Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans

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Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans is a species of bacteria of the genus Sulfobacillus. It is an acidophilic, mixotrophic, moderately thermophilic, Gram-positive, sporulating facultative anaerobe. As its name suggests, it is capable of oxidizing sulfur.[2][3][4]

Taxonomy

S. thermosulfidooxidans, as well as the genus Sulfobacillus, were first described in 1978 based on isolates from Kazakhstan.[5][1] S. thermosulfidooxidans is the type species of the genus.[1] The genus is of uncertain taxonomic position,[3][1] likely related to the genus Thermaerobacter and possibly representing either a deep branch of the Firmicutes or a separate phylum.[3][6]

Distribution and ecology

S. thermosulfidooxidans is widely distributed in both natural and artificial acidic environments, including hot springs and acid mine drainage. Strains have been isolated from a variety of locations including China,[7] Chile,[4] Kazakhstan,[5] California,[2] and Zambia.[7] Compared to other bacteria often found in similar environments, Sulfobacillus species are typically present at relatively low abundance.[2][7]

Growth and metabolism

S. thermosulfidooxidans is acidophilic and moderately thermophilic; while different strains have slightly different pH and temperature growth optima, all prefer environments around pH 2.0 with optimal growth temperatures ranging from 45C to 55C.[5][8][3][4] S. thermosulfidooxidans is iron- and sulfur-oxidizing, capable of oxidation of elemental sulfur, tetrathionate, and sulfides.[2]

Genome

The genomes of several S. thermosulfidooxidans strains have been sequenced, demonstrating a genome size of 3.2-3.9 megabases, with a GC content of 48-49%[4][2][3][7] and a number of bioinformatically defined protein-coding genes ranging from a low of about 3200[3] to a high of about 3900.[2] All of the sequenced genomes contain large numbers of genes associated with sulfur oxidation; for example, genes encoding sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR) and heterodisulfide reductase-like enzymes.[2][3][7] The genetic basis of the species' iron oxidation capacity is less clear but likely involves a sulfocyanin protein.[2][3][7] The genome also contains large numbers of transport proteins, including those specialized for metal ion efflux, and several CRISPR/Cas systems.[3] There is evidence of horizontal gene transfer as a significant contributor to S. thermosulfidooxidans evolution, including an unexpected relationship between a SOR gene and similar genes found only in archaea.[2][3][7]

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Genus Sulfobacillus". List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Justice, Nicholas B; Norman, Anders; Brown, Christopher T; Singh, Andrea; Thomas, Brian C; Banfield, Jillian F (2014). "Comparison of environmental and isolate Sulfobacillus genomes reveals diverse carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrogen metabolisms". BMC Genomics. 15 (1): 1107. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-1107. PMC 4378227. PMID 25511286.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Guo, Xue; Yin, Huaqun; Liang, Yili; Hu, Qi; Zhou, Xishu; Xiao, Yunhua; Ma, Liyuan; Zhang, Xian; Qiu, Guanzhou; Liu, Xueduan; Mormile, Melanie R. (18 June 2014). "Comparative Genome Analysis Reveals Metabolic Versatility and Environmental Adaptations of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans Strain ST". PLoS ONE. 9 (6): e99417. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099417. PMC 4062416. PMID 24940621.
  4. ^ a b c d Travisany, D.; Di Genova, A.; Sepulveda, A.; Bobadilla-Fazzini, R. A.; Parada, P.; Maass, A. (26 October 2012). "Draft Genome Sequence of the Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans Cutipay Strain, an Indigenous Bacterium Isolated from a Naturally Extreme Mining Environment in Northern Chile". Journal of Bacteriology. 194 (22): 6327–6328. doi:10.1128/JB.01622-12. PMC 3486405. PMID 23105067.
  5. ^ a b c Golovacheva, RS; Karavaĭko, GI (1978). "[Sulfobacillus, a new genus of thermophilic sporulating bacteria]". Mikrobiologiia. 47 (5): 815–22. PMID 101742.
  6. ^ Ludwig, Wolfgang; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; Whitman, William B. (2001). "Revised road map to the phylum Firmicutes". In Vos, Paul; Garrity, George; Jones, Dorothy; Krieg, Noel R.; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Rainey, Fred A.; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; Whitman, William B. (eds.). Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Volume 3: The Firmicutes (2nd ed.). Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-95041-9.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Zhang, Xian; Liu, Xueduan; Liang, Yili; Guo, Xue; Xiao, Yunhua; Ma, Liyuan; Miao, Bo; Liu, Hongwei; Peng, Deliang; Huang, Wenkun; Zhang, Yuguang; Yin, Huaqun; Drake, Harold L. (1 April 2017). "Adaptive Evolution of Extreme Acidophile Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans Potentially Driven by Horizontal Gene Transfer and Gene Loss". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 83 (7). doi:10.1128/AEM.03098-16. PMC 5359484. PMID 28115381.
  8. ^ Bogdanova, T. I. (1 May 2006). "Sulfobacillus thermotolerans sp. nov., a thermotolerant, chemolithotrophic bacterium". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 56 (5): 1039–1042. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.64106-0. PMID 16627651.
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Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans is a species of bacteria of the genus Sulfobacillus. It is an acidophilic, mixotrophic, moderately thermophilic, Gram-positive, sporulating facultative anaerobe. As its name suggests, it is capable of oxidizing sulfur.

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