressure and they are ambush/opportunistic/foraging predators that do not expend energy unless they are forced to. The blobfish has a long, broad tongue and conical teeth that are largely recurved and are arranged in bands in irregular rows along the premaxillaries; canines are completely absent. Teeth are nonexistent on the palatines and vomer; which make up the hard palate. The blobfish also has a set of specialized pharyngeal teeth that are well developed and paired evenly along the upper and lower portions of the pharyngeal arch. These specialized teeth may aid in the breakdown of food due to the very strategic dependency on whatever food falls from above.[5]

They are found in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. They are found in depths ranging from 3000–17000 meters. The adults live on the sea floor, between 1,000 and 28,000 m (3,300 and 91,900 ft) deep,[6][7] The intense biological pressure to conserve energy within deep sea fish seems to be true across many species; most of them are long lived, have a slow rate of reproduction, growth, and aging. In this case the blobfish can live to be roughly 130 years old. Categorized as the predator of the deep sea they have no real predatorily issues; a big help to aid in their energy saving. Their name is derived from the Greek psychrolouteo, meaning "to have a cold bath".[7] They tend to live in colder waters, although some range into warm-temperate seas.[8]

The blob sculpin, Psychrolutes phrictus, exhibits complex nesting behaviors complete with egg guarding.[9] Reproductively the blobfish have been seen gathering in large numbers to lay their pinkish eggs in a single surrounding nesting area. The number of eggs laid within one nest can range from 9,000 to 108,000. Another observation of the parental care of the blobfish is that their eggs resemble being clean. It is believed that as the female blobfish hover around the nests they also clean them and remove any sand or dirt.

References

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (1987). "Psychrlutidae" in FishBase. January 1987 version.
  2. ^ a b c d "Psychrolutidae – Names". Atlas of Living Australia. Retrieved 2019-03-28.
  3. ^ "Fathead sculpin". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-03-28.
  4. ^ Eschmeyer, W. N. (ed). "Catalog of Fishes". California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 13 September 2012.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  5. ^ , McCulloch, Allan. 1914. Report on some Fishes obtained by the F.I.S. “Endeavour” on the coasts of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South, and south-western Australia. Australian Museum, Sydney. Vol 5. Issue 4. Pages 187-194, 215-216, Plate LV..
  6. ^ Eschmeyer, William M. (1951). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 179. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.
  7. ^ a b "Family Psychrolutidae - Fatheads". FishBase. 26 Aug 2010. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  8. ^ Richards, William J. (2005). Early Stages of Atlantic Fishes: An Identification Guide for the Western Central North Atlantic. CRC Press. p. 1191. ISBN 978-0-203-50021-7.
  9. ^ Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Goffredi, Shana K.; Schlining, Brian; Stakes, Debra S. (2003). "Aggregations of Egg-Brooding Deep-Sea Fish and Cephalopods on the Gorda Escarpment: a Reproductive Hot Spot". Biological Bulletin. 205 (1): 1–7. doi:10.2307/1543439.

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Psychrolutidae: Brief Summary

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The fish family Psychrotidae (commonly known as blobfishes, toadfishes, flathead sculpins, tadpole sculpins, and fathead sculpins) contains about 40 recognized species in 9 genera. This family consists of bottom-dwelling marine sculpins shaped like tadpoles, with large heads and bodies that taper back into small, flat tails. The skin is loosely attached and movable, and the layer underneath it is gelatinous. The eyes are placed high on the head, focused forward closer to the tip of the snout. Members of the family generally have small, leaf-like pectoral fins and lack scales, although some species are covered with soft spines. This is important to the species as the depths in which they live are low pressure and they are ambush/opportunistic/foraging predators that do not expend energy unless they are forced to. The blobfish has a long, broad tongue and conical teeth that are largely recurved and are arranged in bands in irregular rows along the premaxillaries; canines are completely absent. Teeth are nonexistent on the palatines and vomer; which make up the hard palate. The blobfish also has a set of specialized pharyngeal teeth that are well developed and paired evenly along the upper and lower portions of the pharyngeal arch. These specialized teeth may aid in the breakdown of food due to the very strategic dependency on whatever food falls from above.

They are found in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. They are found in depths ranging from 3000–17000 meters. The adults live on the sea floor, between 1,000 and 28,000 m (3,300 and 91,900 ft) deep, The intense biological pressure to conserve energy within deep sea fish seems to be true across many species; most of them are long lived, have a slow rate of reproduction, growth, and aging. In this case the blobfish can live to be roughly 130 years old. Categorized as the predator of the deep sea they have no real predatorily issues; a big help to aid in their energy saving. Their name is derived from the Greek psychrolouteo, meaning "to have a cold bath". They tend to live in colder waters, although some range into warm-temperate seas.

The blob sculpin, Psychrolutes phrictus, exhibits complex nesting behaviors complete with egg guarding. Reproductively the blobfish have been seen gathering in large numbers to lay their pinkish eggs in a single surrounding nesting area. The number of eggs laid within one nest can range from 9,000 to 108,000. Another observation of the parental care of the blobfish is that their eggs resemble being clean. It is believed that as the female blobfish hover around the nests they also clean them and remove any sand or dirt.

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