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Brief Summary

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The spider family Tetragnathidae (longjawed orb weavers) includes 966 described species (Platnick 2014), with around three dozen of these occurring in North America north of Mexico (Levi 2005; Platnick 2014).

Tetragnathids typically have long, thin bodies and legs, with the first pair of legs the longest and the third pair the shortest. The cheliceral bases and fangs are elongated. The male's palps are long and thin as well. The front two pairs of legs are often stretched out in front of the body, especially when the spider is at rest. During mating, the male and female tightly interlock their large jaws, but the long palps of the male are able to reach the female's reproductive opening even in this position. (Bradley 2013)Like most spiders, tetragnathids have eight eyes.

Most tetragnthids spin orb webs to capture prey. These webs are often oriented horizontally with an open hub. Many species build their webs near water or in vegetation above it, capturing emerging insects such as mosquitos. One exception is Leucauge, which often build webs at an oblique angle to the horizontal, often well away from water. Their conspicuous webs and silvery and green colors often make these spiders easy to notice. Nephila constructs vertical, bright yellow webs. Meta builds in dark places such as in caves or wells. Pachygnatha builds only in very early instars, in later stages becoming wandering hunters. (Levi 2005; Bradley 2013)

Tetragnathidae have been transferred in and out of the old families Epeiridae and Argiopidae, as well as the present-day Araneidae. Levi (1980, 1981) revised and illustrated the North American species (subsequently, Marusik and Koponen [1992] determined that the North American Meta "menardi" is distinct from the European species and gave it a new name, "M. americana" but Dondale [1995] found an earlier name, with priority, for the American Meta, M. ovalis).

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Long-jawed orb weaver

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Long-jawed orb weavers or long jawed spiders (Tetragnathidae) is a family of araneomorph spiders first described by Anton Menge in 1866.[1] They have elongated bodies, legs, and chelicerae, and build small orb webs with an open hub with few, wide-set radii and spirals with no signal line or retreat. Some species are often found in long vegetation near water.[2]

Systematics

Mating behaviour of Tetragnatha montana

As of April 2019, the World Spider Catalog accepts the following extant genera:[3]

  • Alcimosphenus Simon, 1895 — Caribbean
  • Allende Álvarez-Padilla, 2007 — Chile, Argentina
  • Antillognatha Bryant, 1945 — Hispaniola
  • Atelidea Simon, 1895 — Sri Lanka
  • Azilia Keyserling, 1881 — United States, Panama, South America, Caribbean
  • Chrysometa Simon, 1894 — South America, Central America, Mexico, Caribbean
  • Cyrtognatha Keyserling, 1881 — South America, Central America, Caribbean, Mexico
  • Dianleucauge Song & Zhu, 1994 — China
  • Diphya Nicolet, 1849 — Asia, South America, Africa
  • Dolichognatha O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869 — Asia, Africa, South America, Oceania, United States, Panama
  • Doryonychus Simon, 1900 — Hawaii
  • Dyschiriognatha Simon, 1893 — Indonesia, Brazil, Samoa
  • Eryciniolia Strand, 1912 — New Zealand
  • Glenognatha Simon, 1887 — Africa, South America, Asia, North America, Central America, Caribbean
  • Guizygiella Zhu, Kim & Song, 1997 — Asia
  • Hispanognatha Bryant, 1945 — Hispaniola
  • Homalometa Simon, 1898 — Central America, Cuba, Mexico, Brazil
  • Leucauge White, 1841 — Africa, North America, Asia, Oceania, South America, Central America, Caribbean
  • Mecynometa Simon, 1894 — Africa, Guatemala, Brazil
  • Mesida Kulczyński, 1911 — Oceania, Asia, Africa
  • Meta C. L. Koch, 1836 — Asia, North America, Tanzania, Oceania, Cuba
  • Metabus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1899 — Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador, Dominican Republic
  • Metellina Chamberlin & Ivie, 1941 — Africa, Asia, Canada
  • Metleucauge Levi, 1980 — Asia, United States
  • Mitoscelis Thorell, 1890 — Indonesia
  • Mollemeta Álvarez-Padilla, 2007 — Chile
  • Nanningia Zhu, Kim & Song, 1997
  • Nanometa Simon, 1908 — Australia
  • Nediphya Marusik & Omelko, 2017 — Papua New Guinea
  • Neoprolochus Reimoser, 1927 — Indonesia
  • Okileucauge Tanikawa, 2001 — China, Japan
  • Opadometa Archer, 1951 — Asia, Papua New Guinea
  • Opas O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 — South America, Mexico, Panama
  • Orsinome Thorell, 1890 — Asia, Oceania, Madagascar
  • Pachygnatha Sundevall, 1823 — Africa, Asia, North America, Cuba, Europe
  • Parameta Simon, 1895 — Ethiopia, Somalia, Sierra Leone
  • Parazilia Lessert, 1938 — Congo
  • Pholcipes Schmidt & Krause, 1993 — Comoros
  • Pickardinella Archer, 1951 — Mexico
  • Pinkfloydia Dimitrov & Hormiga, 2011 — Australia
  • Sancus Tullgren, 1910 — Kenya, Tanzania
  • Schenkeliella Strand, 1934 — Sri Lanka
  • Tetragnatha Latreille, 1804 — Asia, South America, Oceania, Africa, North America, Caribbean, Central America, Europe
  • Timonoe Thorell, 1898 — Myanmar
  • Tylorida Simon, 1894 — Asia, Africa, Oceania
  • Wolongia Zhu, Kim & Song, 1997 — China
  • Zhinu Kallal & Hormiga, 2018 — Taiwan, Korea, Japan
  • Zygiometella Wunderlich, 1995 — Israel

Fossil genera

Several extinct, fossil genera have been described:[4]

Formerly placed here

See also

References

  1. ^ Menge, Anton (1866). "Preussische Spinnen. Erste Abtheilung". Schriften der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Danzig (N.F.). 1.
  2. ^ Kindall; et al. (2005). Arachnidae: An Encyclopedia. San Diego, CA: Random House. p. 567.
  3. ^ "Family: Tetragnathidae Menge, 1866". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2019-04-25.
  4. ^ Dunlop, J. A., Penney, D. & Jekel, D. 2018. A summary list of fossil spiders and their relatives. In World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch, version 19.0, accessed on 7 October 2018.
  • Chickering, A.M. (1963). The Male of Mecynometa globosa (O. P.-Cambridge) (Araneae, Argiopidae). Psyche 70:180–183. PDF

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Long-jawed orb weaver: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Long-jawed orb weavers or long jawed spiders (Tetragnathidae) is a family of araneomorph spiders first described by Anton Menge in 1866. They have elongated bodies, legs, and chelicerae, and build small orb webs with an open hub with few, wide-set radii and spirals with no signal line or retreat. Some species are often found in long vegetation near water.

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