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Reproduction

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Males perch on the ground or low plants and watch for passing females. They pursue any likely object. Females inclined to mate will land, and the male will follow. Courtship behavior is variable. Sometimes they land, fold their wings, and mate. On other occasions females have been observed fluttering their wings after landing. The male responds by hovering over her and fluttering his wings as he lands behind her. The male will then pursue her by nudging her from behind. They will then mate, or if she chooses not to mate, she will flap her wings with a high intensity, spread her wings and lift her abdomen to deny him access, or just fly away.

Mating System: polygynous

After mating, female buckeyes lay their eggs on the leaves of host plants that their larvae will eat. In the northern part of the range there may only be one or two generations a year, and it's unlikely that adults can survive the winter. Further south (Florida, Texas, California and beyond), there are adults flying nearly all year.

Breeding season: Year-round in southern range, narrowing to summer in the north.

Key Reproductive Features: semelparous ; seasonal breeding ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); oviparous

There is no parental care in this species.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement

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Critney, H. 2002. "Junonia coenia" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Junonia_coenia.html
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Untitled

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In older texts, buckeyes were known as Precis coenia. However, the binonimal nomenclature has been altered and it is currently referred to as Junonia coenia.

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Critney, H. 2002. "Junonia coenia" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Junonia_coenia.html
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Conservation Status

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Due to their large abundance, J. coenia is currently not on any endangered species list.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

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Critney, H. 2002. "Junonia coenia" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Junonia_coenia.html
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Life Cycle

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Female buckeyes lay eggs individually on buds and leaves of host plants. The larvae (caterpillars) emerge and feed and grow on the host plant, molting several times. Larvae transform into pupae, and spend the winter in this stage in the northern part of the range. Metamorphosis is completed in the pupal case, and fully developed adult butterflies emerge. They can take flight after their wings dry. In the southern half of the range, this species may develop and reproduce continually with no diapause or winter dormancy.

Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis ; diapause

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Associations

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Buckeyes, like most butterflies, can be important pollinators.

Ecosystem Impact: pollinates

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Trophic Strategy

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Adults feed mainly on nectar, and occasionally on mud from the edge of puddles (probably for salts and other minerals).

Caterpillars feed on a wide variety of host plants, nearly all herbaceous (see partial list below). Females may be stimulated to oviposit by the presence of iridoid glycosides (Kluts, 1951, Scott, 1986).

Foods eaten: plantains (Plantago), gerardia, toadflax (Linaria), wild snapdragons (Antirrhinum), false loosestrife (Ludvigia), stonecrop (Sedum).

Plant Foods: leaves; nectar

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore , Nectarivore )

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Distribution

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This species occurs in southern Canada east of Saskatchawan, and throughout the United States except for Montana, Idaho, Washington, and western Wyoming. From there it ranges south and east to Bermuda, the Bahamas, Cuba, nearly all of Mexico except southern Baja California.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native )

Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

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Critney, H. 2002. "Junonia coenia" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Junonia_coenia.html
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Habitat

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Junonia coenia tends to like more open areas such as fields, parks, pastures, meadows, and coastal dunes. You can also find them along roadsides and in other disturbed, weedy places. They are often near their food plants, and may also feed or drink around mud puddles.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: desert or dune ; chaparral ; scrub forest

Other Habitat Features: urban ; suburban ; agricultural

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Critney, H. 2002. "Junonia coenia" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Junonia_coenia.html
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Life Expectancy

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Junonia coenia does not live a long time. Adults live about ten days in nature, and about a month in a lab. Larvae and adults may overwinter in warm climates (California lowlands, and regions with similar climate).

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Critney, H. 2002. "Junonia coenia" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Junonia_coenia.html
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Morphology

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The eggs of Junonia coenia are a dark green.

The larva that hatch from the eggs are nearly black and have two rows of orange-cream spots along the middorsal. There are two lateral rows of cream spots and the larva has many bluish-black spines. The prolegs are orange. The head is black with an orange spot toward the anterior and two short black spines on top, and orange on the top and sides.

Pupa color varies from light color with brownish-orange blotches, to entirely brownish-orange, to nearly black.

The adult stage of the butterfly has brown wings with three eyespots per wing, one on the upper and two on the hindwing. There are characteristic orange bands on the forewing. They have a particularly large eyespot on the hindwing that is reddish to purple. Adult coloration varies, with a form called "rosa," (with red under-hindwings) that appears late in the fall in eastern U.S., and may be a result of short daylength or lower temperatures.

Range wingspan: 4 to 6 cm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry ; polymorphic

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North American Ecology (US and Canada)

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Junonia coenia is native to the southern United States and coastal California, and migratory throughout most of the rest of the states and into southern Canada (Scott 1986). Habitats are subtropical to upper Sonoran and upper austral zone in open areas and weedy places. Host plants are herbaceous, and include species from many families, including Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Verbenaceae, Acanthaceae, and Cornaceae. Eggs are laid on the host plant singly. Individuals overwinter as larvae, and perhaps adults, but only in California lowlands. There are multiple flights all in Florida, Texas and southern California, and migrations northward mostly occur June 1-Oct. 31 (Scott 1986).
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Junonia coenia

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Junonia coenia, known as the common buckeye or buckeye, is a butterfly in the family Nymphalidae. Its original ancestry has been traced to Africa, which then experiences divergence in Asia.[1]

Caterpillars of these butterflies appear to prefer plants that produce iridoid glycosides, which are bitter compounds that release a hormone called gastrin that activates the digestive system (i.e. hunger); therefore, iridoid glycoside producing plants stimulate and attract their appetites particularly when found in plants like Plantago lanceolata.[2][3] In fact, the presence of these metabolites may trigger oviposition behaviors in female butterflies so that descendant larval bodies may better incorporate iridoid glycosides.[4] Iridoid glycolyside metabolites appear to have a growth-stimulating effect on caterpillars but a growth-reducing effect on predators. Predators like ants, wasps, birds, and small animals prefer to feed on iridoid glycoside poor caterpillars rather than iridoid glycoside rich larvae, potentially due to these effects.[5][6] Therefore, immunity of J. coenia larvae to predators like ants appears to be strongly related to the concentration of iridoid glycosides sequestered in their bodies.[7] However, too much iridoid glycosides in the diet can negatively affect the immune response of these larvae and lead to increased susceptibility to parasitism.[8]

Adult butterflies feed on flowers with certain pollinator cues: yellow flowers that are 'pre-change', or flowers whose color has not been changed due to insect visitation or other factors.[9] Common buckeye caterpillars feed in isolation rather than relying upon grouping behaviors.[10] Vulnerability to the Junonia coenia densovirus is another concern for survivorship of common buckeye larvae.[11]

Description

Adult butterfly

Common buckeye butterflies are colored mostly brown with some orange, black, white, blue, and magenta. The forewing features two proximal orange bars and a postmedian white band, which surrounds a prominent black eyespot and borders a smaller, more distal eyespot; both eyespots have a bluish center and each border a distal orange mark. The hindwing is mostly brown with an orange band towards the edge and a brown and white margin. It also has two eyespots, one larger and one smaller, each with a black and white outline, and a center consisting of black, blue, magenta, and orange. They also exhibit blue-green overtones on their front and sometimes hind wings. Their wingspan is typically between 2 and 2.5 inches (5 - 6.5 cm).[12]

Caterpillar

These caterpillars have a beautiful and complex color pattern. Their backs are mostly black with light-colored markings (white, gray, beige, or brownish, varying among individuals -- see picture below), their sides have white markings and red-orange spots, and they have a brown underside. They have a mostly red-orange head with black markings on the face. They have spines running lengthwise along their back and sides, as many as 7 per segment. There is also a pair of small spines on the top of their head. These spines branch out (have smaller spines coming out of them) and appear a bit shiny-blue at the base. They also have 2 pairs of tiny white spines on each segment, near the bottom. The color patterns and spine forms are less pronounced in earlier instars. There are several other species that resemble these caterpillars in appearance, such as the painted lady, the Glanville fritillary, and the red admiral, which can be easily confused by an untrained observer. They can reach 4 cm (1 5/8 inches) in length.[12]

  • "

    Dorsal variation

  • "

    Ventral variation

  • "

    Larva variation

  • "

    Chrysalis

  • "

    Plate accompanying Jacob Hübner's 1822 description

Pupa (chrysalis)

Like the more familiar monarchs, these caterpillars pupate by spinning a silk pad on a downward facing horizontal surface, attaching themselves with their rear end, and hanging in the form of the letter J for a day or so before shedding their skin to reveal the chrysalis. The chrysalis is mostly brown with beige markings, and has a prickly texture. It has a beige band near the top, another one at the "waist" (border between thorax and abdomen), and 4 pairs of beige dots running down its dorsal side. It is 18 mm long and 8 mm wide. When touched or handled excessively, it has a habit of wiggling its abdomen.

Phylogeny

Junio probably arose from one African colonizing ancestor. In Asia, this diverged into J. atlites, J. iphita, and J. hedonia that resembled the African ancestor. These species then diverged into J. almanac, J. lemonias, and J. villida that began to differ morphologically from African ancestors. The Taxon Pulse Hypothesis is invoked to explain the vicariance as well as dispersal exhibited by this species where there is dispersal as the species expands until they find appropriate habitats. This then allows for speciation to occur in several isolated habitats. In Junonia the species may have expanded from Africa into Asia and then from Asia throughout “Australasia, Africa, and South America.”[1]

Food resources

Caterpillars

Caterpillars feed on a variety of plants including the narrowleaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata), the common greater plantain (Plantago major), blue toadflax, false foxglove, Mexican petunia (Ruellia species), the firecracker plant, and Cudweed.

Host plant preferences

Iridoid glycosides trigger feeding behaviors of J. coenia larvae in northern California, serving as attractants and as stimulants. It also allows for higher growth and survival rates that appear to be best promoted in the plant Plantago lanceolata, an invasive plant in California. In fact, leaves from this plant were preferred over artificial diets with just the iridoid glycosides, indicating the presence of additional sources in P. lanceolata that might play a role in food preferences. Naturally, J. coenia consider iridoid glycosides in the host plant selection for larvae. This inclination for iridoid glycosides may also reflect its role in oviposition and microhabitat selection.[2] Aucubin and catalpol are two other chemicals that can be stimulants aiforniand attractants for larval feeding behaviors.[4]

Pollinator cues

In the case of Lantana camara flowers, J. coenia preferentially feed on flowers in the yellow stage at a significantly higher rate that suggests associative learning. During early life stages, the butterfly feeds upon yellow and red flowers almost equally but over time focuses only on those flowers that are yellow and 'pre-change.' This is especially advantageous because the flower’s color can be linked to its viability as well as the nectar reward that it can provide the pollinator. With this signal the pollinator can visit the right plant at the right time maximizing both its reproductive advantage as well as that of the flower. Moreover, the amount of nectar found within the flower can also influence the duration of a pollinator’s visit to the plant.[9]

Parental Care

"
Common buckeye mating

Oviposition

In the process of oviposition, contact chemoreception is an important sense used to detect allelochemicals on individual leaves that promote or discourage oviposition. Females detect iridoid glycosides found in plants like P. lanceolata as oviposition cues. Similarly, a mix of catalpol and aucubin, as well as catalpol alone, also promotes oviposition. In addition, the quantity of catalpol also seems to play a role in oviposition because females choose to lay eggs in regions that are most concentrated with catalpol. Just one iridoid glycoside molecule is enough to promote oviposition to the same degree that would be seen on a hostplant leaf. However, with that said, females did prefer plants with more iridoid glycosides. Larvae concentrate large amounts of iridoid glycosides, and theoretical explanations for this include protection from predators. Therefore, evolution would favor female J. coenia that can detect more iridoid glycosides on host plants so that larvae can incorporate that into their diet and thus gain better protective mechanisms for survival.[4]

"
Aggregation of tropical buckeye, common buckeye, and bordered patch butterflies

Social behavior

Caterpillar sociality

"
Common buckeye caterpillar

Caterpillars tend to feed individually and in isolation. For example, even in the case that multiple caterpillars are feeding upon the same plant, they will not be doing so cooperatively or based in a group dynamic.[10]Caterpillars are generally not aggressive: they do not mind each others' presence and tend to abstain from fighting when running into one another.

Migration

Common buckeyes move to the south along with tailwinds directed to the north or northwest after the cold fronts from September or October. They are sensitive to the cold and cannot spend the winter in northern regions that will experience extreme cold temperatures. However, they will migrate back from the south during the spring.[12]

Local or regional dispersal

J. coenia appears to readily migrate on a local scale between patches that are connected by corridors over those that are not connected by corridors. They could also affect large scale immigration by making patches more accessible to immigrating butterflies if they are connected by corridors as opposed to if they are unconnected. As a result, this would play a role in increasing the population densities of these habitats, which would then affect resource availability for affected individuals.[13]

Enemies

Predators

Predators for these organisms include ants, wasps, birds, and small animals. Predators appear to select larvae that feed on artificial diets deprived of iridoid glycoside (iridoid glycoside poor) rather than those that consume organic leaf material (iridoid glycoside rich larvae), which may indicate the role of iridoid glycoside consumption. This selection then favors larvae that have diets including iridoid glycosides as well as females who oviposition on those sites by providing offspring with necessary defense mechanisms.[6]

Defense effect on predators

Prey which contain iridoid glycosides can affect invertebrate predators differently. Chemical differences as a result of leaf age can affect the development of these butterflies, which can then affect the quality of these butterflies as food sources for spiders. One such observation indicated that iridoid glycosides may diminish growth of predators so that predators select for caterpillars that do not feed on iridoid glycoside-rich substrates. Iridoid glycosides have been shown to stimulate growth in prey while decreasing growth in predators, which may then be responsible for its role in providing chemical protection to butterflies.[5]

Virus

The densovirus Junonia coenia infects the common buckeye larvae by focusing on targeting dividing cells in order to propagate. It consists of single stranded DNA genomes with a smooth, sphere-shaped capsid. It is from the family Parvoviridae and has been considered a potential insecticide, as is hypothesized for other one-species densoviruses. The Junonia coenia densovirus is unique in its separation of DNA strands for structural proteins versus nonstructural proteins.[11]

Parasites

High intake of iridoid glycosides by J. coenia can have a negative effect on their immune response. This can then lead to higher susceptibility to parasitoids as well as a decreased ability to resist parasitism. Therefore, it is necessary to balance the chemical defense provided by these secondary metabolites with their immunological cost that correlates with increased risk of parasitism. Specifically, secondary metabolites may be hindering the immune response by operating through decreased melanization. This becomes even more problematic since parasitism is a prominent cause of mortality for caterpillars. This relationship exemplifies the vulnerable host hypothesis.[8]

Immunity

Common predators of J. coenia larvae are ants, and chemical defense appears to be a strong survival mechanism for these organisms against predation. The concentration of iridoid glycoside sequestered by larvae seems to be a strong predictor for the decreased likelihood that they will be predated.[7]

Physiology

"
Common buckeye butterfly feeding behavior

Gustation (taste)

In order to find a host plant for oviposition, females search for appropriate concentrations of catalpol or iridoid glycosides. Therefore, they practice drumming, which allows them to pierce the plant exterior and ‘taste’ the variety of allelochemicals that are present within its structure. This can be detected through the female J. coenia foretarse chemoreceptors.[4]

Protective coloration and behavior

Automimicry

Larvae also appear to weakly adopt automimicry as a survival strategy. In the presence of caterpillars that have sequestered iridoids (making them unpalatable to predators) and those that have not sequestered iridoids (making them palatable to predators), palatable caterpillars are able to escape predation. However, this trend is a weak example because it also may be the consequence of predators entirely avoiding this species of caterpillars rather than predators rejecting caterpillars.[7]

In popular culture

The common buckeye was featured on the 2006 United States Postal Service 24-cent postage stamp.[14]

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b Kodandaramaiah, U.; Wahlberg, N. (2007-11-01). "Out-of-Africa origin and dispersal-mediated diversification of the butterfly genus Junonia (Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae)". Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 20 (6): 2181–2191. doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2007.01425.x. ISSN 1420-9101. PMID 17887973.
  2. ^ a b Bowers, M. Deane (1984). "Iridoid glycosides and host-plant specificity in larvae of the buckeye butterfly,Junonia coenia (Nymphalidae)". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 10 (11): 1567–1577. doi:10.1007/bf00988425. PMID 24318391.
  3. ^ Beneforce.com. “Iridoid Glycosides Information.” Uses, Benefits, Properties, and Effects of Iridoid Glycosides, Iridoid Glycosides as a Medicinal Constituent, Beneforce, www.beneforce.com/Constituent/Constituent-pages/iridoid-glycosides.htm.
  4. ^ a b c d Pereyra1, Patricia C.; Bowers, M. Deane (1988). "Iridoid glycosides as oviposition stimulants for the buckeye butterfly,Junonia coenia (Nymphalidae)". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 14 (3): 917–928. doi:10.1007/bf01018783. PMID 24276141.
  5. ^ a b Strohmeyer, Heather Horan; Stamp, Nancy E.; Jarzomski, Christine M.; Bowers, Deane M. (1998-02-01). "Prey species and prey diet affect growth of invertebrate predators". Ecological Entomology. 23 (1): 68–79. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2311.1998.00101.x. ISSN 1365-2311.
  6. ^ a b "Predator Responses to Sequestered Plant Toxins in Buckeye Caterpillars: Are Tritrophic Interactions Locally Variable? - Semantic Scholar". www.semanticscholar.org. Retrieved 2017-10-22.
  7. ^ a b c Dyer, Lee A.; Bowers, M. Deane (1996). "The importance of sequestered iridoid glycosides as a defense against an ant predator". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 22 (8): 1527–1539. doi:10.1007/bf02027729.
  8. ^ a b Smilanich, Angela M.; Dyer, Lee A.; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Bowers, M. Deane (2009-07-01). "Immunological cost of chemical defence and the evolution of herbivore diet breadth". Ecology Letters. 12 (7): 612–621. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01309.x. ISSN 1461-0248.
  9. ^ a b Weiss, Martha R. (1991). "FLORAL COLOR CHANGES AS CUES FOR POLLINATORS". Acta Horticulturae (288): 294–298. doi:10.17660/actahortic.1991.288.46.
  10. ^ a b Stamp, Nancy E.; Bowers, M. Deane (1991). "Indirect Effect on Survivorship of Caterpillars Due to Presence of Invertebrate Predators". Oecologia. 88 (3): 325–330. doi:10.1007/BF00317574. JSTOR 4219797.
  11. ^ a b Bruemmer, Anneke; Scholari, Fabien; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel; Conway, James F.; Hewat, Elizabeth A. (2005). "Structure of an Insect Parvovirus (Junonia coenia Densovirus) Determined by Cryo-electron Microscopy". Journal of Molecular Biology. 347 (4): 791–801. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2005.02.009. PMID 15769470.
  12. ^ a b c The butterfly gardener's guide. Dole, Claire Hagen. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 2003. ISBN 978-1889538587. OCLC 52223505.CS1 maint: others (link)
  13. ^ Haddad, Nick M.; Baum, Kristen A. (1999-05-01). "An Experimental Test of Corridor Effects on Butterfly Densities". Ecological Applications. 9 (2): 623–633. doi:10.1890/1051-0761(1999)009[0623:AETOCE]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1939-5582.
  14. ^ "Common Buckeye Stamp". United States Postal Service. Retrieved 2 January 2014.

Literature

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Junonia coenia: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Junonia coenia, known as the common buckeye or buckeye, is a butterfly in the family Nymphalidae. Its original ancestry has been traced to Africa, which then experiences divergence in Asia.

Caterpillars of these butterflies appear to prefer plants that produce iridoid glycosides, which are bitter compounds that release a hormone called gastrin that activates the digestive system (i.e. hunger); therefore, iridoid glycoside producing plants stimulate and attract their appetites particularly when found in plants like Plantago lanceolata. In fact, the presence of these metabolites may trigger oviposition behaviors in female butterflies so that descendant larval bodies may better incorporate iridoid glycosides. Iridoid glycolyside metabolites appear to have a growth-stimulating effect on caterpillars but a growth-reducing effect on predators. Predators like ants, wasps, birds, and small animals prefer to feed on iridoid glycoside poor caterpillars rather than iridoid glycoside rich larvae, potentially due to these effects. Therefore, immunity of J. coenia larvae to predators like ants appears to be strongly related to the concentration of iridoid glycosides sequestered in their bodies. However, too much iridoid glycosides in the diet can negatively affect the immune response of these larvae and lead to increased susceptibility to parasitism.

Adult butterflies feed on flowers with certain pollinator cues: yellow flowers that are 'pre-change', or flowers whose color has not been changed due to insect visitation or other factors. Common buckeye caterpillars feed in isolation rather than relying upon grouping behaviors. Vulnerability to the Junonia coenia densovirus is another concern for survivorship of common buckeye larvae.

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