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Description of Lateromyxa

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Amoebae from 25-800 µm in diameter, with one to multiple nuclei, pseudopodia usually tapering and rising from anterior margins of moving cells). Move from cell to cell of Oeodogonium through lateral walls, forming 'pseudocyst' in the process. With one species (L gallica).
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Description of Vampyrellidae

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Sole child of the parent taxon, see comments to the parent taxon.
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Brief Summary

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Vampyrellids are naked, filose amoebae, i.e., they lack a shell and their pseudopodia are thin and tapering. They are predators of algae, fungi and other microorganisms in freshwater, soil or marine environments. In the vampyrellid life cycle, amoeboid, free moving trophozoites alternate with an obligatory digestive cyst dedicated to digestion and cell division. The common name "Vampire Amoebae" has been been applied to this group because some vampyrellids perforate the cell wall of algal prey in order to extract the cell content.
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Placopus Schulze 1875 (Vampyrellidae): Systematics

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The generic name Placopus (Plakopus) has long fallen into disuse, with general acceptance that it is a junior synonym of Hyalodiscus Hertwig et Lesser 1874 (Page and Willumsen 1980). This widespread opinion (e.g. Klein 1882 a, b, Zopf 1885, Dangeard 1886, Penard 1902, Cash 1905, Hoogenraad 1907, Jahn 1928, De Saedeleer 1930) is contradictory to recognitions that the then monotypic genera described by Schulze resp. Hertwig and Lesser exhibit considerable differences which justify the preservation of two discrete taxa, at least at the species level. The endorsement of the existence of two discernible and separate species was initiated and expressed for instance by Leidy (1879), Mereschkowsky (1879), West (1901), Gobi (1915), and Schaeffer (1926). With the clarification of the life cycle as Vampyrella-like (Klein 1882 a, b, Hoogenraad 1907) – the alternation of swarming trophozoites attacking green algae and obligatory encysted stages – a positioning within the Vampyrellidae Zopf 1885 became widely accepted.

The following name-bearing types are now considered as taxonomic species within the genus Placopus (Vampyrellidae):

Placopus rubicundus (Hertwig et Lesser 1874) Jahn 1928 – type species by priority (syn. Hyalodiscus rubicundus Hertwig et Lesser 1874)

Placopus ruber Schulze 1875 (syn. Hyalodiscus ruber Mereschkowsky 1879)

Placopus korotnewi (Mereschkowsky 1879) Jaworowski 1891 (syn. Hyalodiscus korotnewi Mereschkowsky 1879)

Placopus pedatus (Klein 1882) comb. nov. (syn. Vampyrella pedata Klein 1882 – syn. Hyalodiscus pedatus Röpstorf et al. 1993 – syn. Hyalodiscus placopus Hülsmann 1974 – non Gocevia placopus (Hülsmann 1974) Page & Willumsen 1980 – non Paragocevia placopus (Hülsmann 1974) Page 1987

(Placopus lomnickii Jaworowski 1891 (= Vannella Bovee 1967) and Placopus minimus Lepsi 1931 (= Vannella Bovee 1967) (syn. Hyalodiscus minimus Lepsi 1960) are not considered as vampyrellids and as members of the genus Placopus. The same applies to all named species of the genus Hyalodiscuswhich are not listed in the above compilation).

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Placopus Schulze 1875 (scientific designation)

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The generic name was established in 1875 by Franz Eilhard Schulze in context with the description of the species “Plakopus ruber”. The designation was renamed/latinized into “Placopus” for the Zoological Record by Lütken in 1876. In a footnote to his original description Schulze expressed the assumption of a possible synonymy with Hyalodiscus Hertwig et Lesser 1874; this notion was later (1935) manifested in his posthumously published Nomenclator Animalium (“Plakopus Schulze pro Hyalodiscus Hertwig et Lesser”). The original spelling of the generic designation is basing on the Greek nouns πλαξ/πλακος (plax/plakos: plaque, plate, flat) and πους/ποδος (pous/podos: foot, leg) and is a constituent in several botanical/mycological articles and registers, even as type for the nominal family Plakopodaceae Jahn 1928 (resp. Plakopaceae Pearson 1995). The generic name – in both spellings – is the earliest valid and legitimate one in all respective codes of nomenclature and listed in the GNI Index of Scientific Names: http://gni.globalnames.org.

A possible priority for the name of the protist genus Hyalodiscus Hertwig et Lesser 1874 is problematic due to its homonymy with the protist genus Hyalodiscus Ehrenberg 1845.

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Specific feeding strategies

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Vampyrellids rank among the most rapacious hunters and ravenous parasites. They are renowned for their outstanding ability to attack algae, protist cysts, rotatorian eggs, fungal hyphae and melanized fungal conidia, etcetera, and to feed on the plasmatic content of the victims. The mechanisms of performing such attacks are diverse:

(1) Application of pure mechanical force via the contraction of filopodial branches adhering to algal end portions (physical bending up to cell bursting – f.i. in the caseof Closterium spp. and their predator Leptophrys cinerea – or stemming apart the siliceous thecae of diatoms by some marine Placopus spp.) (compare: https://www.flickr.com/photos/125539191@N07/15255001496/in/dateposted-public/ ),

(2) Partial decomposition of protective walls by invasive pseudopodia and following penetration and invasion (Gobiella spp., Lateromyxa, Placopus/Hyalodiscus spp., Platyreta, Vampyrella spp., Vampyrelloides), and

(3) Secretion of cellulose-lytic agents up to the bursting (plasmoptysis) of the turgescent cell and feeding on the emerging cytoplasm (some Placopus/Hyalodiscus spp.) (compare: https://www.flickr.com/photos/125539191@N07/18148385113/in/dateposted-public/ ).

From this compilation follows that penetration (or puncturing) is not the only way to conquer protective barriers.

In detail, there exist at least two major principles in the penetration of cell walls:

(2a) a multi-focal degradation of the extracellular wall matrix via the drilling capability of numerous invasive filose cell projections which leads to the forming of a hole with continously growing diameter (Placopus/Hyalodiscus, Vampyrella), (compare: https://www.flickr.com/photos/125539191@N07/18891892419/in/photostream) and

(2b) an operculation process (fenestration) via the activity of a tube-like cavernous pseudopodium which forms initially an annular depression in the wall and finally a hole, together with a corresponding operculum (Gobiella, Lateromyxa, Platyreta) (compare: https://www.flickr.com/photos/125539191@N07/18890192520/in/photostream/, https://www.flickr.com/photos/125539191@N07/14723576602/in/dateposted-public/and https://www.flickr.com/photos/125539191@N07/14667843665/in/dateposted-public/.

References

  • Hülsmann, N. (2009): Free-living naked rhizopods. In: R. Röttger, R. Knight & W.Foissner (eds.): A course in protozoology. Protozoological Monographs, 4: 80-91. Shaker Verlag, Aachen
  • Hülsmann, N. (1985): Entwicklung und Ernährungsweise von Vampyrella lateritia (Rhizopoda). Publ. Wiss. Film, Sekt. Biol., Ser. 17, Nr. 16/C 1522, 1-23 (http://dx.doi.org/10.3203/IWF/C-1522).

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Vampyrellidae

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The family Vampyrellidae is a subgroup of the order Vampyrellida within the phylum Cercozoa.[1][2] Based on molecular sequence data, the family currently comprises the genus Vampyrella, and maybe several other vampyrellid amoebae (e.g. Gobiella).[2] The cells are naked and characterised by radiating, filose Pseudopodia (also referred to as filopodia) and an orange colouration of the main cell body.[3][4]

In former times the family Vampyrellidae contained several genera (e.g. Vampyrella, Gobiella, Leptophrys, Platyreta, Theratromyxa) and was identical with the order Vampyrellida West, 1901, also known under the name "Aconchulinida".[5] However, based on molecular sequence data it seemed reasonable to restrict the family Vampyrellidae to a subgroup (containing the genus Vampyrella) and to establish another family for the genera Leptophrys, Platyreta and Theratromyxa, namely the Leptophryidae Hess et al., 2012.[2]

Characteristics

"
Vampyrella and Spirogyra

When free-floating, the cell is spherical and around 30 μm across, with long radially directed filose pseudopods as well as distinctive shorter club-shaped ones, so that it resembles a heliozoan. Moving, the cell stretches out and takes a more typical amoeboid form, with an obvious distinction between the clear periphery and pseudopods and the greenish interior. In this form it finds its way into algae cells and feeds on their interiors. A few other vampyrellids are parasitic on fungi. As such, these vampyrellids can be an important control of parasitic rust fungus of wheat and other crops.

Vampyrellids characteristically have mitochondria with tubular cristae. Together with the nucleariids they include the majority of the naked filose amoebae.

References

  1. ^ "Vampyrellidae". Retrieved 2009-03-08.
  2. ^ a b c Hess, Sebastian; Sausen, Nicole; Melkonian, Michael (2012-02-15). "Shedding Light on Vampires: The Phylogeny of Vampyrellid Amoebae Revisited". PLOS ONE. 7 (2): e31165. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...731165H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031165. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3280292. PMID 22355342.
  3. ^ Cienkowski, L. (1865-12-01). "Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Monaden". Archiv für Mikroskopische Anatomie (in German). 1 (1): 203–232. doi:10.1007/BF02961414. ISSN 0176-7364.
  4. ^ Zopf, Wilhelm (1885). Die Pilzthiere oder Schleimpilze. Breslau: Trewendt.
  5. ^ David Bass, Ema E.-Y. Chao, Sergey Nikolaev, Akinori Yabuki, Ken-ichiro Ishida, Cédric Berney, Ursula Pakzad, Claudia Wylezich & Thomas Cavalier-Smith (2009). "Phylogeny of novel naked filose and reticulose Cercozoa: Granofilosea cl. n. and Proteomyxidea revised". Protist. 160 (1): 75–109. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2008.07.002. PMID 18952499.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

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Vampyrellidae: Brief Summary

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The family Vampyrellidae is a subgroup of the order Vampyrellida within the phylum Cercozoa. Based on molecular sequence data, the family currently comprises the genus Vampyrella, and maybe several other vampyrellid amoebae (e.g. Gobiella). The cells are naked and characterised by radiating, filose Pseudopodia (also referred to as filopodia) and an orange colouration of the main cell body.

In former times the family Vampyrellidae contained several genera (e.g. Vampyrella, Gobiella, Leptophrys, Platyreta, Theratromyxa) and was identical with the order Vampyrellida West, 1901, also known under the name "Aconchulinida". However, based on molecular sequence data it seemed reasonable to restrict the family Vampyrellidae to a subgroup (containing the genus Vampyrella) and to establish another family for the genera Leptophrys, Platyreta and Theratromyxa, namely the Leptophryidae Hess et al., 2012.

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