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Auxenochlorella

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Auxenochlorella protothecoides, formerly known as Chlorella protothecoides, is a facultative heterotrophic green alga in the class Trebouxiophyta known for its potential application in biofuel production. It was first characterized as a distinct algal species in 1965,[1] and has since been regarded as a separate genus from Chlorella due its need for thiamine (not to be confused with thymine) for growth.[2] Auxenochlorella has been found in a wide variety of environments from acidic volcanic soil in Italy to the sap of poplar trees in the forests of Germany.[1] Its use in industrial processes has been studied, as the high lipid content of the alga during heterotrophic growth is promising for biodiesel; its use in wastewater treatment has been investigated, as well.[2][3]

Phylogeny

Auxenochlorella can be characterized by its trilaminar outer wall layer and lack of pyrenoid.[4] A recent phylogenetic analysis has clarified its position with respect to related strains.[5]

Industrial applications

Biofuels

Auxenochlorella has potential in biofuel production, as it can accumulate high lipid content under heterotrophic conditions. The A. protothecoides genome has been sequenced and compared to two other species (C. variabilis and Coccomyxa subellipsoidea).[6] It was found to have a smaller genome size that encodes fewer genes, fewer multi-copy genes, fewer unique genes, and fewer genome rearrangements than its close relatives. Furthermore, three genes were identified that enable the consumption of glucose and, thus, heterotrophic growth. These three Chlorella-specific hexose-proton symporter (HUP)-like genes, in addition to rapid pyruvate synthesis, fatty acid synthesis enzyme upregulation, and fatty acid degradation enzyme downregulation, contribute to the high lipid content.[6]

The algae have also been shown to grow on plethora of media, including glycerol, glucose, and acetate.[7] One study showed that the Auxenochlorella heterotrophically synthesized a maximum crude lipid content of 55.2% dry weight.[8] Separate studies have confirmed that large amounts of lutein, a type of carotenoid that can be used as a drop-in fuel source, are also produced.[9][10][11]

Auxenochlorella biofuel production poses similar efficiency problems as other algal species, as the pyrolysis and drying process are expensive and time- consuming. In addition, the biofuel studies were generally done with fed batch culture in order for the algae to maintain log phase growth and maximize yields, a process that may be expensive on a larger scale.

Wastewater treatment

The sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants may provide a potential nutrient source for algae in the production of biodiesel while simultaneously creating an ecofriendly recycling process for the byproducts of sewage plants. Over a 6-day period, Auxenochlorella was able to remove 59% of the total nitrogen, 81% of the total phosphorus, and 96% of the total organic carbon from the waste while maintaining a high lipid productivity rate.[12]

Higher biomass production can be accomplished with a heterotrophic/mixotrophic growth mix using wastewater and biodiesel-derived glycerol.[13] The lipid content can be lower in wastewater than in a synthetic medium, however. Thus, cost-benefit analyses are needed to determine when nutrient addition may be required and beneficial to foster algal growth. The lipid-extracted biomass can be used for a multitude of functions: biogas production, a biofertilizer carrier, biofertilizer itself, biochar production, and an ingredient in animal feed.[13] Microalgal-treated wastewater may not be flawless drinking water, but it could be more suitable for irrigation purposes. Additionally, if the wastewater after the microalga harvest is subjected to water-treatment protocols, it reportedly reduces the operational cost of the water-treatment process.[13]

References

  1. ^ a b M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2013. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 19 April 2013.
  2. ^ a b Gao, Chunfang; Zhai, Yan; Ding, Yi and Wu, Qingyu "Application of sweet sorghum for biodiesel production by heterotrophic microalga Chlorella protothecoides." Applied Energy 87.3 (2010): 756-761.
  3. ^ Pittman, Jon K., Andrew P. Dean, and Olumayowa Osundeko. "The potential of sustainable algal biofuel production using wastewater resources." Bioresource Technology 102.1 (2011): 17-25.
  4. ^ Huss, Volker AR; Ciniglia, Claudia; Cennamo, Paola; Cozzolino, Salvatore ; Pinto, Gabriele and Pollio, Antonino "Phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic position of Chlorella-like isolates from low pH environments (pH< 3.0)." BMC Evolutionary Biology 2.1 (2002): 13.
  5. ^ Darienko, T., Pröschold, T. (2015), "Genetic variability and taxonomic revision of the genus Auxenochlorella (Shihira et Krauss) Kalina et Puncocharova (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta)". Journal of Phycology, 51: 394–400. doi: 10.1111/jpy.12279
  6. ^ a b Gao C., Wang Y., Shen Y., Yan D., He X., Dai J., et al. (2014). Oil accumulation mechanisms of the oleaginous microalga Chlorella protothecoides revealed-through its genome, transcriptomes and proteomes. BMC Genomics (2014) 15:582–595.
  7. ^ Gill,Saba Shahid; Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer; Rashid, Umer; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Saqib, Anam and Rizwan, Muhammad "Waste-water treatment coupled with biodiesel production using microalgae: a bio-refinery approach." Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences 11.3 (2013): 179-189.
  8. ^ Heredia-Arroyo, Tamarys, Wei Wei, and Bo Hu. "Oil accumulation via heterotrophic/mixotrophic Chlorella protothecoides." Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 162.7 (2010): 1978-1995.
  9. ^ Xu, Han, Xiaoling Miao, and Qingyu Wu. "High quality biodiesel production from a microalga Chlorella protothecoides by heterotrophic growth in fermenters." Journal of Biotechnology 126.4 (2006): 499-507.
  10. ^ Shi, Xian-Ming; Liu, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Wu and Feng Chen "Production of biomass and lutein by Chlorella protothecoides at various glucose concentrations in heterotrophic cultures." Process biochemistry 34.4 (1999): 341-347.
  11. ^ Shi, X. M., and F. Chen. "Production and rapid extraction of lutein and the other lipid‐soluble pigments from Chlorella protothecoides grown under heterotrophic and mixotrophic conditions." Food/Nahrung 43.2 (1999): 109-113.
  12. ^ Shi, Xian-Ming; Liu, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Wu and Chen, Feng "Heterotrophic production of lutein by selected Chlorella strains." Journal of Applied Phycology 9.5 (1997): 445-450.
  13. ^ a b c Zhou, Wenguang; Li, Yecong; Min, Min; Hu, Bing; Zhang, Hong; Ma, Xiaochen; Li, Liang; Cheng, Yanling; Chen, Paul and Ruan, Roger "Growing wastewater-born microalga Auxenochlorella protothecoides UMN280 on concentrated municipal wastewater for simultaneous nutrient removal and energy feedstock production." Applied Energy 98 (2012): 433-440.

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Auxenochlorella: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Auxenochlorella protothecoides, formerly known as Chlorella protothecoides, is a facultative heterotrophic green alga in the class Trebouxiophyta known for its potential application in biofuel production. It was first characterized as a distinct algal species in 1965, and has since been regarded as a separate genus from Chlorella due its need for thiamine (not to be confused with thymine) for growth. Auxenochlorella has been found in a wide variety of environments from acidic volcanic soil in Italy to the sap of poplar trees in the forests of Germany. Its use in industrial processes has been studied, as the high lipid content of the alga during heterotrophic growth is promising for biodiesel; its use in wastewater treatment has been investigated, as well.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
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Wikipedia authors and editors
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visit source
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