Glossary of ALL Terms for Data on EOL


Oval, quickly multiplying trophozoite of Toxoplasma gondii, found in all tissues except non-nucleated erythrocytes during the acute stage of toxoplasmosis.
tail length
The distance from point to point along the longest axis of the appendage at the caudal end of the vertebral column.
"Caridoid escape reaction": innate escape mechanism in marine and freshwater crustaceans; rapid abdominal flexions that produce powerful swimming strokes, thrusting the crustacean backwards through the water and away from danger.
A mountain lake that is formed in a cirque excavated by a glacier. A moraine may form a natural dam below a tarn.
tarsometatarsus + middle toe length
Length of the tarsometatarsus + length of the middle toe.
tarsus length
Length of the tarsus. In birds, length of the tarsometatarsus (fusion of ankle and foot bones)
tea plantation
teat number
The number of teats, protuberances on the mammary glands, breasts or udders of female mammals through which milk is excreted.
Organ with a cavity which consist of dentine surrounded by enamel
telychian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
temperate broadleaf forest
temperate coniferous forest
temperate desert
temperate grassland
temperate grassland, savanna, and shrubland
temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
temperate mixed forest
temperate mountain
A mountain that is part of a temperate environment
temperate ocean
temperate savanna
temperate shrubland
temperate woodland
A physical quality of the thermal energy of a system
temperature at range midpoint latitude
The temperature at the range midpoint latitude of an organism.
temperature in geographic range
Monthly temperature within the geographic range of a taxon.
Kate E. Jones, Jon Bielby, Marcel Cardillo, Susanne A. Fritz, Justin O'Dell, C. David L. Orme, Kamran Safi, Wes Sechrest, Elizabeth H. Boakes, Chris Carbone, Christina Connolly, Michael J. Cutts, Janine K. Foster, Richard Grenyer, Michael Habib, Christopher A. Plaster, Samantha A. Price, Elizabeth A. Rigby, Janna Rist, Amber Teacher, Olaf R. P. Bininda-Emonds, John L. Gittleman, Georgina M. Mace, and Andy Purvis. 2009. PanTHERIA: a species-level database of life history, ecology, and geography of extant and recently extinct mammals. Ecology 90:2648.
temporal distribution
temporal distribution pattern of process occurrences
temporary aquatic
aquatic environment that may persist for hours or weeks before returning to a dry state
an amphibious plant, the juvenile submerged or floating on water and the adult (reproductive) phase terrestrial.
GERMISHUIZEN, G. & MEYER, N.L. (eds) 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
situated at an end; occurring at or forming an end
forming the end of another entity
terminal moraine
Ridges of unconsolidated debris deposited at the snout or end of the glacier. They usually reflect the shape of the glacier's terminus.
terra firme
Dense and tall Amazonian forest growing above the river valleys, in higher ground that does not get flooded by the rivers.
Mexican Amphibians
A step-like feature between higher and lower ground: a relatively flat or gently inclined shelf of earth, backed and fronted by steep slopes or manmade detaining walls.
terreneuvian epoch
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
A biome that applies to the terrestrial realm.
terrestrial habitat
A habitat that is on or at the boundary of the surface of the Earth.
terrestrial plant
A terrestrial plant is a plant that grows on or in or from land. Other types of plants are aquatic (living in water), epiphytic (living on trees) and lithophytic (living in or on rocks)
terrigenous sediment
Sediment comprised of weathered continental rocks, wind blown dust, volcanic ash or other terrestrial material.
In ethology, territory is the sociographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics, or, occasionally, animals of other species. Animals that defend territories in this way are referred to as territorial.
testes mass
Undescended testicles, the ancestral condition in mammals.
testis location
Anatomical location of testis; eg: internal, descended, scrotal, inguinal.
tetracosanoic acid
tetradecanoic acid
superclass of the first four-limbed vertebrates and their descendants.
an infective tapeworm larva. When the first intermediate host of a tapeworm is eaten by the vertebrate second intermediate host, the larva develops into a tetrathyridium in the peritoneal cavity or in viscera.
thallus diameter
diameter of the thallus, a gametophytic lifestage that has a flat growth form
thallus length
length of the thallus, a gametophytic lifestage that has a flat growth form
thanetian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
the indo-malayan realm
The Nearctic
one of the eight terrestrial ecozones constituting the Earth's land surface
The Neotropics
one of the eight terrestrial ecozones constituting the Earth's land surface
the Palearctic
largest of the eight ecozones constituting the Earth's surface
an environmental feature which is a natural heat source
A layer within a water body where the temperature changes rapidly with depth.
A 1-D extent quality which is equal to the dimension through an object as opposed to its length or width
thorax length
The organism has federal Threatened status in the United States of America.
may become endangered within the foreseeable future
thunniform swimming
Body/caudal fin propulsion, characteristic of tunas, also found in several lamnid sharks. Virtually all the sideways movement is in the tail and the region connecting the main body to the tail (the peduncle). The tail itself tends to be large and crescent shaped. This form of swimming enables these fish to chase and catch prey more easily due to the increase in speed of swimming, like in barracudas.
tidal creek
A tidal water channel. Creeks may often dry to a muddy channel with little or no flow at low tide, but often with significant depth of water at high tide.
tidal pool
Pools formed as a high tide comes in over a rocky shore. Water fills depressions in the ground, which turn into isolated pools as the tide retreats.
tidal watercourse
tidewater glacier
A glacier that flows into the sea.
wood that has been processed into beams and planks
tissue contains
describes a component found in biotic tissue
tithonian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
toarcian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
An imperial mass unit which is equivalent to 1,016.046,9088 kilograms, or 2,240 pounds
One or more specimens collected at the same location as the type series (type locality), regardless of whether they are part of the type series. Topotypes are not regulated by the botanical or zoological code. Also called "locotype". [Zoo./Bot.]
tortonian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
total length
length from the tip of the snout to the tip of the longer lobe of the caudal fin, usually measured with the lobes compressed along the midline. It is a straight-line measure, not measured over the curve of the body
total life span
The full period of time from birth to death of an organism.
total species surveyed
total number of species in this clade, found in this survey (Appeltans et al. 2012. The Magnitude of Global Marine Species Diversity. Current Biology 22, 2189–2202.
total unknown marine species
Total species unknown in this clade (undescribed + undiscovered) (estimate based on expert opinion) (Appeltans et al. 2012. The Magnitude of Global Marine Species Diversity. Current Biology 22, 2189–2202.
tournaisian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
Growing along the ground.
Of seed bank longevity. Seeds germinate in the first favourable season after dispersal. Generally, seed bank longevity is <= 1 yr (no persistent seed bank).
A planned process that is the movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another.
transverse division
a common mode of asexual reproduction among skeletonless coelenterates and also in some skeletal anthozoans (division of the soft body must be associated with division of the skeleton)
Stolarski, J. 1991. Transverse division in a Miocene scleractinian coral. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 36 (4): 413-426
A shape quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's being a quadrilateral with two parallel sides.
Gymnodiniales Traits
A natural chemical precipitate of carbonate minerals; typically aragonite, but often recrystallized to or primarily calcite; which is deposited from the water of mineral springs (especially hot springs) or streams saturated with calcium carbonate.
whole plant arborescent
tremadocian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
Spicule with three rays in one plane
triassic period
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
A stream or river which flows into another river (a parent river) or body of water but which may not flow directly into the sea.
tridecanoic acid
spores bearing a Y shaped scar, indicating that they were arranged in a tetrahedral spore tetrad
pinnately compound leaves in which the leaflets are themselves bipinnate; also called thrice-pinnate
tripinnate + pinnatifid
a tripinnately compound leaf, with the pinnae being pinnatifid.
the morphological adaptation of an animal to living in constant darkness, characterised by features such as loss of pigment, reduced eyesight or blindness
trophic ecology
the diet, nutrition, feeding and energetic and nutrient supply attributes of an organism
trophic guild
A group of species that exploit the same food resources, and/or use the same feeding or foraging methods.
trophic level
position of an organism in a food web. May be described verbally with descriptors including primary producer, herbivore or carnivore. If described numerically, 1 indicates a primary producer, 2 a herbivore, and so on up the food web.
tropical and subtropical coniferous forest
tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forest
tropical broadleaf forest
tropical coniferous forest
tropical desert
A tropical desert biome is a desert biome which has communities adapted to temperatures above a monthly average of 18 degrees Celsius, high daily temperature ranges of approximately 20 degrees Celsius, very high insolation due to inhibited cloud formation, and very low precipitation. Tropical desert biomes located near coasts with cold upwellings may have cooler temperatures and reduced insolution due to fog.
tropical dry broadleaf forest
tropical dry or deciduous forests (including monsoon forests) or woodlands
tropical freshwater lake
tropical grassland
tropical humid forests
tropical moist broadleaf forest
tropical mountain
a mountain that is part of a tropical environment
tropical ocean
tropical or subtropical
tropical savanna
tropical semideciduous forest
A semi-deciduous broadleaf forest which is subject to tropical climate patterns.
tropical shrubland
tropical soil
tropical waters (hot)
tropical waters (warm)
tropical woodland
tube feet
One of the numerous external, fluid-filled muscular tubes of echinoderms, such as the starfish or sea urchin, serving as organs of locomotion, food handling, and respiration. Tube feet consist of two parts: ampulla and podia. Ampulla contain both circular muscles and longitudinal muscle, whereas the podia contain the latter only. Thus the podia use suction to attach to the substratum.
aquatic organisms that construct and inhabit simple unbranched vertical shafts with only one opening to the surface. These are primarily above-sediment filter-feeders, surface deposit-feeders, and subsurface deposit-feeders (head-down, conveyor-belt feeders)
Macrofaunal Burrows and Irrigation in Marine Sediment: Microbiological and Biogeochemical Interactions. Available from [accessed Feb 26 2020].
a small cluster of elongated flexible outgrowths attached or close together at the base and free at the opposite ends especially; a growing bunch of grasses or close-set plants"
A tundra is a terrestrial biome which includes, across its spatial extent, only low-growing vegetation such as dwarf shrubs, sedges and grasses, mosses, and lichens. Tundra biomes rarely have monthly average temperatures above 10 degrees Celsius and have low evapotranspiration ratios.
An underground or underwater passage.
turbid water
Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air. The measurement of turbidity is a key test of water quality.
The determination of the opacity of a liquid.
An intermittent lake unique to the limestone areas of Ireland, mostly west of the River Shannon. Most turloughs flood in the autumn, usually some time in October, and then dry up some time between April and July.
turonian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
A distinctive, flat-topped, steep-sided volcano formed when lava erupts through a thick glacier or ice sheet.
tympanal organ
hearing organ in insects, consisting of a membrane (tympanum) stretched across a frame backed by an air sac and associated sensory neurons
tympanic bladder
a gas-filled cranial derivative of the swim bladder
tympanic middle ear
the air-filled cavity within the skull of vertebrates that lies between the outer ear and the inner ear. It is linked to the pharynx (and therefore to outside air) via the Eustachian tube and in mammals contains the three ear ossicles, which transmit auditory vibrations from the outer ear (via the tympanum) to the inner ear
a) A specimen designated or indicated any kind of type of a species or infraspecific taxon. If possible more specific type terms (holotype, syntype, etc.) should be applied. b) the type name of a name of higher rank for taxa above the species rank. [General]
type of type
The kind of type this specimen is e.g. paratype, isotype, holotype etc. Equivalent to TCS ScientificName/Typification/TypeVouchers/TypeVoucher@typeOfType
type specimen repository
The institution that holds a type specimen for a given species. The recommended best practice is to use the identifier in a collections registry such as the Biodiversity Collections Index (
type status
A list (concatenated and separated) of nomenclatural types (type status, typified scientific name, publication) applied to the subject.