Chryseobacterium

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Chryseobacterium is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. Chryseobacterium species are chemoorganotrophic, rod shape gram-negative bacteria. Chryseobacterium form typical yellow-orange color colonies due to flexirubin-type pigment. The genus contains more than 100 described species from diverse habitats, including freshwater sources, soil, marine fish, and human hosts.[2]

History

The genus Chryseobacterium was originally created in 1994 by Vandamme et al.[3] for six bacterial taxa that, at that time, were classified as members of the genus Flavobacterium: F. balustinum, F. indologenes, F. gleum, F. meningosepticum, F. indoltheticum, and F. scophthalmum. In 2005 an additional genus, Elizabethkingia, was created for two species within the genus Chryseobacterium; namely, C. meningosepticum and C. miricola.[4] In 2002 standards and guidelines for description of novel taxa in the family of Flavobacteriaceae were published by Bernardet et al.[5] By 2006, the genus Chryseobacterium had expanded to 10 species, by 2014 more than 60 species[6] and currently more than 100.

Ecology

Chryseobacterium spp. were recovered from soils, plant roots, flowers, decaying plant material and maple sap. Some plant-associated Chryseobacterium strains are able to inhibit plant pathogenic fungi. Chryseobacterium spp. were also recovered from freshwater creeks, lakes, their sediments, water cooling systems, drinking water, lactic acid beverages, beer bottling plants, bioreactor sludge, polluted soil, marine sediment and permafrost.[6] Chryseobacterium spp. are associated with a multitude of animals - they have been detected in the midgut of mosquitos, within cockroach guts, millipede feces, and penguin guano, gut homogenates of freshwater copepods, bird feathers, cow’s milk, raw meats and chicken. Chryseobacterium spp. were recovered from the mucus of apparently healthy fish, however sometimes they are considered as a spoilage organism.[6] Three novel cold-tolerant species of Chryseobacterium, C. oranimense C. haifense, and C. bovis, have been detected in raw milk in Israel.[7]

Pathogenesis

The most pathogenic Flavobacterium spp., Chryseobacterium meningosepticum, which caused numerous infections, was reclassified to the genus Elizabethkingia.[4] Chryseobacterium indologenes although ubiquitous in nature, mainly found in soil and water, is an uncommon human pathogen. However, in rare cases it can cause serious infections, particularly among the immunocompromised.[8] Most of the time infections are hospital acquired, often associated with immunosuppression or indwelling catheters. It has been reported as the causative agent in bacteremia, peritonitis, pneumonia, empyema, pyelonephritis, cystitis, meningitis and central venous catheter-associated infections. The numbers of reported C. indologenes infections are increasing. The majority of reported infections have been from Taiwan and only about 10% have been outside of Asia. A few reports have come from Australia, India, Europe and the USA.[8] C. indologenes is also pathogenic to the soft tick, whereas other Chryseobacterium spp. were recovered from diseased turtles, frogs and fish, in particularly C. scophthalmum, C. joostei, C. piscicola, C. chaponense, C. viscerum and C. oncorhynchi, C. aahli, C. hominis, C. shigense as well as C. indologenes which is associated with human diseases.[6]

Certain Chryseobacterium species were reported as having unusual matrix digesting properties, being able to degrade most difficult collagenous matrices, such as feathers or exoskeletons. These properties are likely mediated through the action of specific chitinases and collagenase-like metalloproteases. Some of the species, such as Chryseobacterium nematophagum were shown to be able to infect, kill and ultimately consume all nematode tissues, including the normally highly insoluble cuticular exoskeleton.[9] Chitinase, geleatinase and collagenase metalloprotease activities have been linked to Chryseobacterium gliding motility exerted through type IX secretion systems. Indeed, some of these enzymes possess C-terminal type IX secretion signals.[10] Chryseobacterium themselves have neither collagen nor chitin proteins or structures. Chryseobacterium species belong to the Bacteriodetes phylum, members of which are being increasingly describes as having unusually linked motility and secretory system.[9][10]

Botulinum neurotoxin-like (BoNT-like) toxins were detected in the genome of Chryseobacterium piperi str. CTM and they present a highly divergent group of BoNT-like toxins. One of the predicted C. piperi BoNT-like toxins induced necrotic cell death in human kidney cells, but was not found to cleave common SNARE substrates of BoNTs.[11]

Antibiotic resistance

Chryseobacterium spp. are inherently resistant to a wide spectrum of antibiotics, including tetracyclines, erythromycin, linezolid, polymyxins, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, and many beta-lactams, while also being intermediately sensitive to vancomycin and clindamycin and vary in their sensitivity to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.[6]

Species

Species include:[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Euzéby JP, Parte AC. "Bacteroidetes". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  2. ^ Matu A, Lum Nde A, Oosthuizen L, Hitzeroth A, Badenhorst M, Duba L, Gidaga M, Klinck J, Kriek IM, Lekoma PJ, Nel L, Dos Ramos SM, Rossouw J, Salomane N, Segone N, Serobe S, Tiyani T, Hugo CJ, Newman JD (January 2019). "Chryseobacterium Type Strains". Microbiology Resource Announcements. 8 (1): e01518–18. doi:10.1128/MRA.01518-18. PMC 6318376. PMID 30637405.
  3. ^ Vandamme P, Bernardet JF, Segers P, Kersters K, Holmes B (1994-10-01). "NOTES: New Perspectives in the Classification of the Flavobacteria: Description of Chryseobacterium gen. nov., Bergeyella gen. nov., and Empedobacter nom. rev". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 44 (4): 827–831. doi:10.1099/00207713-44-4-827. ISSN 0020-7713.
  4. ^ a b Kim KK, Kim MK, Lim JH, Park HY, Lee ST (May 2005). "Transfer of Chryseobacterium meningosepticum and Chryseobacterium miricola to Elizabethkingia gen. nov. as Elizabethkingia meningoseptica comb. nov. and Elizabethkingia miricola comb. nov". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 55 (Pt 3): 1287–93. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.63541-0. PMID 15879269.
  5. ^ Bernardet JF, Nakagawa Y, Holmes B, et al. (Subcommittee on the taxonomy of Flavobacterium and Cytophaga-like bacteria of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes) (May 2002). "Proposed minimal standards for describing new taxa of the family Flavobacteriaceae and emended description of the family". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 52 (Pt 3): 1049–70. doi:10.1099/00207713-52-3-1049. PMID 12054224.
  6. ^ a b c d e Loch TP, Faisal M (May 2015). "Emerging flavobacterial infections in fish: A review". Journal of Advanced Research. 6 (3): 283–300. doi:10.1016/j.jare.2014.10.009. PMC 4522593. PMID 26257926.
  7. ^ Hantsis-Zacharov E, Shakéd T, Senderovich Y, Halpern M (November 2008). "Chryseobacterium oranimense sp. nov., a psychrotolerant, proteolytic and lipolytic bacterium isolated from raw cow's milk". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 58 (Pt 11): 2635–9. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.65819-0. PMID 18984706. Lay summaryEurekAlert!.
  8. ^ a b Mukerji R, Kakarala R, Smith SJ, Kusz HG (April 2016). "Chryseobacterium indologenes: an emerging infection in the USA". BMJ Case Reports. 2016: bcr2016214486. doi:10.1136/bcr-2016-214486. PMC 4840731. PMID 27053540.
  9. ^ a b Page AP, Roberts M, Félix MA, Pickard D, Page A, Weir W (February 2019). "The golden death bacillus Chryseobacterium nematophagum is a novel matrix digesting pathogen of nematodes". BMC Biology. 17 (1): 10. doi:10.1186/s12915-019-0632-x. PMC 6394051. PMID 30813925.
  10. ^ a b McBride MJ, Zhu Y (January 2013). "Gliding motility and Por secretion system genes are widespread among members of the phylum bacteroidetes". Journal of Bacteriology. 195 (2): 270–8. doi:10.1128/JB.01962-12. PMC 3553832. PMID 23123910.
  11. ^ Mansfield MJ, Doxey AC (June 2018). "Genomic insights into the evolution and ecology of botulinum neurotoxins". Pathogens and Disease. 76 (4). doi:10.1093/femspd/fty040. PMID 29684130.
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Chryseobacterium: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Chryseobacterium is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. Chryseobacterium species are chemoorganotrophic, rod shape gram-negative bacteria. Chryseobacterium form typical yellow-orange color colonies due to flexirubin-type pigment. The genus contains more than 100 described species from diverse habitats, including freshwater sources, soil, marine fish, and human hosts.

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