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Psychodidae

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Psychodidae, called drain flies, sink flies, filter flies,[1] sewer flies, or sewer gnats, is a family of true flies. Some genera have short, hairy bodies and wings giving them a "furry" moth-like appearance, hence one of their common names, moth flies.[1] Members of the sub-family Phlebotominae which are hematophagous (feed on blood) may be called sand flies in some countries, although this term is also used for other unrelated flies.

There are more than 2,600 described species worldwide, most of them native to the humid tropics. This makes them one of the most diverse families of their order.[2] Drain flies sometimes inhabit plumbing drains and sewage systems, where they are harmless, but may be a persistent annoyance.[3]

Life cycle

Live drain fly larvae

The larvae of the subfamilies Psychodinae, Sycoracinae and Horaiellinae live in aquatic to semi-terrestrial or sludge-based habitats, including bathroom sinks,[4] where they feed on bacteria and can become problematic. The larvae of the most commonly encountered species are nearly transparent with a non-retractable black head and can sometimes be seen moving along the moist edges of crevices in shower stalls or bathtubs or submerged in toilet water. The larval form of the moth fly is usually between 4 and 5 mm (0.16 and 0.20 in) long, and is shaped like a long, thin, somewhat flattened cylinder. The body lacks prolegs, but the body segments are divided into a series of rings called annuli (singular is annulus). Some of these rings will have characteristic plates on the dorsal side. The larval thorax is not significantly larger than its abdomen, giving it a more "worm-like" appearance than that of most aquatic insect larvae.

In some species, the larvae can secure themselves to surfaces of their environment using "attachment disks" on their ventral side. Like mosquito larvae, they cannot absorb oxygen through water, and instead breathe via a small dark tube (a spiracle) on their posterior end — they must regularly reach the surface to obtain oxygen. The larval stage lasts for between 9 and 15 days, depending on species, temperature, and environment. There are four instar stages.[3][5][6] In small numbers, the larvae are sometimes considered beneficial, as their strong jaws can cut through the hair and sludge waste in drains which might otherwise form clogs. However, unless this sludge layer is removed entirely, the adult flies will continue to find it and lay more eggs.

While the biting midges also have larvae that have no prolegs and which also have attachment disks, the larvae of the netwinged midges can be distinguished from those of the moth fly by the multiple deep lateral constrictions of the latter.[5]

The pupal stage lasts between 20 and 40 hours. During this stage, the insect does not feed, but stays submerged near the water surface, still breathing through a spiracle, and soon metamorphoses into an adult fly, which bursts through a seam in the pupal casing and emerges onto the water's surface.

The adults are half as long as the larvae, but are much broader in appearance, with a pair of hairy wings held pitched-roof-like over the body. The wings have the most elementary venation of any of the Diptera, having little more than a series of parallel veins without crossveins.

The adults are typically nocturnal, though they orient themselves around lights and may appear to be attracted to light and odors. They are erratic fliers, and are often seen walking or running rapidly as well as taking flight.[7] They are most active at night, but may also be seen during daylight, or near windows, lights, or illuminated display panels.[8]

The adults live for about 20 days, during which they will breed only once, often within hours of emerging from their pupal casings. Females will lay their eggs (between 30 and 100) just above the water line inside moist drains. Within 48 hours these eggs hatch into drain worms, the larval form.[9]

Health effects

The drain flies which are commonly found in bathrooms, Clogmia albipunctata, are not known to carry any human diseases, but have been known to be an opportunistic agent of myiasis. However, the subfamily of Phlebotominae does feed on blood with the ability to transmit (tropical) diseases, and Sycorax silacea can transmit microfilaria.[10] Inhalation of insect fragments may cause respiratory asthma.

Taxonomy

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Notofairchildia zelandiae (previously in Nemapalpus)

This family has 7 subfamilies that contain more than 2600 described species.[11][12]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Moth Flies in the Home (Department of Entomology)". Department of Entomology (Penn State University).
  2. ^ Quate LW, Vockeroth JR. Psychodidae. In: McAlpine JF, Peterson BV, Shewell GE, Teskey HJ, Vockeroth JR, Wood DM, eds. Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Vol. 1. Ottawa: Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Monograph 27; 1981:293–300.
  3. ^ a b Javier Oscoz; David Galicia; Rafael Miranda (27 June 2011). Identification Guide of Freshwater Macroinvertebrates of Spain. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 138. ISBN 978-94-007-1554-7.
  4. ^ "How to get rid of drain flies". Retrieved 2018-07-03.
  5. ^ a b W. Patrick McCafferty (January 1983). Aquatic Entomology: The Fishermen's and Ecologists' Illustrated Guide to Insects and Their Relatives. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 297. ISBN 978-0-86720-017-1.
  6. ^ Denny Schrock (31 January 2004). Ortho home gardener's problem solver. Meredith Books. ISBN 978-0-89721-504-6. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
  7. ^ Townsend, Lee. "Drain Flies or Moth Flies". Entomology at the University of Kentucky. University of Kentucky. Retrieved 2017-06-21.
  8. ^ "Get Rid Of Drain Flies | Drain Fly Control Treatment". Do It Yourself Pest Control. Retrieved 2017-06-21.
  9. ^ Drain Fly Life Circle
  10. ^ Schulz-Stübner, Sebastian, et al. "Psychodidae (Drain Fly) Infestation in an Operating Room." Infection control and hospital epidemiology 36.3 (2015): 366-367.
  11. ^ Quate, L.W. & B.V. Brown. 2004. Revision of Neotropical Setomimini (Diptera: Psychodidae: Psychodinae). Contributions in Science, 500: 1-117.
  12. ^ Stebner, F.; Solórzano Kraemer, M. M.; Ibáñez-Bernal, S.; Wagner, R. (2015). "Moth flies and sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Cretaceous Burmese amber". PeerJ. 3: e1254. doi:10.7717/peerj.1254. PMC 4579024. PMID 26401462.
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Psychodidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Psychodidae, called drain flies, sink flies, filter flies, sewer flies, or sewer gnats, is a family of true flies. Some genera have short, hairy bodies and wings giving them a "furry" moth-like appearance, hence one of their common names, moth flies. Members of the sub-family Phlebotominae which are hematophagous (feed on blood) may be called sand flies in some countries, although this term is also used for other unrelated flies.

There are more than 2,600 described species worldwide, most of them native to the humid tropics. This makes them one of the most diverse families of their order. Drain flies sometimes inhabit plumbing drains and sewage systems, where they are harmless, but may be a persistent annoyance.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
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wikipedia EN