Untitled

provided by Animal Diversity Web

They are famous for curling up into a tight ball for a defense mechanism. Some may secrete a substance which discourages spiders. The most common defense among all of them is to remain inconspicuous. They have a life span of up to five years!

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Brown, C. 1999. "Armadillidium vulgare" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Armadillidium_vulgare.html
author
Courtney Jane Brown, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Conservation Status

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Pill bugs are quite common and have no special conservation status.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Brown, C. 1999. "Armadillidium vulgare" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Armadillidium_vulgare.html
author
Courtney Jane Brown, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Pillbugs may occasionally eat small plants as they germinate, causing some trouble in gardens.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Brown, C. 1999. "Armadillidium vulgare" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Armadillidium_vulgare.html
author
Courtney Jane Brown, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Benefits

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Pill bugs living in gardens help circulate soil, although they may also eat small plants.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Brown, C. 1999. "Armadillidium vulgare" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Armadillidium_vulgare.html
author
Courtney Jane Brown, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

These animals are part of the community of species that break down dead plants and animals.

Ecosystem Impact: biodegradation

Mutualist Species:

  • Pillbugs and sowbugs have microbes in their guts that allow the crustacean to digest plant material.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Brown, C. 1999. "Armadillidium vulgare" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Armadillidium_vulgare.html
author
Courtney Jane Brown, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Trophic Strategy

provided by Animal Diversity Web

A. vulgare, like most isopods, are omnivorous. They feed on fungi, live or dead plants and animals. Special treats for pill bugs are monocotyledonous leaves. All isopods increase decomposition by processing leaves through their alimentary canal. It is not uncommon for pill bugs to shift from one type of food to another, for during a drought they turn from being vegetarians into scavengers.

Primary Diet: carnivore (Scavenger ); herbivore (Folivore , Frugivore ); mycophage ; detritivore

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Brown, C. 1999. "Armadillidium vulgare" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Armadillidium_vulgare.html
author
Courtney Jane Brown, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Distribution

provided by Animal Diversity Web

You have probably seen them in your basement or garden, for they live under stones and bark in damp places. While they exist in large numbers here in North America, they also reside in the wettest areas of Germany.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); palearctic (Native )

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Brown, C. 1999. "Armadillidium vulgare" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Armadillidium_vulgare.html
author
Courtney Jane Brown, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Habitat

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Pill bugs hide in damp places during the day and are active at night. Under moist areas such as bark and stones, they make their burrow (living quarters.) One of the pill bugs' most surprising characteristics is that they have such a wide distribution pattern. "Home" can be a forest, garden, or basement.

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Brown, C. 1999. "Armadillidium vulgare" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Armadillidium_vulgare.html
author
Courtney Jane Brown, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Morphology

provided by Animal Diversity Web

Their light shell-like crustaceous exterior is usually a drab earthy color. Pill bugs found in North America range from gray to brown. However, those with habitats in Europe have large red dots, which give them protection by conferring a resemblance to black widow spiders. Pill bugs have five abdominal segments which are distinct dorsally. Their first antennae are vestigial.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; bilateral symmetry

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Brown, C. 1999. "Armadillidium vulgare" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Armadillidium_vulgare.html
author
Courtney Jane Brown, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Associations

provided by Animal Diversity Web

They are famous for curling up into a tight ball for a defense mechanism. Some may secrete a substance which discourages spiders. The most common defense among all of them is to remain inconspicuous.

Known Predators:

  • centipedes
  • spiders
  • ants
  • birds
  • amphibians
  • anything that eats invertebrates
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Brown, C. 1999. "Armadillidium vulgare" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Armadillidium_vulgare.html
author
Courtney Jane Brown, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Reproduction

provided by Animal Diversity Web

A. vulgare reproduce on land as opposed to in water. Eggs develop in a brood pouch filled with fluid, from which fully developed young are released. They produce between one and two broods. The number produced depends on the size and condition of the female, who may cease to grow under stress due to excessive hydration, which reduces the chance of a second reproduction. Ironically, when the food supply is short, the offspring grow larger.

license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
bibliographic citation
Brown, C. 1999. "Armadillidium vulgare" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Armadillidium_vulgare.html
author
Courtney Jane Brown, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
original
visit source
partner site
Animal Diversity Web

Biology

provided by Arkive
Woodlice feed on dead organic matter, which they detect by means of taste and smell (2). During the breeding season, reproductive females develop a 'brood pouch', which consists of overlapping leaf-like structures known as 'oostegites', that form a 'false floor' below the body. The fertilised eggs pass into this fluid-filled chamber, and the young crawl out of the brood pouch when they are fully developed. Woodlice undergo a series of moults before reaching maturity, growing at each stage; the stages between these moults are known as 'stadia', and are generally similar in structure and appearance. Mature woodlice continue to moult. Prior to moulting, the calcium contained in the old cuticle is removed and stored as conspicuous white blotches, these blotches disappear after moulting as the calcium is used to reinforce the new cuticle (2). The rear part of the body moults a few days before the front half, and occasionally woodlice may be seen with half a pinkish body and half a 'usual' grey body for this reason (4). The discarded cuticle is frequently eaten by the newly moulted woodlouse (2).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Conservation

provided by Arkive
Conservation action has not been targeted at this common species.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Description

provided by Arkive
Woodlice are not insects, but are crustaceans; more closely related to crabs and shrimps than insects. The body is divided into three main regions, the head, the thorax (known in woodlice as the 'pereion'), and the abdomen ('pleon') (2). The pill woodlouse is so called because it is able to roll into a ball when threatened; it is often confused with the pill millipede (Glomeris marginata) for this reason (3). This woodlouse is typically slate grey in colour, but red or patchy forms may arise (2).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Habitat

provided by Arkive
Occurs only on calcareous soils, except in coastal areas (2), and is able to withstand much drier conditions than most other woodlice (3). It shows a distinct preference for chalky or limestone sites with stony turf (2).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Range

provided by Arkive
This species is very common in the south-east of England, is found in parts of western and northern England and becomes rare in Scotland (2).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Status

provided by Arkive
Common and widespread (1).
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Threats

provided by Arkive
Not currently threatened.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Wildscreen
original
visit source
partner site
Arkive

Comprehensive Description for Armadillidium vulgare

provided by EOL authors

Armadillidium vulgare, known as pill beetles or roly polies, are part of the Armidillididae family (Hopkins, 1991). Although A. vulgare is widespread across most terrestrial landmasses, the species actually originates from the Mediterranean area and has adapted to survive in temperate environments where moisture saturates both the soil and atmosphere (Smigel, 2008). Physical characteristics of A. vulgare include a tough outer cuticle made of chitin that protects its soft ventral side, flattened/round segmented back, sharply angled antennae, 7 segments on its pereon (thorax), and 6 segments on its pleon (abdomen) (Hopkins, 1991). On its abdomen, there are a pair of limbs on the first two segments of the pleon (called pleopods) and are responsible for excretion, reproduction, and respiration (Hopkins, 1991). The last segment on the pleon consist of limbs called the uropod that serves a sensory/defensive function (Hopkins, 1991). A. vulgares is oval in its body shape and varies in length at different stages in its life, however, male and female species weigh the same (Harding, 1985). Juveniles are between 5 mm to 7 mm in length while young adults are about 10 mm in length and 5 mm in width (Harding, 1985). Large female individuals of A. vulgare at ages 2-3 years old, usually produce 2 broods per season, while smaller females of the same species produce 1 brood per season (Lawlor, 1976). When impregnated, females develops a ventral pouch to store her eggs and after a few day the juveniles hatch inside the pouch (Lawlor, 1976). Once hatched the juveniles absorb the fluid in the pouch and emerge. In the first molting of the juvenile, the 7th pair of its legs are developed and the species will continue to molt its cuticle in order to continue growing in size (Lawlor, 1976). Once born, A. vulgare has a life expectancy of a few years (Le Clec’h, 2013) with some individuals of A. vulgare living up to 2 years in captivity (Chevalier, 2011).

Armadillidium vulgare are detritivores, meaning that they consume dead organic matter (Le Clec’h, 2013). A. vulgare consumes decaying leaf litter, but under stressed condition where no better option is available they may become graniverous and even cannibalistic (Le Clec’h, 2013). In one experiment A. vulgare individuals were starved for 3 months and were then left with another individual; the experiment resulted in one individual becoming cannibalistic and eating the other. (Le Clec’h, 2011).

Many of the patterns in A. vulgare’s behavior are dictated by the species’ struggle to maintain its body moisture and avoid desiccation (drying out) (Moriyama, 2004). This species usually lives beneath dead leaf litter or stones and even conglobate (roll up into ball) to prevent any unnecessary desiccation (Smigel, 2008). When A. vulgare experiences a strong vibration or pressure, it conglobates, covering its soft ventral side by rolling into a ball and exposing only a tough outer cuticle for protection against predators (Smigel, 2008). Interestingly, when in dry soils or in in temperatures above 40˚C, A. vulgare has been found to conglobate, however, when found in moist soil A. vulgare was found to be unconglobated, meaning that conglobation may not only be for defensive purposes, but also for water retention (Smigel, 2008).

When moisture levels are above 10% and leaf litter (dead organic material) present, A. vulgare populations can be expected (Smigel, 2008). A. vulgare individuals contain a pheromone that may give notice to surrounding congeners (like-species) and have them aggregate; often times, this aggregation can exceed 70+ individuals in a span of 10 minutes (Broly, 2012). This massive aggregation is a water retention mechanism that prevents water loss by covering individuals with their bodies (Broly, 2012).

When considering A. vulgares’ ecological importance, its role as a detritivore and ability to remediate make it a valuable species of animal to protect (Paoletti, 1999). As a detritivore, A. vulgare drives nutrient cycling by breaking down organic debris to nutrients that can be readily absorbed by plants (Paoletti, 1999). A. vulgare also has the ability to partially remediate heavy metal contamination by taking in heavy metals and storing deposits on their mid-gut, which helps in the recovery of areas contaminated with toxic heavy metals, making it a great bio-indicator for the health of an ecosystem (Paoletti, 1999).

References

  • Broly, P., Mullier, R., Deneubourg, J.L., & Devigne, C. (2012). Aggregation in woodlice: social interaction and density effects. ZooKeys, (176), 133–144. Advance online publication. http://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.176.2258
  • Chevalier, F., J. Herbinière-Gaboreau, J. Bertaux, M. Raimond, F. Morel, D. Bouchon, P. Grève, C. Braquart-Varnier. (2011). The immune cellular effectors of terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare: Meeting with their invaders, Wolbachia. PLoS ONE
  • Harding, P. T., & Sutton, S. L. (1985). Woodlice in Britain and Ireland: distribution and habitat. Huntingdon: Institute of Terrestrial Ecology.
  • Hopkin, S.P. (1991). A key to the woodlice of Britain and Ireland. Field Studies 7, 599-650. Published by the Field Studies Council (UK). ISBN 1 85153 204 8
  • Lawlor, L. (1976). Molting, growth and reproductive strategies in the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare. Ecology, 57(6), 1179-1194. doi:10.2307/1935043
  • Le Clec’h, W., F. Chevalier, L. Genty, J. Bertaux, D. Bouchon, M. Sicard. (2013). Cannibalism and predation as paths for horizontal passage of Wolbachia between terrestrial isopods. PLoS ONE, 8/4: e60232.
  • Moriyama, T. (2004). Problem solving and autonomous behavior in pill bugs (Armadillidiun vulgare). Ecological Psychology, 16(4), 287-302.
  • Paoletti, M. G., & Hassall, M. (1999). Woodlice (Isopoda: Oniscidea): their potential for assessing sustainability and use as bioindicators. Invertebrate Biodiversity as Bioindicators of Sustainable Landscapes, 157-165. doi:10.1016/b978-0-444-50019-9.50012-1
  • Smigel, J. T., & Gibbs, A. G. (2008). Conglobation in the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a water conservation mechanism. Journal of Insect Science, 8, 44. http://doi.org/10.1673/031.008.4401

license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Guillermo Ortiz; ENV 201 at Arizona State University. Editor: Becky Ball
original
visit source
partner site
EOL authors

Armadillidium vulgare

provided by wikipedia EN

Armadillidium vulgare, the common pill-bug, potato bug, common pill woodlouse, roly-poly, slater, doodle bug, or carpenter, is a widespread European species of woodlouse. It is the most extensively investigated terrestrial isopod species.[2]

Description

Armadillidium vulgare may reach a length of 18 millimetres (0.71 in), and is capable of rolling into a ball when disturbed; this ability, along with its general appearance, gives it the name pill-bug and also creates the potential for confusion with pill millipedes such as Glomeris marginata.[3] It can be distinguished from Armadillidium nasatum and Armadillidium depressum by the gap that A. nasatum and A. depressum leave when rolling into a ball; A. vulgare does not leave such a gap.[4]

Ecology

Armadillidium vulgare is able to withstand drier conditions than many other woodlouse species, and is restricted to calcareous soils or coastal areas.[3] It feeds chiefly on decaying plant matter, but also grazes lichens and algae from tree bark and walls.[5]

It is able to regulate its temperature through its behaviour, preferring bright sunshine when temperatures are low, but remaining in shadow when temperatures are high; temperatures below −2 °C (28 °F) or above 36 °C (97 °F) are lethal to it.[6] A. vulgare is less susceptible to cold during the night, and may enter a state of dormancy during the winter in order to survive temperatures that would otherwise be lethal.[6]

One very unique feature of these crustaceans is their ability to safely remove heavy metals from soil. For this reason, they are important for cleaning up soil pollutants such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic. In coal spoils and slag heaps, pill bugs also come in handy.[7]

Distribution

The native distribution of A. vulgare ranges across Europe, especially in the Mediterranean Basin.[2] In the United Kingdom, A. vulgare is very common in southern and eastern England, but is more confined to coastal areas in the north.[8] Similarly, in Ireland, A. vulgare is common in the south and east, but rarer in the north and west.[8]

A. vulgare has also been introduced to many locations in North America, where it may reach population densities of up to 10,000 individuals per square metre (900 individuals per square foot).[9] It is now one of the most abundant invertebrate species in California coastal grassland habitats.[10] It has also been introduced, to a lesser extent, to sites across the world.[2]

Relationships with humans

Because of their unusual yet non-threatening appearance, some Armadillidium vulgare are kept as pets in areas throughout the U.S., typically among children. Different lineages are bred, usually in regards to color, in order to provide stock to hobbyists. One supposed variation, "Punta Cana," is often referred to as Armadillidium sordidum, while others insist it is a variety of A. vulgare.[11] Keeping a pet pill bug requires a very moist habitat with limited light and abundant decaying botanical matter.[12] They can often live up to three years.[13] Among non-hobbyist adults, they are often seen as unwanted (but essentially harmless) home pests.[13]

Mitochondrial genome

Most metazoans have circular mitochondrial genomes, but A.vulgare has an unusual combination of both circular and linear mitochondrial DNA.[14]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "Armadillidium vulgare". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  2. ^ a b c d Helmut Schmalfuss (2003). "World catalog of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) — revised and updated version" (PDF). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Serie A. 654: 341 pp.
  3. ^ a b "Pill woodlouse (Armadillidium vulgare)". ARKive.org. Archived from the original on 2009-09-03. Retrieved February 13, 2009.
  4. ^ "Woodlouse Wizard: an identification key". Natural History Museum. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
  5. ^ "Common pill woodlouse — Armadillidium vulgare". Natural England. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2014.
  6. ^ a b Roberto Refinetti (1984). "Behavioral temperature regulation in the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda)". Crustaceana. 47 (1): 29–43. doi:10.1163/156854084X00298.
  7. ^ https://www.greenlivingpdx.com/study-finds-rollie-pollies-remove-heavy-metals-from-soil-protects-groundwater/
  8. ^ a b "Armadillidium vulgare". Natural History Museum. Archived from the original on October 16, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2010.
  9. ^ Jan Frouza; Richard Lobinske; Jirí Kalcík; Arshad Ali (2008). "Effects of the exotic crustacean, Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda), and other macrofauna on organic matter dynamics in soil microcosms in a hardwood forest in central Florida". The Florida Entomologist. 91 (2): 328–331. doi:10.1653/0015-4040(2008)91[328:EOTECA]2.0.CO;2.
  10. ^ Oscar H. Paris (1963). "The ecology of Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda: Oniscoidea) in California grassland: food, enemies, and weather". Ecological Monographs. Ecological Society of America. 33 (1): 1–22. doi:10.2307/1948475. JSTOR 1948475.
  11. ^ "Armadillidium vulgare var. "Punta Cana"". Retrieved May 29, 2019.
  12. ^ Stanley A. Schultz & Marguerite J. Schultz (2009). The Tarantula Keeper's Guide: Comprehensive Information on Care, Housing, and Feeding. Barron's Educational Series. pp. 181–183. ISBN 978-0-7641-3885-0.
  13. ^ a b Smith-Rogers, Sheryl (October 2009). "Wild Thing: Roly-Poly Pillbugs". TPW Magazine. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  14. ^ Marcadé, Isabelle; Cordaux, Richard; Doublet, Vincent; Debenest, Catherine; Bouchon, Didier; Raimond, Roland (2007). "Structure and Evolution of the Atypical Mitochondrial Genome of Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Crustacea)". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 65 (6): 651–9. Bibcode:2007JMolE..65..651M. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.688.9796. doi:10.1007/s00239-007-9037-5. PMID 17906827.

 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Armadillidium vulgare: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Armadillidium vulgare, the common pill-bug, potato bug, common pill woodlouse, roly-poly, slater, doodle bug, or carpenter, is a widespread European species of woodlouse. It is the most extensively investigated terrestrial isopod species.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN