Glossary of ALL Terms for Data on EOL


An alkaline flat, in the context of a marine environment.
sac spawner
Sac spawners lay their eggs into an ovigerous sac. Sac spawners spawn few but relatively large eggs that develop slowly.
sakmarian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
saline evaporation pond
A shallow man-made pond designed to produce salt from sea water. The seawater is fed into large ponds and water is drawn out through natural evaporation which allows the salt to be subsequently harvested.
saline lake
A lake whose water contains a considerable concentration of dissolved salts.
saline marsh
A marsh whose water contains a considerable quantity of dissolved salts.
saline pan
A flat expanse of ground covered with salt and other minerals, usually shining white under the sun. A salt pan is formed where water pools. A saline pan would be a lake or a pond if it were located in a climate where the rate of water evaporation were not faster than the rate of water precipitation, i.e., if it were not in a desert. If the water is unable to drain into the ground, it remains on the surface until it evaporates, leaving behind whatever minerals were dissolved. Over thousands of years, the minerals (usually salts) accumulate on the surface.
saline water
saline water
A habitat that is in or on a body of water containing medium to high concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids (>=0.5 grams dissolved salts per litre)
saline water environment
An environmental system which has its properties and dynamics determined by saline water
saline wetland
A wetland ecosystem in which soil is saturated with saline water.
salt marsh
The marine salt marsh biome comprises marshes that are transitional intertidals between land and salty or brackish marine water (e.g.: sloughs, bays, estuaries). It is dominated by halophytic (salt tolerant) herbaceous plants. The daily tidal surges bring in nutrients, which tend to settle in roots of the plants within the salt marsh. The natural chemical activity of salty (or brackish) water and the tendency of algae to bloom in the shallow unshaded water also allow for great biodiversity.
salt tolerance
Tolerance to the high salt content in the growth medium.
[database_cross_reference: GR:pj]
(Bipedal jumping.) Behavior related to the upward thrust produced by the rapid, simultaneous extension of the hind legs with the intend to rise in the air
sample size
The size of the sample upon which a measurement is based
sampling effort
The amount of effort expended during an Event.
sampling protocol
The name of, reference to, or description of the method or protocol used during an Event.
A naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
sand pit quarry
A quarry from which sand is extracted.
sandbian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
The plain formed by the large amounts of silt and sediment, picked up as a glacier erodes the underlying rocks as it moves slowly downhill, and at the snout of the glacier, meltwater can carry this sediment away from the glacier and deposit it on a broad plain. The material in the outwash plain is often size-sorted by the water runoff of the melting glacier with the finest materials, like silt, being the most distantly re-deposited, whereas larger boulders are the closest to the original terminus of the glacier.
sandy beach
sandy desert
sandy mud
50 - 80% mud; 20 -50% sand.
sandy sediment
Sediment characterised by an average particle diameter between 62.5 micrometers and 2 mm.
sandy soil
Arenosols are sandy soils, including both soils developed in residual sands after in situ weathering of usually quartz-rich sediments or rock, and soils developed in recently deposited sands such as dunes in deserts and beach lands.
santonian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
an aqueous solution that can be transported through the apoplast or symplast of a plant
A young tree; specifically: one not over four inches in diameter at breast height.
deriving nutrition from nonliving organic matter
A savanna biome is a woodland biome which has seasonal water availability and includes, across its entire spatial extent, trees spaced sufficiently far apart to allow an unbroken layer of grass, sedge (Cyperaceae) or rush (Juncaceae) communities to live.
savanna soil
scale leaf
A quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's shape resemling a scale.
A small rigid plate that grows out of an animal's skin to provide protection
organism that feeds on dead animal and/or plant material
scientific name
The full scientific name, with authorship and date information if known. When forming part of an Identification, this should be the name in lowest level taxonomic rank that can be determined. This term should not contain identification qualifications, which should instead be supplied in the IdentificationQualifier term.
An organism which obtains food by scraping
Broken rock that appears at the bottom of crags, mountain cliffs or valley shoulders.
Testes are located outside of the body, suspended by the spermatic cord within the scrotum.
Area covered with low-growing or stunted perennial vegetation and usually not mixed with trees.
A large expanse of saline water usually connected with an ocean.
sea beach
A landform consisting of loose rock particles such as sand, gravel, shingle, pebbles, cobble, or even shell fragments along the shoreline of a sea.
sea cave
A cave in present-day or emerged sea cliffs, formed by wave attack or solution.
sea cliff
A cliff that is a margin of a sea or ocean.
sea foam
sea grass bed
Seagrass beds are highly diverse and productive ecosystems, and can harbour hundreds of associated species from all phyla. They partly create their own habitat: the leaves slow down water-currents increasing sedimentation, and the seagrass roots and rhizomes stabilize the seabed.
sea ice
Water ice which has formed by the freezing of sea water.
sea sand
sea shore
That part of the land in immediate contact with a sea, including the intertidal zone.
sea urchin feeder
a carnivore that feeds primarily on sea urchins
A mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface (sea level), and thus is not an island. Typically formed from volcanoes that rise abruptly and are usually found rising from a seafloor of 1,000 - 4,000 meters depth.
secchi depth
The Secchi depth is reached when the reflectance equals the intensity of light backscattered from the water; this depth in metres divided into 1.7 yields an attenuation coefficient (also called an extinction coefficient), for the available light averaged over the Secchi disk depth. While used as a variable, the extinction coefficient is also used as a variable for turbidity.
secondarily apterous
The absence of wings in organisms that are descended from winged ancestors.
secondary consumer
organisms that eat other consumers
secondary xylem
At very low or no risk of extirpation in the jurisdiction due to a very extensive range, abundant populations or occurrences, with little to no concern from declines or threats.
Services provided to prevent, deter, detect and/or document crime, fire, disorder or violations of rules
Sediment is an environmental substance comprised of any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bedor bottom of a body of water or other liquid.
seed bank
Location of persistent seed bank (longevity > 1 yr).
BROT trait database. Traits: units and categories (SeedBank),
seed dry mass
the mass of a seed, assessed after drying
seed hoarding
Seed dispersal via scattering and hoarding of propagules by animals (other than ants).
seed mass
seed period begin
Season in which the earliest fruit or seed of the fruit/seed period is visually obvious.
USDA PLANTS database Characteristics Data Fields.
seed period end
Season in which the latest fruit or seed of the fruit/seed period is visually obvious.
USDA PLANTS database Characteristics Data Fields.
seed spread rate
The capability of the plant to spread through its seed production compared to other species with the same growth habit.
USDA PLANTS database Characteristics Data Fields.
seedling survival
The expected seedling survival percentage of the plant compared to other species with the same growth habit.
USDA PLANTS database Characteristics Data Fields.
multi-tissue plant structures that develop from a plant ovule and have as parts a plant embryo enclosed in a seed coat.
seeds per pound
The number of seeds per pound in an average seed lot.
USDA PLANTS database Characteristics Data Fields.
selandian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
selective deposit feeder
Some deposit feeders do not ingest sediment haphazardly but use their palps or buccal organs to sort organic material from the sediment prior to ingestion. The method of sorting varies according to the types of palps present.
an organism relying on its own supportive tissues rather than a climbing habit to achieve vertical growth
A quality inhering in a plant by virtue of the bearer's disposition to being between evergeen and deciduous
Benthic organism whose body is partly within the substrate or may be covered by sediment during life.
partially woody; partially lignified
organism that is adapted to digging and life underground but also spends a considerable amount of its life above ground.
A quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's disposition to detect or perceive external stimulation.
Having to do with the senses.
sensory system
Anatomical system that overlaps the nervous system and is responsible for receiving and processing sensory information.
serpukhovian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
serravallian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
organisms that do not possess a means of self-locomotion and are normally immobile
sessile prey feeder
preys on organisms that do not possess a means of self-locomotion and are normally immobile
The sex of the biological individual(s) represented in the Occurrence. Recommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary.
sexual metamorphosis
Conspicuous change in the organism's body structure prior to reproduction
sexual reproduction
Capable of creating a new organism by combining the genetic material of two gametes, which may come from two parent organisms or from a single organism, in the case of self-fertilizing hermaphrodites.
sexually dimorphic
A quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's exhibiting a phenotypic difference between males and females of the same species.
the blocking of sunlight (in particular direct sunshine) by any object, and also the shadow created by that object
shade tolerance
The relative tolerance of the plant to shade conditions
USDA PLANTS database Characteristics Data Fields.
shallow infaunal
Benthic organism that lives within the upper layers of unlithified (soft) substrate.
shallow marine sediment
Marine sediment that accumulates within shallow regions of the oceanic basin close to continents, such as the continental shelf, or continental slope
shallow reef
A morphological quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's ratios of distances between its features (points, edges, surfaces and also holes etc).
An organismal quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's disposition to lose an entitity by natural process.
[database_cross_reference: PATOC:GVG]
sheinwoodian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
shell height, bivalve
Height (shorter dimension in the plane of the valve) of the shell of a Bivalve
shell length
The length of a mollusc shell.
shell length, bivalve
Length (longest dimension) of the shell of a Bivalve.
not exposed
shingle beach
A beach which is armoured with pebbles or small to medium sized cobbles.
shoot apex
A shoot axis that is the most distal part of a shoot system and has as parts a shoot apical meristem and the youngest leaf primordia.
[database_cross_reference: POC:curators]
shoot:root ratio (srr)
The quotient of the dry weight of the shoots produced during a given growth period divided by the dry weight of the roots esp. for crop plants.
The line of contact between a body of water and the land.
Of seed bank longevity. Seed bank longevity is > 1 and <= 5 yr.
whole plant frutescent, bush, shrub
A shrubland biome is a terrestrial biome which includes, across its entire spatial extent, dense groups of shrubs.
siliceous ooze
Siliceous ooze is a marine sediment composed of the debris of plankton with silica shells, such as diatoms and radiolaria. This ooze is limited to areas with high biological productivity, such as the polar oceans, and upwelling zones near the equator. The least common type of sediment, it covers only 15% of the ocean floor. It accumulates at a slower rate than calcareous ooze: 0.2-1 cm / 1000 yr.
siliceous rock
Siliceous rocks are sedimentary rocks that have silica (SiO2) as the principal constituent. The most common siliceous rock is chert other types include diatomite. They commonly form from silica-secreting organisms such as radiolarians, diatoms, or some types of sponges.
A protein fiber composed mainly of fibroin and produced by certain arthropods[
silty sediment
Sediment characterised by an average particle diameter between 3.9 and 62.5 micrometers.
silurian period
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
A leaf in which the lamina is undivided
simple eyes
eyes with one concave chamber. Note that 'simple' does not imply a reduced level of complexity or acuity.
simple eyes with multiple lenses
Simple eye that has two or more lenses. Some marine organisms bear more than one lens; for instance the copeopod Pontella has three. The outer has a parabolic surface, countering the effects of spherical aberration while allowing a sharp image to be formed. Copilla's eyes have two lenses, which move in and out like a telescope
sinemurian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
not accompanied by another or others
single measurement
A measurement is an information entity that is a recording of the output of a measurement such as produced by an instrument.
a fruit bearing only one seed
Singrisch collection
A natural depression or hole in the surface topography caused by the removal of soil or bedrock, often both, by water. Sinkholes may vary in size from less than a meter to several hundred meters both in diameter and depth, and vary in form from soil-lined bowls to bedrock-edged chasms.
size class
a size category or range applying to an occurrence or measurement record
skeletal density
mass per volume of skeletal (support) tissue
skeletal density
mass density of skeletal elements of the organism
skeletal reinforcement
The nature of structural reinforcements of shells, leaves, scutes, or carapaces. Smooth shells and carapaces lack reinforcements.
Anatomical cluster that consists of all the skeletal elements of the body
skeleton contains
The composition of a skeletal tissue.
skeleton structure
The structure of a skeleton.
An organ that constitutes the external surface of the body. It consists of the epidermis, dermis, and skin appendages.
slide preparation
specimen preparation mounted on a microscope slide
Decreased rate. A rate which is relatively low.
A size quality which is relatively low.
From Phenotype and Trait Ontology
small lake
small river
snow field
A region of permanent snow in mountainous areas or high latitudes.
A behavior that occurs predominantly or only, in individuals that are part of a group.
social group size
Number of individuals in a group that spends the majority of their time in a 24 hour cycle together where there is some indication that these individuals form a social cohesive unit.
social system
Description of the relationships among individuals within a population of organisms, including reproductive relationships (mating system), relationships within each sex, adult – young interactions, helpers and cooperation (group living).
soft benthic substrate
Benthic habitat composed of a soft substrate- mud, silt or sand
soft bodied
non-skeletal fauna
Any material within 2 m from the Earth's surface that is in contact with the atmosphere, with the exclusion of living organisms, areas with continuous ice not covered by other material, and water bodies deeper than 2 m.
soil depth
The minimum depth of soil required for good growth. Plants that do not have roots such as rootless aquatic plants (floating or submerged) and epiphytes are assigned a minimum root depth value of zero.
USDA PLANTS database Characteristics Data Fields.
soil ph
The soil pH, of the top 12 inches of soil, within the plant’s known geographical range. For cultivars, the geographical range is defined as the area to which the cultivar is well adapted rather than marginally adapted.
USDA PLANTS database Characteristics Data Fields.
A fumarole that emits sulfurous gases.
Solitary animals are those that spend a majority of their lives without others of their species, with possible exceptions for mating and raising their young. The antonym to a solitary animal is a social animal.
Solonchaks are soils that have a high concentration of soluble salts at some time in the year. Solonchaks are largely confined to the arid and semi-arid climate zones and to coastal regions in all climates.
Solonetz are soils with a dense, strongly structured, clayey subsurface horizon that has a high proportion of adsorbed Na and/or Mg ions. Solonetz that contain free soda (Na2CO3) are strongly alkaline (field pH > 8.5).
some parental care
this term applies to a species that provides any parental care to its offspring
sound pressure
local pressure deviation from the ambient atmospheric pressure, caused by a sound wave
A related resource from which the described resource is derived.
southern arctic dwarf shrub subzone
Zone D, per the Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map (CAVM Team 2003)
Southern Ocean
specific leaf area
the one-sided area of a fresh leaf, divided by its oven-dry mass
magnitude of velocity
A secondary mineral deposit formed in caves, most commonly calcite.
sphagnum bog
A peatland dominated by species of the Bryophyte Sphagnum.
Globular (centric or excentric) arrangement of crystal fibers radiating from a common center
A leaf that is a sclerified and pointed and lacks a lamina.
[database_cross_reference: POC:curators]
A hard, thorny or needle-like structure which occurs on various organisms. Animals such as porcupines and sea urchins grow spines as a self-defense mechanism
sponge feeder
a carnivore that feeds primarily on sponges
sponge reef
The marine sponge reef biome comprises marine reefs primarily built by marine sponges. The primary frame-building sponges are all members of the order Hexactinosa. They are found only in glacier-scoured troughs of low-angle continental shelf. The seafloor is stable and consists of rock, coarse gravel, and large boulders.
A primitive usually unicellular often environmentally resistant dormant or reproductive body produced by plants and some microorganisms and capable of development into a new individual either directly or after fusion with another spore.
spore arrangement
The important feature of homospory is the four fold division involved in spore production, this takes the form of either a tetrahedra which gives a trilete (Y shaped scar) spore or a tetragon which gives a monolete (single linear scar) spore.
sporocyst stage
A parasite lifecycle stage that is the early developmental stage capable of asexual reproduction: in sporozoans it is usually enclosed within an oocyst; in digeneans it is an intramolluscan stage lacking a gut.
sporulated oocyst
A sporozoan zygote undergoing sporogenous development.
spring (season)
one of the Earth's four temperate seasons, occurring between winter and summer
USDA Plants Revised March 2018
spring (water)
A point where groundwater or steam flows out of the ground, and is thus where the aquifer surface meets the ground surface or where there is a fissure.
(Quadrupedal jumping) Progression composed of a series of leaps in which the hind legs supply the chief propulsive force, lifting the body completely from the ground and forward. The fore feet touch the ground simultaneously or in close sequence; the body rolls forward over these as in a vault; the hind feet, overstepping the fore feet, at least in greatest speed, come down next and again lift the body forward
spruce forest soil
tightly clustered and slightly flattened pebble-like units
A microsporophyll bearing one or more microsporangia; part of a flower.
standard length
refers to the length of a fish measured from the tip of the snout to the posterior end of the last vertebra or to the posterior end of the midlateral portion of the hypural plate. Simply put, this measurement excludes the length of the caudal fin.
definition from Wikipedia
standard length
length of a fish measured from the tip of the snout to the posterior end of the last vertebra or to the posterior end of the midlateral portion of the hypural plate. Simply put, this measurement excludes the length of the caudal fin
the stirrup-shaped small bone or ossicle in the middle ear which is attached to the incus laterally and to the fenestra ovalis, the 'oval window' medially. The oval window is adjacent to the vestibule of the inner ear. The stapes transmits the sound vibrations from the incus to the membrane of the inner ear inside the fenestra ovalis.
The most important reserve polysaccharide found in plants. It is a glucan consisting of amylose and amylopectin.
starfish feeder
a carnivore that feeds primarily on starfishes
start day of year
The earliest integer day of the year on which the Event occurred (1 for January 1, 365 for December 31, except in a leap year, in which case it is 366).
state or province
The name of the next smaller administrative region than country (state, province, canton, department, region, etc.) in which the Location occurs.
statherian period
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
a balance sensory receptor present in some aquatic invertebrates
the primary shoot axis of a plant
stem diameter
linear distance through the cross section of the stem or trunk, passing through the center
stem morphology
any morphological quality of a stem
stem specific density
the ratio of the mass of the stem or an unit thereof assessed after drying, to its volume assessed without drying
Eye-spots which may be set into a pit to reduce the angles of light that enters, to allow the organism to deduce the angle of incoming light. Lens-like structures may be present, but stemmata, unlike lens eyes, cannot form an image, either for lack of refractive power or retinal resolution.
The presence of narrow wings that may or may not be functional as organs of flight.
A plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said to be normal in the steppe. It may be semi-desert, or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude.
steppe soil
A fertility quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearers being incapable of initiating, sustaining, or supporting reproduction.
stomach cramps
Involuntary contraction of abdominal muscles
stony desert
A desert plain characterized by a surface veneer of gravel or stones.
storage organ
non-woody storage organs, normally modified stems as bulbs, corms or tubers
A tall, conical volcano composed of many layers of hardened lava, tephra, and volcanic ash. These volcanoes are characterized by a steep profile and periodic, explosive eruptions. The lava that flows from them is viscous, and cools and hardens before spreading very far.
straw (color)
color; tone of pale yellow
Linear body of water flowing on the Earth's surface.
stream bank
The sloping margin of a stream, serving to confine it to its natural channel.
stream bed
The channel bottom of a stream; the physical confine of the normal water flow.
stream mouth
The place where a stream discharges into a lagoon, lake, or the sea.
stream sediment
stream valley
A valley that contains, and has been formed by, a stream.
Stress tolerant species live in areas of high intensity stress and low intensity disturbance. Species that have adapted this strategy generally have slow growth rates, high rates of nutrient retention, and low phenotypic plasticity. Stress tolerators respond to environmental stresses through physiological variability. These species are often found in stressful environments.
string mire
Flat or concave peatlands with a string-like pattern of hummocks (hence the name), found principally in northern Scandinavia but occurring in the western parts of the former USSR and in North America. A few examples exist in northern Britain.
sub-carangiform swimming
Body/caudal fin propulsion, like anguilliform, with a more marked increase in wave amplitude along the body with the vast majority of the work being done by the rear half of the fish. In general, the fish body is stiffer, making for higher speed but reduced maneuverability. Trout use sub-carangiform locomotion.
An animal in the process of transforming from the juvenile stage to full maturity.
subalpine freshwater lake
subgenual organs
organs in insects that are involved in the perception of sound; just below the knee in the tibia of all legs in most insects. Reception is performed by aggregations of scolopidia, the unit mechanoreceptor in invertebrates.
submarine canyon
A steep-sided valley on the sea floor of the continental slope. Many submarine canyons are found as extensions to large rivers; however there are many that have no such association. Canyons cutting the continental slopes have been found at depths greater than 2 km below sea level. Many submarine canyons continue as submarine channels across continental rise areas and may extend for hundreds of kilometers.
Dense, slow growing colonies which are not hemispherical, but have a more irregular or columnar shape
Low-growing plant usually under 0.5 m (1.5 feet) tall, never exceeding 1 meter (3 feet) tall at maturity.
PLANTS Database Growth Habits Codes and Definitions:
the surface on which a plant or animal lives
This organism is normally physically attached to the substrate upon which it lives
subsurface deposit feeder
An organism which obtains food primarily by subsurface deposit feeding. Reid WDK, Wigham BD, McGill RAR, Polunin NVC (2012) Elucidating trophic pathways in benthic deep-sea assemblages of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge north and south of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 463:89-103. doi:10.3354/meps09863
A habitat that is below the surface of the earth.
subtidal rocky reef
The marine rocky subtidal reef biome comprises regions of the marine reef biome composed mainly of rock and which harbour abundant communities of algae and invertebrates. These reefs are often very patchy, with alterations of rocks dominated by rich invertebrate assemblages and turf-forming calcareous red algae.
subtropical broadleaf forest
subtropical coniferous forest
subtropical desert
subtropical dry broadleaf forest
subtropical grassland
subtropical moist broadleaf forest
subtropical savanna
subtropical shrubland
subtropical woodland
subulate (awl-shaped)
linear, very narrow, tapering to a very fine point from a narrow base
succulent plant
plants having some parts that are more than normally thickened and fleshy
sudd hydrophyte
an aquatic plant that grows rooted in sudd (an impenetrable mass of floating vegetable matter).
GERMISHUIZEN, G. & MEYER, N.L. (eds) 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
of habit, a plant with a herbaceous upper part and woody lower part.
sugar plantation
short chain carbohydrate molecules that have hydroxyl groups on each carbon atom unit, but with one carbon that has a double-bond aldehyde or ketone oxygen
sulcus width
Any measurable or observable characteristic related to the width of a dinoflagellate sulcus
Ontology of Biological Attributes
sulfur spring
A spring whose water contains a significant amount of dissolved derivatives of sulfur.
one of the Earth's four temperate seasons, occurring between spring and autumn
electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun
supporting structures and enclosures
Hard framework, internal or external, which supports and protects softer parts of plant, animal or unicellular organism, and to which muscles usually attach in animals, includes skeletons (derived from Lawrence, 2005). Lawrence, E. (ed.) (2005) Henderson's dictionary of Biology (13th edition). London, United Kingdom: Pearson Education Limited.
supralittoral zone
The zone of the shore immediately above the highest water leveland subjected to wetting by spray or wave splash
surface soil
A soil consisting of the upper layer of soil on the surface consisting of loose material capable of supporting life composed of a mixture of mineral and organic matter.
surficial modifier
bioturbating fauna with activities restricted to the sediment layer immediately below the sediment surface
S. Lindqvist, Engelbrektsson, Eriksson, Hulth. 2016. Functional classification of bioturbating macrofauna in marine sediments using time-resolved imaging of particle displacement and multivariate analysis. Biogeosciences Discuss, 13 Oct. 2016. doi:10.5194/bg-2016-411.
survival salinity
survival temperature
suspended sediment
Suspended sediment, or suspended load, is the term for the particles settle slowly enough to be carried in flowing water (such as a stream or coastal area) either without touching the bed or while only intermittently touching it. These particles are generally of the fine sand, silt and clay size, although larger particles may be carried as well depending on the intensity of the flow.
suspension feeder
An organism which feeds on organisms and/or particles suspended in the water column.
A wetland that features permanent inundation of large areas of land by shallow bodies of water, generally with a substantial number of hummocks, or dry-land protrusions.
swamp forest
forests which are inundated with freshwater, either permanently or seasonally. They normally occur along the lower reaches of rivers and around freshwater lakes
swim bladder
a thin membranous, sometimes alveolated sac in the dorsal portion of the abdominal cavity. Contains a varying mixture of gases, not identical to the composition of air.
An organism that moves through the water column via movements of its fins, legs or appendages, via undulatory movements of the body or via jet propulsion; includes pelagic phases during reproduction (swarming at the surface)
Self-propelled movement of an organism from one location to another through water, often by means of active fin movement.
organism living in symbiosis, a close and long-term biological association, with another organism
symbiont inheritance
Symbiont transmission maintains symbioses through host generations. In vertical transmission, the symbiont is inherited from the mother or, more rarely, from both parents.
A consumer that acquires nutrition from a symbiont
One of the series of specimens used to describe a species or infraspecific taxon when neither a single holotype nor a lectotype has been designated. The syntypes collectively constitute the name-bearing type. [Zoo./Bot.]
systolic blood pressure