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South Island takahe was formerly recognized as Porphyrio mantelli. It was later split into P. mantelli (extinct) and P. hochstetteri. This species is also commonly called "southern takahe." The extinct close relative, P. mantelli is also known as "North Island takahe."

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Lara, J. 2008. "Porphyrio hochstetteri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Porphyrio_hochstetteri.html
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Jose Lara, Northern Michigan University
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Alec R. Lindsay, Northern Michigan University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Behavior

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There is little available information on communication of Porphyrio hochstetteri at this time. Visual and tactile cues are used in mating.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Lara, J. 2008. "Porphyrio hochstetteri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Porphyrio_hochstetteri.html
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Jose Lara, Northern Michigan University
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Alec R. Lindsay, Northern Michigan University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Conservation Status

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South Island takahe were thought to be extinct, with the last known specimens collected in 1898. However, careful surveys rediscovered this bird species in 1948 in the Murchison Mountains of South Island. South Island takahe are listed as endangered on the IUCN redlist. They have been the focus of major conservation and reintroduction efforts. South Island takahe populations have been established on 4 offshore islands where there are no invasive predators. Previously, hunting, loss of habitat, and introduced predators were the major factors contributing to population decline. Loss of habitat and introduced predators are still major factors, but additionally South Island takahe are threatened by lack of genetic diversity and the low fertility of these birds.

US Migratory Bird Act: no special status

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: endangered

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Lara, J. 2008. "Porphyrio hochstetteri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Porphyrio_hochstetteri.html
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Jose Lara, Northern Michigan University
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Alec R. Lindsay, Northern Michigan University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Benefits

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There are no known adverse effects of Porphyrio hochstetteri on humans.

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Lara, J. 2008. "Porphyrio hochstetteri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Porphyrio_hochstetteri.html
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Jose Lara, Northern Michigan University
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Alec R. Lindsay, Northern Michigan University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Benefits

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South Island takahe represent unique adaptation towards flightlessness in island birds, especially rails. Because of their uniqueness and rarity, they support ecotourism of people interested in viewing them in introduced populations on offshore islands.

Positive Impacts: ecotourism ; research and education

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Lara, J. 2008. "Porphyrio hochstetteri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Porphyrio_hochstetteri.html
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Jose Lara, Northern Michigan University
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Alec R. Lindsay, Northern Michigan University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations

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South Island takahe numbers are exceptionally low, so their ecosystem impacts are very small. They do impact vegetation communities through their grazing.

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Lara, J. 2008. "Porphyrio hochstetteri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Porphyrio_hochstetteri.html
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Jose Lara, Northern Michigan University
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Alec R. Lindsay, Northern Michigan University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Trophic Strategy

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South Island takahe primarily consume the leaf bases and seeds of native tussock grasses, including broad leafed snow tussock (Chionochloa rigida), mid-ribbed snow tussock (Chionochloa pallens) and curled snow tussock (Chionochloa crassiuscula). They occasionally take insects as well, especially when raising young. They also eat rhizomes of native ferns.

Animal Foods: insects

Plant Foods: leaves; roots and tubers; seeds, grains, and nuts

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore )

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Lara, J. 2008. "Porphyrio hochstetteri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Porphyrio_hochstetteri.html
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Jose Lara, Northern Michigan University
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Alec R. Lindsay, Northern Michigan University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Distribution

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South Island takahe are endemic to New Zealand's South Island. Following conservation and reintroduction efforts South Island takahe have been introduced to the islands of Tiritiri Matangi, Kapiti, Mana, Maud, and Rarotoka, off the coast of New Zealand's South Island.

Biogeographic Regions: australian (Native )

Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

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Lara, J. 2008. "Porphyrio hochstetteri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Porphyrio_hochstetteri.html
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Jose Lara, Northern Michigan University
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Alec R. Lindsay, Northern Michigan University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Habitat

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Mainland populations can be found in alpine tussocks grasslands and sub-alpine shrublands. Island populations live in modified grasslands.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; scrub forest

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Lara, J. 2008. "Porphyrio hochstetteri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Porphyrio_hochstetteri.html
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Jose Lara, Northern Michigan University
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Alec R. Lindsay, Northern Michigan University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Life Expectancy

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Very little is known about South Island takahe lifespan in the wild. Sources estimate they can live between 14 and 20 years in the wild. In captivity South Island takahe have lived up to 20 years.

Range lifespan
Status: captivity:
20 (high) years.

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Lara, J. 2008. "Porphyrio hochstetteri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Porphyrio_hochstetteri.html
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Jose Lara, Northern Michigan University
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Alec R. Lindsay, Northern Michigan University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Morphology

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South Island takahe are large, flightless rails. South Island takahe are very colorful, with deep to peacock-blue heads, breasts, necks, and shoulders. The wings and back are olive-green and blue. The bill is large and red, as is the shield. South Island takahe also have large, powerful, red legs and feet. Young South Island takahe are deep blue to black at hatching but quickly take on the coloration of adults. There is little sexual dimorphism, although males average slightly larger in mass.

Average mass: Male 2.7 Female 2.3 kg.

Average length: 63 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike; male larger

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Lara, J. 2008. "Porphyrio hochstetteri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Porphyrio_hochstetteri.html
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Jose Lara, Northern Michigan University
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Alec R. Lindsay, Northern Michigan University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Associations

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South Island takahe do not have any native predators. Populations have declined as a result of anthropogenic changes such as habitat destruction and modification, hunting, and the introduction of mammalian predators and competitors, including dogs, red deer, and stoats.

Known Predators:

  • humans (Homo sapiens
  • domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)
  • red deer (Cervus elaphus)
  • stoats (Mustela erminea)
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Lara, J. 2008. "Porphyrio hochstetteri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Porphyrio_hochstetteri.html
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Jose Lara, Northern Michigan University
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Alec R. Lindsay, Northern Michigan University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Reproduction

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Mate selection involves several courtship behaviors. Duetting and neck-pecking, of both sexes, are the most common behaviors. Following courtship, the female solicits the male by positioning her back toward the male, spreading her wings, and putting her head down. Allopreening and copulation is then done by the male.

Mating System: monogamous

Breeding occurs following the New Zealand winter, ending sometime in October. A deep, bowl-shaped nest is constructed of fine grass. Females lay a clutch of 1 to 3 eggs that hatch after about 30 days of incubation. Different survival rates have been reported, but on average only one chick will survive to adulthood.

Breeding interval: Southern takahe breed once a year.

Breeding season: The breeding season occurs following the New Zealand winter, in October.

Range eggs per season: 1 to 3.

Average eggs per season: 1.

Average time to hatching: 30 days.

Average fledging age: 3 months.

Average time to independence: 1 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; oviparous

South Island takahe pairs, when not incubating eggs, are generally seen in close proximity to each other. In contrast a breeding pair is rarely together during incubation, so it is assumed that one bird is always on the nest. Females incubate significantly more during the day and males more at night. Post-hatch observations suggest that both sexes spend similar amounts of time feeding the young. The young are fed until they are about 3 months old, at which time they become independent.

Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female)

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Lara, J. 2008. "Porphyrio hochstetteri" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Porphyrio_hochstetteri.html
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Jose Lara, Northern Michigan University
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Alec R. Lindsay, Northern Michigan University
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Biology

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The takahe feeds mainly on the leaf bases and seeds of tussocks and other grasses. They occasionally take invertebrates, particular during the chick rearing period and the Fiordland birds will feed on the rhizomes of the summer-green fern hypolepis during winter (6). It is a monogamous breeder (2); nests are raised bowl-like piles of grass and are built after October when the snow begins to melt (4). A clutch can contain between one and three buff-coloured blotchy eggs (2), which hatch after about 30 days of incubation (4). Both parents incubate the egg and then share the feeding duties, which can last for up to three months. It is typical that just one chick per clutch survives the first winter (4). This species is long-lived, possibly as long as 14 to 20 years (3).
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Conservation

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After the species was rediscovered, a special area was set up within Fiordland National Park in order to conserve this rare bird. Deer have been controlled in the area, and the habitat has started to show signs of recovery, although takahe numbers remain low (7). The New Zealand Department of Conservation's Takahe Recovery Plan began to introduce pairs to predator-free islands in 1985 (4) (7). These birds have been extensively managed and measures such as supplementary feeding and captive breeding have helped to produce successful populations (3). The Recovery Plan is currently being revised but the long-term aim is to produce two self-sustaining populations, containing 100 pairs each; one in Fiordland and one on the offshore islands and other lowland habitats (6). Takahe numbers reached a low of just 118 birds in 1982, but thanks to concerted conservation efforts the population now stands at 242 individuals (6).
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Description

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This unique flightless bird is roughly the size of a hen, making it the world's largest rail. It has a stocky body with stout red legs, and is brightly coloured with a large robust red bill and attractive green and blue plumage (4). It has small wings (4), which are used in courtship and aggressive displays (5). The call is a slow and deep 'coo-eet' and the alarm call is a deep 'oomf' (3). Chicks have black down and a black beak (5).
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Habitat

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Mainland populations prefer alpine tussock grasslands although they are also found in forest and sub-alpine shrublands. Island populations are found mainly on modified grassland habitat (6).
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Range

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The takahe is endemic to New Zealand, and was once widespread in both the North and South Islands. It was thought to be extinct for around 50 years (6), before being 'rediscovered' in 1948 in the Murchison Mountains of Fiordland in the South Island (3). Individuals have been introduced to the five offshore islands of Tiritiri Matangi, Kapiti, Mana, Maud and Rarotoka (6).
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Status

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Classified as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List 2007 (1). Formerly Porphyrio mantelli, this species has been split into P. mantelli (extinct) and P. hochstetteri (extant) (3).
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Threats

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When Europeans arrived in New Zealand the pressures on New Zealand's previously isolated and mammal-free fauna and flora intensified. When 'rediscovered' in 1948 just 250 to 300 takahe survived, and the population has undergone further declines since that time (3). Habitat modification and the introduction of predators such as dogs to lowland habitats were significant in the decline of takahe numbers, although these birds were probably never particularly numerous (6). More recently, harsh winters (3) and competition for grass tussocks with introduced red deer (Cervus elaphus) (6), have caused great fluctuations in the precarious populations that remain; predation by the introduced stoat (Mustela erminea) may also have taken its toll (3).
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South Island takahē

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The takahē (Porphyrio hochstetteri), also known as the South Island takahē or notornis, is a flightless bird indigenous to New Zealand, and the largest living member of the rail family. First encountered by Europeans in 1847, just four specimens were collected in the 19th century. After the final bird was captured in 1898, and no more were to be found, the species was presumed extinct. Fifty years later, however, after a carefully planned search, takahē were dramatically rediscovered in 1948 by Geoffrey Orbell in an isolated valley in the South Island's Murchison Mountains. The species is now managed by the New Zealand Department of Conservation, whose Takahē Recovery Programme maintains populations on several offshore islands as well as Takahē Valley. The species has now been reintroduced to a second mainland site in Kahurangi National Park. Although takahē are still a threatened species, the species' NZTCS status was downgraded in 2016 from Nationally Critical to Nationally Vulnerable.[2] The population now numbers over 400 and is growing by 10% a year [3].

Discovery and naming

Anatomist Richard Owen was sent fossil bird bones found in 1847 in South Taranaki on the North Island by collector Walter Mantell, and in 1848 he coined the genus Notornis ("southern bird") for them, naming the new species Notornis mantelli.[4] The bird was presumed to be another extinct species like the moa.

Two years later, a group of sealers in Dusky Bay, Fiordland, encountered a large bird which they chased with their dogs. "It ran with great speed, and upon being captured uttered loud screams, and fought and struggled violently; it was kept alive three or four days on board the schooner and then killed, and the body roasted and ate by the crew, each partaking of the dainty, which was declared to be delicious."[5] Walter Mantell happened to meet the sealers, and secured the bird's skin from them. He sent it to his father, palaeontologist Gideon Mantell, who realised this was Notornis, a living bird known only from fossil bones, and presented it in 1850 to a meeting of the Zoological Society of London.[5] A second specimen was sent to Gideon Mantell in 1851, caught by Māori on Secretary Island, Fiordland. (Takahē were well known to Māori, who travelled long distances to hunt them. The bird's name comes from the word takahi, to stamp or trample.[6])

Only two more takahē were collected by Europeans in the 19th century. One was caught by a rabbiter's dog on the eastern side of Lake Te Anau in 1879. It was bought by what is now the State Museum of Zoology, Dresden, for £105, and destroyed during the bombing of Dresden in World War II.[6] Another takahē was caught by another dog, also on the shore of Lake Te Anau, on 7 August 1898; the dog, named 'Rough', was owned by musterer Jack Ross. Ross tried to revive the female takahē, but it died, and he delivered it to curator William Benham at Otago Museum.[7] In excellent condition, it was purchased by the New Zealand government for £250 and was put on display; for many years it was the only mounted specimen in New Zealand, and the only takahē on display anywhere in the world.[6]

After 1898, hunters and settlers continued to report sightings of large blue-and-green birds, described as "giant pukakis"; one group chased but couldn't catch a bird "the size of a goose, with blue-green feathers and the speed of a racehorse".[8] None of the sightings were authenticated, and the only specimens collected were fossil bones.[9] The takahē was considered extinct.[6]

Taxonomy and systematics

Notornis hochstetteri, from Meyer's 1883 description

The third takahē collected went to the Königlich Zoologisches und Anthropologisch-Ethnographisches Museum in Dresden, and the Director Adolf Bernhard Meyer examined the skeleton[10] while preparing his classification of the museum's birds, Abbildungen von Vogelskeletten (1879–95). He decided the skeletal differences between the Fiordland bird and Owen's North Island specimen were sufficient to make it a separate species, which he called Notornis hochstetteri, after the Austrian geologist Ferdinand von Hochstetter.[11]

Over the second half of the 20th century, the two Notornis species were gradually relegated to subspecies: Notornis mantelli mantelli in the North Island, and Notornis mantelli hochstetteri in the South. They were then incorporated into the same genus as the closely related Australasian swamphen or pukeko (Porphyrio porphyrio), becoming subspecies of Porphyrio mantelli.[12] Pukeko are members of a widespread species of swamphen, but based on fossil evidence have only been in New Zealand for a few hundred years, arriving from Australia after the islands were first settled by Polynesians.[12]

A morphological and genetic study of living and extinct Porphyrio revealed that North and South Island takahē were, as originally proposed by Meyer, separate species.[13] The North Island species (P. mantelli, as described by Owen) was known to Māori as mōho; it is extinct and only known from skeletal remains and one possible specimen. Mōho were taller and more slender than takahē, and share a common ancestor with living pukeko.[12] Takahē living in the South Island trace their ancestry back to a different lineage of Porphyrio porphyrio, possibly from Africa, and represent a separate and earlier invasion of New Zealand by swamphens which subsequently evolved large size and flightlessness.[12]

Rediscovery

Living takahē were rediscovered in an expedition led by Invercargill based physician Geoffrey Orbell near Lake Te Anau in the Murchison Mountains, on 20 November 1948.The expedition started when footprints of an unknown bird were found near Lake Te Anau. Two takahē were caught but returned to the wild after photos were taken of the rediscovered bird.[14]

Description

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The colour of the adult takahē is mainly purple-blue with a greenish back and inner wings.

The takahē is the largest living member of the family Rallidae. Its overall length averages 63 cm (25 in) and its average weight is about 2.7 kg (6.0 lb) in males and 2.3 kg (5.1 lb) in females, ranging from 1.8–4.2 kg (4.0–9.3 lb). Its standing height is around 50 cm (20 in).[15] It is a stocky, powerful bird, with short strong legs and a massive bill which can deliver a painful bite to the unwary. Although a flightless bird, the takahē sometimes uses its reduced wings to help it clamber up slopes.[15]

Takahē plumage, beaks, and legs show typical gallinule colours. Adult takahē plumage is silky, iridescent, and mostly dark-blue or navy-blue on the head, neck, and underside, peacock blue on the wings. The back and inner wings are teal and green, becoming olive-green at the tail, which is white underneath.[15] Takahe have a bright scarlet frontal shield and "carmine beaks marbled with shades of red".[16] Their scarlet legs were described as "crayfish-red" by one of the early rediscoverers.[17]

Sexes are similar; the females are slightly smaller, and may display frayed tail feathers when nesting.[17] Chicks are covered with jet-black fluffy down when hatched, and have very large brown legs, with a dark white-tipped bill.[17] Immature takahe have a duller version of adult colouring, with a dark bill that turns red as they mature.

Takahē are a noisy species. They have a non-directional warning womph call, which was described by the rediscoverers of takahē as someone "whistling to them over a .303 cartridge case",[17] and a loud clowp call. The contact call is easily confused with that of the weka (Gallirallus australis), but is generally more resonant and deeper.[18]

Behaviour and ecology

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Adult feeding a chick.

The takahē is a sedentary and flightless bird currently found in alpine grasslands habitats. It is territorial and remains in the grassland until the arrival of snow, when it descends to the forest or scrub. It eats grass, shoots, and insects, but predominantly leaves of Chionochloa tussocks and other alpine grass species.[19] The takahē can often be seen plucking a snow grass (Danthonia flavescens) stalk, taking it into one claw, and eating only the soft lower parts, which appears to be its favourite food, while the rest is discarded.

A takahē has been recorded feeding on a paradise duckling at Zealandia. Although this behaviour was previously unknown, the related pukeko occasionally feeds on eggs and nestlings of other birds as well.

Breeding

The takahē is monogamous, with pairs remaining together from 12 years to, probably, their entire lives. It builds a bulky nest under bushes and scrub, and lays one to three buff eggs. The chick survival rate is 73–97%.

Distribution and habitat

Although it is indigenous to swamps, humans have turned its swampland habitats into farmland, and the takahē was forced to move upland into the grasslands. The species is still present in the location where it was rediscovered in the Murchison Mountains. Small numbers have also been successfully translocated to five predator-free offshore islands, Tiritiri Matangi, Kapiti, Maud, Mana and Motutapu, where they can be viewed by the public. Additionally, captive takahē can be viewed at Te Anau and Pukaha/Mt Bruce wildlife centres. In June 2006 a pair of takahē were relocated to the Maungatautari Restoration Project. In September 2010 a pair of takahē (Hamilton and Guy) were released at Willowbank Wildlife Reserve – the first non-Department of Conservation institution to hold this species. In January 2011 two takahē were released in Zealandia, Wellington, and in mid-2015, two more takahē were released on Rotoroa Island in the Hauraki Gulf. There have also been relocations onto the Tawharanui Peninsula. In 2014 two pairs of Takahe were released into Wairakei golf and sanctuary, a private fenced sanctuary at Wairakei north of Taupo, the first chick was born there in November 2015. At October 2017 there were 347 takahē accounted for, an increase of 41 over 2016.[20] The Orokonui Ecosanctuary is home to a single takahē breeding pair, Quammen and Paku. The pair successfully bred two chicks in 2018, both of which died from exposure after heavy rains in November 2018.[21] The deaths caused some controversy with regards to the Ecosanctuary's policy of "non-interference".[22]

In 2018, eighteen individuals were reintroduced for the first time in the Kahurangi National Park, 100 years after their local extinction.[23]

Status and conservation

The near-extinction of the formerly widespread takahē is due to a number of factors: over-hunting, loss of habitat and introduced predators have all played a part. The introduction of red deer (Cervus elaphus) represent a severe competition for food, while the stoats (Mustela erminea) take a role as predators. The spread of the forests in post-glacial Pleistocene-Holocene has contributed to the reduction of habitat. Since the species is long-lived, reproduces slowly, takes several years to reach maturity, and had a large range that has drastically contracted in comparatively few generations, inbreeding depression is a significant problem.[24] The recovery efforts are hampered especially by low fertility of the remaining birds. Genetic analyses have been employed to select captive breeding stock in an effort to preserve the maximum genetic diversity.[25]

Decline of takahē

Reasons for the pre-European decline of takahē were postulated by Williams (1962) and later supported in a detailed report by Mills et al. (1984).[26][27] They held that climate changes were the main cause of the failure in takahē before European settlement. The environmental variations before the European settlement were not suitable for takahē, and exterminated almost all of them. Survival in the altering temperature was not tolerable by this group of birds. Takahē live in alpine grasslands, but the post-glacial era destroyed those zones which caused an intense decline in their numbers.

Secondly, they suggested that Polynesian settlers arriving about 800–1,000 years ago, bringing dogs and Polynesian rats and hunting takahē for food, started another decline. European settlement in the nineteenth century almost wiped them out through hunting and introducing mammals such as deer which competed for food and predators (e.g. stoats) which preyed on them directly.

Takahē population, conservation and protection

 src=
Ringed female takahē at Kapiti Island.

After long threats of extinction, takahē now find protection in Fiordland National Park (New Zealand's largest national park). However, the species has not made a stable recovery in this habitat since they were rediscovered in 1948. In fact, the takahē population was at 400 before it was reduced to 118 in 1982 due to competition with Fiordland domestic deer. Conservationists noticed the threat that deer posed to takahē survival, and the national park now implements deer control by hunting by helicopter.

The rediscovery of the takahē caused great public interest. The New Zealand government took immediate action by closing off a remote part of Fiordland National Park to prevent the birds from being bothered. However, at the moment of rediscovery, there were different perspectives on how the bird should be conserved. At first, the Forest and Bird Society advocated for takahē to be left to work out their own “destiny”, but many worried that the takahē would be incapable of making a comeback and thus become extinct like New Zealand's native huia. Interventionists then sought to relocate the takahē to “island sanctuaries” and breed them in captivity. Ultimately, no action was taken for nearly a decade due to a lack of resources and a desire to avoid conflict.

Biologists from the Department of Conservation drew on their experience with designing remote island sanctuaries to establish a safe habitat for takahē and translocate birds onto Maud Island (Malborough Sounds), Mana Island (near Wellington), Kapiti Island (Kapiti Coast), and Tiritiri Matangi Island (Hauraki Gulf). The success of these translocations has meant that the takahē's island metapopulation appears to have reached its carrying capacity, as revealed by the increasing ratio of non-breeding to breeding adults and declines in produced offspring. This may lead to reduced population growth rates and increased rates of inbreeding over time, thereby posing problems regarding the maintenance of genetic diversity and thus takahē survival in the long term.

Recently, human intervention has been required to maintain the breeding success of the takahē, which is relatively low in the wild compared to other, less threatened species, so methods such as the removal of infertile eggs from nests and the captive rearing of chicks have been introduced to manage the takahē population. The Fiordland takahē population has a successful degree of reproductive output due to these management methods: the number of chicks per pairing with infertile egg removal and captive rearing is 0.66, compared to 0.43 for regions without any breeding management.

It was reported that several takahē have accidentally been killed by deer hunters under contract to the Department of Conservation in the course of control measures aimed at reducing populations of the similar-looking pukeko. One bird was killed in 2009 and four more—equivalent to 5% of the total population—in 2015.[28][29]

Future efforts for protection

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Takahē released at Maungatautari Restoration Project ecological island, Waikato district, North Island in June 2006.

The original recovery strategies and goals set in the early 1980s, both long-term and short-term, are now well under way.

The programme to move takahē to predator-free island refuges, where the birds also receive supplementary feeding, began in 1984. Takahē can now be found on five small islands; Maud Island (Marlborough Sounds), Mana Island (off Wellington's west coast), Kapiti Island (off Wellington's west coast), Tiritiri Matangi Island (Hauraki Gulf) and Motutapu Island (Hauraki Gulf). The Department of Conservation also runs a captive breeding and rearing programme at the Burwood Breeding Centre near Te Anau which consists of five breeding pairs. Chicks are reared with minimal human contact. The offspring of the captive birds are used for new island releases and to add to the wild population in the Murchison Mountains. The Department of Conservation also manages wild takahē nests to boost the birds' recovery. Surplus eggs from wild nests are taken to the Burwood Breeding Centre.

An important management development has been the stringent control of deer in the Murchison Mountains and other takahē areas of Fiordland National Park. Following the introduction of deer hunting by helicopter, deer numbers have decreased dramatically and alpine vegetation is now recovering from years of heavy browsing. This improvement in its habitat has helped to increase takahē breeding success and survival. Current research aims to measure the impact of attacks by stoats and thus decide whether stoats are a significant problem requiring management.

Takahē population

One of the original long-term goals was to establish a self-sustaining population of well over 500 takahē. The population stood at 263 at the beginning of 2013. In 2016 the population rose to 306 takahē.[30] In 2017 the population rose to 347-a 13 percent increase from the last year.[20][31] In 2019, it increased to 418.[32]

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2013). "Porphyrio hochstetteri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.old-form url
  2. ^ a b "Porphyrio hochstetteri". nztcs.org.nz. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
  3. ^ "Official Takahē Recovery Programme Website".
  4. ^ Owen, R. (1848). "On Dinornis (Part III): containing a description of the skull and beak of that genus, and of the same characteristic parts of Palapteryx, and of two other genera of birds, Notornis and Nestor, forming part of an extensive collection of ornithic remains discovered by Mr Walter Mantell at Waingongoro, North Island of New Zealand". Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 3: 345–378, pls 52–56.
  5. ^ a b Mantell, Gideon Algernon (2010). "V. Notice of the Discovery by Mr. Walter Mantellin the Middle Island of New Zealand, of a Living Specimen of the Notornis, a Bird of the Rail Family, allied to Brachypteryx, and hitherto unknown to Naturalists except in a Fossil State". The Transactions of the Zoological Society of London. 4 (2): 69–72. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1862.tb08048.x.
  6. ^ a b c d Ballance, Alison A. (2001). "Takahe: the bird that twice came back from the grave". In Lee, William G.; Jamieson, Ian G. (eds.). The Takahe: Fifty Years of Conservation Management and Research. Dunedin, New Zealand: University of Otago Press. pp. 18–22. ISBN 978-1877276019.
  7. ^ Sima, Ellen (10 November 2014). "Rare in all its forms". Otago Daily Times. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  8. ^ Grzelewski, Derek (January–March 1999). "Takahe – the bird that came back from the dead". New Zealand Geographic. 41.
  9. ^ Gurr, L. (1952). "A Skeleton of Notornis hochstetteri Meyer from Waitati, Otago, and Notes on Distribution of the Bird in the South Island, N.Z." Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 80 (1): 19–21.
  10. ^ B.Magee (15 January 1938). "NEW ZEALAND'S MYSTERY BIRD" (Broadsheet). Otago Daily Times (23400). Allied Press. Otago Daily Times. p. 5. ISSN 0114-426X. Retrieved 18 May 2019. Only, four specimens of: the Notornis are preserved. Two are in the British Museum, another is in the Dresden Museum in Germany
  11. ^ Meyer, Adolf Bernhard (1883). Abbildungen von Vogel-Skeletten. Berlin. pp. 28–30. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.51853. hdl:2027/chi.096066971.
  12. ^ a b c d Trewick, Steven A.; Worthy, Trevor H. (2001). "Origins and prehistoric ecology of takahe based on morphometric, molecular, and fossil data". In Lee, William G.; Jamieson, Ian G. (eds.). The Takahe: Fifty Years of Conservation Management and Research. Dunedin, New Zealand: University of Otago Press. pp. 31–48. ISBN 978-1877276019.
  13. ^ Trewick, Steven A. (1996). "Morphology and evolution of two takahe: flightless rails of New Zealand". Journal of Zoology. 238 (2): 221–237. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1996.tb05391.x.
  14. ^ "GAINED IN TELLING". Otago Daily Times. 8 January 1949. p. 6. Retrieved 7 April 2019 – via Papers Past.
  15. ^ a b c Lee, William G.; Jamieson, Ian G. (2001). "Introduction". In Lee, William G.; Jamieson, Ian G. (eds.). The Takahe: Fifty Years of Conservation Management and Research. Dunedin, New Zealand: University of Otago Press. pp. 11–17. ISBN 978-1877276019.
  16. ^ Grzelewski, Derek (May–June 2012). "Great experimentations". New Zealand Geographic. 115.
  17. ^ a b c d Watson (née Telfer), Joan L. (2001). "Notornis Rediviva". In Lee, William G.; Jamieson, Ian G. (eds.). The Takahe: Fifty Years of Conservation Management and Research. Dunedin, New Zealand: University of Otago Press. pp. 23–30. ISBN 978-1877276019.
  18. ^ del Hoyo, J. Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. (editors). (1996) Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions. ISBN 84-87334-20-2
  19. ^ Mills, J. A.; Mark, A. F. (1977). "Food Preferences of Takahe in Fiordland National Park, New Zealand, and the Effect of Competition from Introduced Red Deer". Journal of Animal Ecology. 46 (3): 939–958. doi:10.2307/3651. JSTOR 3651.
  20. ^ a b "Takahē population 100 breeding pairs strong". www.doc.govt.nz.
  21. ^ Edwards, Jono (27 November 2018). "Orokonui takahe chicks victims of flood". Otago Daily Times Online News.
  22. ^ Edwards, Jono (29 November 2018). "Department of Conservation blames 'bad parenting' for deaths of takahe chicks" – via www.nzherald.co.nz.
  23. ^ "First population of takahē outside of Fiordland released into wild". Stuff.
  24. ^ GRUEBER, CATHERINE E.; LAWS, REBECCA J.; NAKAGAWA, SHINICHI; JAMIESON, IAN G. (11 November 2010). "Inbreeding Depression Accumulation across Life-History Stages of the Endangered Takahe". Conservation Biology. 24 (6): 1617–1625. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01549.x. ISSN 0888-8892. PMID 20586788.
  25. ^ BirdLife International 2009. Species factsheet: Porphyrio hochstetteri. Downloaded on 1 December 2009.
  26. ^ Williams, G.R. (1962) The Takahe (Notornis mantelli Owen 1848); a general survey. Trans. Royal Soc. New Zealand 88:235–258.
  27. ^ Mills, J.A. Lavers, R.B. & Lee, W.G. (1984) The Takahe: A relict of the Pleistocene grassland avifauna of New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 7:57–70.
  28. ^ "Takahe shot in case of mistaken identity". 31 January 2009.
  29. ^ Elle Hunt (21 August 2015). "New Zealand hunters apologise over accidental shooting of takahē". The Guardian.
  30. ^ "Takahē population crosses 300 milestone". Department of Conservation. 2 December 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  31. ^ "Takahe numbers rise" – via www.nzherald.co.nz.
  32. ^ "Takahē population flying high". www.doc.govt.nz.

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South Island takahē: Brief Summary

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The takahē (Porphyrio hochstetteri), also known as the South Island takahē or notornis, is a flightless bird indigenous to New Zealand, and the largest living member of the rail family. First encountered by Europeans in 1847, just four specimens were collected in the 19th century. After the final bird was captured in 1898, and no more were to be found, the species was presumed extinct. Fifty years later, however, after a carefully planned search, takahē were dramatically rediscovered in 1948 by Geoffrey Orbell in an isolated valley in the South Island's Murchison Mountains. The species is now managed by the New Zealand Department of Conservation, whose Takahē Recovery Programme maintains populations on several offshore islands as well as Takahē Valley. The species has now been reintroduced to a second mainland site in Kahurangi National Park. Although takahē are still a threatened species, the species' NZTCS status was downgraded in 2016 from Nationally Critical to Nationally Vulnerable. The population now numbers over 400 and is growing by 10% a year .

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