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Reproduction

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Like other deer species, Javan rusa have a polygynous mating system, with males competing for access to receptive females.

Mating System: polygynous

The gestation period is 8 months. They give birth to 1 calf, rarely 2. Breeding occurs throughout the year but peaks during the months between of July and September.

Breeding interval: Javan rusa breed once yearly.

Breeding season: Breeding peaks from July to September.

Range number of offspring: 1 to 2.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average gestation period: 8 months.

Range weaning age: 6 to 8 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 18 to 24 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 18 to 24 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

Newly born calves stay with their mother. Weaning is from 6 to 8 months. These deer reach sexual maturity 18 to 24 months after birth.

Parental Investment: precocial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)

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Reyes, E. 2002. "Rusa timorensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rusa_timorensis.html
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Eduardo Reyes, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Bret Weinstein, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Untitled

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Javan rusa are the largest Rusa species. They were previously known by the scientific name Cervus timorensis.

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Reyes, E. 2002. "Rusa timorensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rusa_timorensis.html
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Eduardo Reyes, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Bret Weinstein, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Behavior

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Javan rusa, like other deer species, use chemical and visual cues and sounds in communication around reproductive state.

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic ; chemical

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Reyes, E. 2002. "Rusa timorensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rusa_timorensis.html
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Eduardo Reyes, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Bret Weinstein, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Conservation Status

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Javan rusa are not considered endangered currently.

US Migratory Bird Act: no special status

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: vulnerable

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Reyes, E. 2002. "Rusa timorensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rusa_timorensis.html
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Eduardo Reyes, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Bret Weinstein, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Benefits

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Javan rusa have a direct impact on farming through competition with domestic stocks. The competition for pasture, between the deer and domestic animals use for farming, seems to be a very important issue in Indonesia. Also, Javan rusa eat crops and sometimes spread weeds that are harmful to farming.

Negative Impacts: crop pest

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Reyes, E. 2002. "Rusa timorensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rusa_timorensis.html
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Eduardo Reyes, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Bret Weinstein, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Benefits

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Javan rusas shed their antlers between the months of October and February. These are collected and used primarily in Asian medicine. Also, the antlers can be used as jewelry. In Queensland, Australia, 50% of the deer farmed are Javan rusa. While economic by-products such as hides offer some income to rusa farmers in Australia, the major commercial activity from rusa deer farming is deer meat (venison) production. Venison is considered a lean and nutritious red meat.

Positive Impacts: food ; body parts are source of valuable material; source of medicine or drug

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Reyes, E. 2002. "Rusa timorensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rusa_timorensis.html
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Eduardo Reyes, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Bret Weinstein, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Associations

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Javan rusa help disperse seeds in the forest.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

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Reyes, E. 2002. "Rusa timorensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rusa_timorensis.html
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Eduardo Reyes, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Bret Weinstein, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Trophic Strategy

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Like most deer, Javan rusa eat primarily grass and leaves. They hardly drink any water because they get their fluid from the grass and the leaves.

Plant Foods: leaves; wood, bark, or stems

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore )

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Reyes, E. 2002. "Rusa timorensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rusa_timorensis.html
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Eduardo Reyes, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Bret Weinstein, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Distribution

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Javan rusa are found on most of the islands of Southeast Asia. They occur from Malaysia in the west to New Zealand in the east.

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native ); australian (Native )

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Reyes, E. 2002. "Rusa timorensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rusa_timorensis.html
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Eduardo Reyes, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Bret Weinstein, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Habitat

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Javan rusa are principly found in deciduous forests, plantations and grasslands in the islands of Southeast Asia. They prefer the edges of the forest.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; scrub forest

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Reyes, E. 2002. "Rusa timorensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rusa_timorensis.html
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Eduardo Reyes, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Bret Weinstein, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Life Expectancy

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Javan rusa live between 15 to 20 years in the wild and in captivity. Rarely do they live for more than 20 years.

Range lifespan
Status: wild:
15 to 20 years.

Range lifespan
Status: captivity:
15 to 20 years.

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Reyes, E. 2002. "Rusa timorensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rusa_timorensis.html
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Eduardo Reyes, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Bret Weinstein, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Morphology

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Male Javan rusa are larger than females. Males usually weigh 152 kg, while females weigh about 74 kg. The males have a lyre-shaped, three-tined antlers, which weigh about 2.5 kg. Males and females have a rough grayish brown coat that is often coarse in appearance. Their ears are rounded and broad. The animals look short and stubby because they have relatively short legs.

Range mass: 74 to 160 kg.

Range length: 83 to 110 cm.

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger; ornamentation

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Reyes, E. 2002. "Rusa timorensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rusa_timorensis.html
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Eduardo Reyes, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Bret Weinstein, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Associations

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Although the Javan deer sometimes graze during the day, they are mostly nocturnal to avoid diurnal predators. Their primary predators are crocodiles, pythons, and Komodo dragons.

Known Predators:

  • crocodiles (Crocodylus)
  • pythons (Boidae)
  • Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis)
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Reyes, E. 2002. "Rusa timorensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Rusa_timorensis.html
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Eduardo Reyes, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Javan rusa

provided by wikipedia EN

The Javan rusa or Sunda sambar (Rusa timorensis) is a deer native to the islands of Indonesia and East Timor. Introduced populations exist in a wide variety of locations in the Southern Hemisphere.

Subspecies

"
The Javan rusa is featured on a 1988 500-rupiah banknote.

Seven subspecies of the Javan rusa are recognised:[1]

  • R. t. timorensis (Timor rusa deer) – Timor.
  • R. t. djongaMuna and Butung Islands.
  • R. t. floresiensis (Flores rusa deer) – Flores and other islands.
  • R. t. macassaricus (Celebes rusa deer) – Celebes.
  • R. t. moluccensis (Moluccan rusa deer) – Molucca Islands.
  • R. t. renschiBali.
  • R. t. russa (Javan rusa deer) – Java.

Description

Rusa deer are distinguished by their large ears, the light tufts of hair above the eyebrows, and antlers that appear large relative to the body size. The antlers are lyre-shaped and three-tined.[3] Males are bigger than females; head-to-body length varies from 142 to 185 cm (4.66 to 6.07 ft), with a 20 cm (7.9 in) tail.[4] Males weigh 152–160 kg, female about 74 kg. The pelage is grayish-brown and often appears coarse.[3] Unlike most other deer species, newborn fawns do not bear spots.[4]

Distribution and habitat

"
Herd of rusa deer at the Baluran National Park

The Javan rusa natively occurs on the islands of Java, Bali, and Timor in Indonesia. It has been introduced to Irian Jaya, Borneo (Kalimantan), the Lesser Sunda Islands, Maluku, Sulawesi, Pohnpei, Mauritius, Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, the Christmas Islands, the Cocos Islands, Nauru, Australia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, New Britain, and New Ireland.[2][5] Rusa deer were introduced by the Dutch to New Guinea during the early 1900s.[6]:375

Its habitat preferences are similar to that of the chital of India: open dry and mixed deciduous forests, parklands, and savannas. Rusa deer have established populations in remote islands, probably brought there by Indonesian fishermen. They adapt well, living as comfortably in the dry Australian bush as they do in their tropical homelands. This trait is shown well in the more frequent encounters on the fringes of Wollongong and Sydney, and in particular in the Royal National Park, indicating steadily growing numbers and strong herds.

Ecology

Rusa deer are active mostly in the early morning and late afternoon. They are rarely seen in the open and are very difficult to approach due to their keen senses and cautious instincts.

The species is very sociable, and individuals are rarely found alone. When alarmed, a rusa stag lets out an extremely loud honk. This is an alarm call and alerts any other deer in the vicinity.

As with other deer species, Javan rusa mainly feed on grass, leaves, and fallen fruit. They do not drink water, deriving all required fluid from their food.[3][4]

The main predators of the species include the Javan leopard, the dhole, crocodiles, pythons, and the Komodo dragon.[3][4]

Reproduction

The Javan rusa mates around July and August, when stags contest by calling in a loud, shrill bark and duelling with the antlers. The doe gives birth to one or two calves after a gestation period of 8 months, at the start of spring. Calves are weaned at 6–8 months, and sexual maturity is attained at 3–5 years, depending on habitat conditions. Javan rusas live 15–20 years both in the wild and in captivity.[3][4]

References

  1. ^ a b Grubb, P. (2005). "Rusa timorensis". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 670. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ a b Hedges, S.; Duckworth, J.W.; Timmins, R.J.; Semiadi, G. & Priyono, A. (2008). "Rusa timorensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2009.old-form url Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of vulnerable.
  3. ^ a b c d e Reyes, E. "Rusa timorensis". University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Animal Diversity Web.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Rusa, Sunda sambar". Ultimate Ungulate.
  5. ^ Long, JL (2003). Introduced Mammals of the World: Their History, Distribution and Influence. Cabi Publishing. ISBN 9780851997483.
  6. ^ Georges, A., Guarino, F., & Bito, B. (2006). Freshwater turtles of the TransFly region of Papua New Guinea – notes on diversity, distribution, reproduction, harvest and trade. Wildlife Research, 33(5), 373. doi:10.1071/wr05087

"
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Javan rusa: Brief Summary

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The Javan rusa or Sunda sambar (Rusa timorensis) is a deer native to the islands of Indonesia and East Timor. Introduced populations exist in a wide variety of locations in the Southern Hemisphere.

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