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Brief Summary

provided by EOL authors

Bittacidae is a family of Mecopteran Insects with a cosmopolitan distribution. They use their front four limbs to hang onto a surface like a twig or stem and extend their large, powerful hindlimbs below them. When a suitable prey item approaches, it is seized in the hindlimbs and is then injected with corrosive saliva that breaks down its innards for consumption.

Bittacidae are usually yellowish brown in colour and have long, thin snouts that terminate in jaws. They are usually yellow-brown in colour. Their large hindlimbs are never used for walking as they are too specialized for their predatory purpose.

Prior mating, the male Bittacid presents the female with an edible morsel, as is often observed in Mecoptera. The female then lays her eggs without any organization in her own habitat. The larvae resemble caterpillars and are thought to be carnivorous. The larvae have at least 20 eyes. Once at its final instar, the larva burrows into the soil and forms a pupa. Because its legs are not bound to the walls of the pupa, it can move around inside it. Pupae have a special lid that allows for the adult to emerge easily.

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Hangingfly

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Bittacidae is a family of scorpionflies commonly called hangingflies or hanging scorpionflies.

The genus Bittacus, comprising approximately 75% of all species within the family, occurs worldwide. Other genera are mostly confined to South America or Australia. Members of this family may be confused with crane flies, in the order Diptera, but can be distinguished by their two pairs of wings and lack of halteres.

They are distinguished in the fact that during mating the male captures a prey insect and offers it to the female as a nuptial gift. The larger the prey item is, the more receptive the female will be to mating.[1]

The new species, Bittacus lepiduscretaceus sp. nov. from the mid-Cretaceous Myanmar amber, is the earliest fossil record of Bittacus and the first record of Bittacus species in the Cretaceous. It has new morphological characters to enhance our knowledge of early evolution of Bittacus hangingflies.[2]

Genera

This list is based on The World Checklist of extant Mecoptera Species.[3] Presumably complete up to 1997, it is updated as needed. The number of species in each genus are in parentheses. A number of extinct(†) genera have been described from the fossil record.

References

  1. ^ Gao, Qionghua; Hua, Baozhen (3 December 2013). "Co-Evolution of the Mating Position and Male Genitalia in Insects: A Case Study of a Hangingfly". PLOS ONE. 8 (12): e80651. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080651. PMC 3849121. PMID 24312490.
  2. ^ Li, Sheng; Zhang, Weiwei; Chungkun, Shih; Dong, Ren (September 2018). "A new species of hangingfly (Insecta: Mecoptera: Bittacidae) from the mid-Cretaceous Myanmar amber". Cretaceous Research. 89: 92–97. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2018.03.005.
  3. ^ "World Checklist of extant Mecoptera Species – Bittacidae (Hanging-flies)". California Academy of Sciences, Department of Entomology. 31 October 1997. Archived from the original on 2005-04-08.
  4. ^ Kevin J. Lambkin (2017). "Archebittacus exilis Riek—the oldest hangingfly (Insecta: Mecoptera: Bittacidae)". Zootaxa. 4290 (2): 385–389. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4290.2.10.
  5. ^ a b Li, Y-L.; Ren, D.; Shih, C-K (2008). "Two Middle Jurassic hanging-flies (Insecta: Mecoptera: Bittacidae) from Northeast China" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1929: 38–46. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.1929.1.2. ISSN 1175-5334.
  6. ^ Wang Y, Labandeira CC, Shih C, Ding Q, Wang C, Zhao Y, Ren D (2012). "Jurassic mimicry between a hangingfly and a ginkgo from China". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 109 (50): 20514–20519. doi:10.1073/pnas.1205517109. PMC 3528590. PMID 23184994.
  7. ^ Petrulevicius, J. F.; Huang, D-Y.; Ren, D. (2007). "A new hangingfly (Insecta: Mecoptera: Bittacidae) from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China" (PDF). African Invertebrates. 48 (1): 145–152.
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Hangingfly: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Bittacidae is a family of scorpionflies commonly called hangingflies or hanging scorpionflies.

The genus Bittacus, comprising approximately 75% of all species within the family, occurs worldwide. Other genera are mostly confined to South America or Australia. Members of this family may be confused with crane flies, in the order Diptera, but can be distinguished by their two pairs of wings and lack of halteres.

They are distinguished in the fact that during mating the male captures a prey insect and offers it to the female as a nuptial gift. The larger the prey item is, the more receptive the female will be to mating.

The new species, Bittacus lepiduscretaceus sp. nov. from the mid-Cretaceous Myanmar amber, is the earliest fossil record of Bittacus and the first record of Bittacus species in the Cretaceous. It has new morphological characters to enhance our knowledge of early evolution of Bittacus hangingflies.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
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wikipedia EN