Glossary of ALL Terms for Data on EOL


A. Garai collection
aalenian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
abnormal choice of habitat
An organism migrates into habitat or microhabitat different from those normally inhabited.
abnormal locomotory behavior
An anomaly in locomotory behavior (eg: increase, decrease.)
Relative degree of plentifulness.
abyssal plain
abyssal zone
The marine abyssal zone biome comprises regions of the marine benthic biome between approximately 2500 m and 6000 m depth. This zone generally coincides with the continental rise and the abyssal plain.
abyssal zone (4000-6000m)
abyssalpelagic zone
The zone of the ocean below the bathypelagic zone, with its lowest boundary at about 6000m.
acicular (needle-like)
Slender and pointed, needle-like
acid hot spring
A hot spring whose water has an acidic pH.
acid mine drainage
A mine drainage with an acidic pH.
acidic freshwater mining lake
acidic soil
active forager
An organism which obtains food primarily by active searching.
active growth period
The growing season of a plant. The time of year when a plant has its most active growth.
actively mobile
uses self-propelled locomotion to change location on a regular basis
actual evapotranspiration rate in geographic range
Monthly AET (Actual Evapotranspiration Rate) within the geographic range of a taxon. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land surface to atmosphere.
adaptive strategy
mechanisms and responses used by organisms to reproduce, defend, survive, and compete on the landscape.
adobe soil
late larval trematode or a developing trematode not yet attained sexual maturity
of an age between the onset of puberty and maturity
A maturity quality inhering in an individual by virtue of the individual having attained sexual maturity and full growth
adult and juvenile
adult and juvenile individuals are present
adult and larva
adult and larval individuals are present
adult and nymph
adult and nymph stage individuals are present
adult and pupa
adult and pupal stage individuals are present
adult and subadult
adult and subadult individuals are present
adult yearly survival
adventive in
Simpson, A., Eyler, M.C., Sikes, D., Bowser, M., Sellers, E., Guala, G.F., Cannister, M., Libby, R., and Kozlowski, N., 2019, A comprehensive list of non-native species established in three major regions of the United States: Version 2.0, (ver. 2.0, 2019): U.S. Geological Survey data release, A possibly ambiguous term used to describe the presence of the taxon in a region. Common definitions include newly arrived; vagrant; in flux. May or may not have been introduced by human activity.
Behavior related to the movement of an organism from one location to another through the air.
aerial habitat
A habitat that is solely in the air.
aeronian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart,
Airborne solid particles (also called dust or particulate matter (PM)) or liquid droplets.
after harvest regrowth rate
Indicates the relative rate of regrowth of a herbaceous plant after a harvest of above ground herbage.
USDA PLANTS database Characteristics Data Fields.
neurotoxin group originally described from spiders
Billen B, Vassilevski A, Nikolsky A, Debaveye S, Tytgat J, Grishin E. Unique bell-shaped voltage-dependent modulation of Na+ channel gating by novel insect-selective toxins from the spider Agelena orientalis, J Biol Chem., 2010, vol. 285 (pg. 18545-18554)
age at dispersal At Dispersal
age at eye opening
Age at which both eyes are fully open after birth.
Kate E. Jones, Jon Bielby, Marcel Cardillo, Susanne A. Fritz, Justin O''Dell, C. David L. Orme, Kamran Safi, Wes Sechrest, Elizabeth H. Boakes, Chris Carbone, Christina Connolly, Michael J. Cutts, Janine K. Foster, Richard Grenyer, Michael Habib, Christopher A. Plaster, Samantha A. Price, Elizabeth A. Rigby, Janna Rist, Amber Teacher, Olaf R. P. Bininda-Emonds, John L. Gittleman, Georgina M. Mace, and Andy Purvis. 2009. PanTHERIA, a species-level database of life history, ecology, and geography of extant and recently extinct mammals. Ecology 90:2648.
age at first reproduction
age at maturity
Age at the first successful reproduction.
agricultural material
agricultural soil
agricultural terrace
agricultural waste
Wastewater produced in the course of agricultural activities
agricultural waste
waste produced as a result of various agricultural operations. It includes manure and other wastes from farms, poultry houses and slaughterhouses; harvest waste; fertilizer run- off from fields; pesticides that enter into water, air or soils; and salt and silt drained from fields
alatoid nymph
having some features of a winged (alate) adult aphid. For example immature winged forms with wing buds
albian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
aquatic, photosynthetic, and non vascular eukaryotic organisms (a polyphyletic group)
algal filament
filaments consist of series of cells being joined end to end giving a thread-like appearance.
consumer that eats algae
alkaline environment
An alkaline environment is an environment in which entities are exposed to high pH, typically greater than a pH of 9
Gymnodiniales Traits
alkaline flat
A dry lakebead consisting of fine-grained sediments infused with alkali salts. Generally the shore or bed of an endorheic lake.
alkaline habitat
A biome in which the pH is >pH9. Inhabited by alkaliphilic organisms.
alkaline hot spring
A hot spring whose water has an alkaline pH.
A paralectotype specimen that is the opposite sex of the lectotype. The term is not regulated by the ICZN. [Zoo.]
A paraneotype specimen that is the opposite sex of the neotype. The term is not regulated by the ICZN. [Zoo.]
A paratype specimen designated from the type series by the original author that is the opposite sex of the holotype. The term is not regulated by the ICZN. [Zoo.]
alluvial fan
A fan-shaped deposit formed where a fast flowing stream flattens, slows, and spreads typically at the exit of a canyon onto a flatter plain.
alluvial plain
A relatively flat and gently sloping landform found at the base of a range of hills or mountains, formed by the deposition of alluvial soil over a long period of time by one or more streams coming from the mountains.
alluvial soil
alpine glacier
A glacier found in mountain terrain.
alpine soil
alternation of generations
Organisms with a life cycle that features alternation of generations with sexual and asexual reproduction.
ambush predator
organisms that capture or trap prey by stealth or by strategy (typically not conscious strategy), rather than by speed or by strength.
Development of insects without the process of metamorphosis, resulting in little change in body form during growth and molting.
ampharetid feeder
a carnivore that feeds primarily on ampharetid worms (Ampharetidae)
class of tetrapods, whose living forms include frogs, toads, salamanders, newts and caecilians
organism that is adapted to both life on land and in the water.
Amphidromous fish move between fresh and salt water during some part of life cycle, but not for breeding
A section of a river or stream that diverts from the main course and rejoins later.
Anadromous fish live in the sea mostly, breed in fresh water; the best-known are salmon, which hatch in small freshwater streams, go down to the sea and live there for several years, then return to the same streams where they were hatched, spawn, and die shortly thereafter.
anadromous (leaves)
a venation pattern in which the first vein in a given segment arises on the side of the leaf segment toward the apex
anaerobic mud
anaerobic sediment
Sediment characterised by the absence of oxygen.
anaerobic soil tolerance
The relative tolerance of the plant to anaerobic soil conditions.
USDA PLANTS database Characteristics Data Fields.
anal and dorsal fin swimming
swimming mainly using undulations of anal and dorsal fins
anal fin swimming
swimming mainly using undulations of the anal fin
a reproductive system characterized by the presence of male flowers on some plants, and bisexual flowers on others
having both bisexual and male flowers on the same plant
Having paternal care wherein eggs are incubated internally by the father, and young emerge post-hatching
Seed dispersal by wind (with wind dispersal adaptations, such as pappus or wings).
Body/caudal fin propulsion, with little increase in the amplitude of the flexion wave as it passes along the body
animal habitation
The dwelling of an animal or group of similar animals.
animal litter
Straw or other material strewn in an animal's enclosure (e.g. a stable) for it to sleep on and to absorb its faeces and urine.
animal population density
Number of animals in a population relative to space.
animal waste
anisian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
Of plant duration, a plant whose life span ends within one year after germination, e.g. a winter annual germinating in the autumn and flowering in the spring (esp. in Mediterranean climates), approximately synonymous to therophyte, c.f. biennial, ephemeral, perennial, c.f. also of flowering with respect to architecture, hapaxanthic, monocarpic, pleonanthic.
Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 12, July 2012. Glossary,
annual precipitation
Total depth of precipitation fallen in a given location in one year, if converted to liquid form. Precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapour that falls under gravity.
anoxic water
Water depleted of dissolved oxygen.
ante-isooctadecanoic acid
ante-isotetradecanoic acid
An anatomical region that is the entire part of an anatomical structure anterior to a transverse plane or midpoint of body length
Spatial Reference Ontology
the pollen-bearing part of a stamen of a flower
a geographic feature resulting from the influence of human beings on nature.
anthropogenic environmental material
Anthropogenic material in or on which organisms may live.
anthropogenic terrestrial
An anthropogenic terrestrial biome is a terrestrial biome which has community structures determined by human activity.
A phosphate mineral with the general formula Ca5(PO4)3X where X = OH, F or Cl
relating to or located at the tip or apex
replacement of the normal sexual reproduction by asexual reproduction, without fertilization
At a fairly low risk of extirpation in the jurisdiction due to an extensive range and/or many populations or occurrences, but with possible cause for some concern as a result of local recent declines, threats, or other factors.
apposition eyes
A compound eye with no separation between the crystalline-cone layer and the retinula, each rhabdom receiving light only from its own corneal lens.
lying close to and flat against a surface of a plant structure, for instance a stem
Wings are absent.
apterous nymph
nymph lacking wings. Apterous aphids may be immature or adult, but (confusingly) the term apterae can also refer to wingless adults
aptian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
Structure designed to transport water from a remote source, usually by gravity.
A habitat that is in or on water
aquatic (locomotion)
movement of an organism from one location to another through a liquid medium
aquatic adapted
organism that is adapted to life in the water
aquatic habitat
A habitat that is in or on water.
aquatic plant
whole plant aquatic
An underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well.
aquitanian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
arable soil
Calcium carbonate (CO3Ca), aragonite structure
aragonite saturation state
the degree to which seawater is saturated with respect to the aragonite form of calcium carbonate.
arboreal (locomotion)
Behavior related to the locomotion of animals in trees.
arboreal habitat
A habitat in or on trees.
Of habit, resembling a tree, a term applied to non-woody plants attaining tree height and to shrubs tending to become tree-like in size
Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 12, July 2012.
archean eon
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
are commensal with
two organisms living together in more or less intimate association in a relationship in which one benefits and the other is unaffected
are dispersal vectors for
are dispersed by
which agent of biological dispersal moves a dispersal unit, or organism, away from its birth population to another location or population in which the individual will reproduce.
are eaten by
are ecologically related to
A relationship that is mediated in some way by the environment or environmental feature
are ectoparasites of
are endoparasites of
are endosymbionts of
The smaller partner living in close association, living inside the host
are epibionts of
The smaller partner living in close association, attached to the surface of
are epiphytes of
are host of
From OBO Relation Ontology
are killed by
are kleptoparasitized by
are mutualistic with
An interaction relationship between two organisms living together in more or less intimate association in a relationship in which both organisms benefit from each other
Arctic Lichen Ecology
are parasitized by
Global Biotic Interactions
are parasitoids of
are pathogens of
are pollinated by
are preyed upon by
are preyed upon by
are symbionts of
The smaller partner living in close association with
are vectors for
are visited by
A thin, almost knife-like, ridge of rock which is typically formed when two glaciers erode parallel U-shaped valleys. The arte is a thin ridge of rock that is left separating the two valleys. Artes can also form when two glacial cirques erode towards one another, although frequently this results in a saddle-shaped pass, called a col.
An arid condition is an environmental condition in which annual precipitation is less than half of annual potential evapotranspiration.
appendage which may be used for palpation, manipulation or locomotion
arm plus disc length
arthropod legs
locomotory appendage of arthropods
phylum of animals
Jointed; separating freely, leaving a clean scar; e.g. the fronds of certain ferns where they join the rhizome.
artinskian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
asexual reproduction
Capable of the biological process in which new individuals are produced by either a single cell or a group of cells, in the absence of any sexual process.
ash content
asselian age
International Chronostratigraphic Chart:
associated media
A list (concatenated and separated) of identifiers (publication, global unique identifier, URI) of media associated with the Occurrence.
associated sequences
A list (concatenated and separated) of identifiers (publication, global unique identifier, URI) of genetic sequence information associated with the Occurrence.
at least short-persistent
Of seed bank longevity. Seed bank longevity is > 1 and at least <= 5 yr (could be longer but it is unknown).
An oceanic island, often having a characteristic ring-like shape surrounding a lagoon. Atolls are formed when coral reef grows around a volcanic island that later subsides into the ocean.
attenuation coefficient
characterizes how easily a material can be penetrated, usually by a beam of light, or sometimes other energy or matter
auditory system
the sensory system for the sense of hearing
Seed dispersal by gravity, without the assistance of any dispersal vector (= unassisted dispersal).
any trophic interaction which has as input some inorganic material (non-living) that is the only source of carbon or reducing equivalents source is a autotrophic process
A vague term indicating a measure of central tendency, like a mean, median, or a more complex measure like a mean of subgrouped means
animal that preys on and eats birds