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Genera of Nearctic Syrphidae

provided by EOL authors

An online picture key for the identification of the Nearctic genera of Syrphidae. Each taxon has a diagnostic page to confirm the id.

Hoverfly

provided by wikipedia EN

Hoverflies, also called flower flies or syrphid flies, make up the insect family Syrphidae. As their common name suggests, they are often seen hovering or nectaring at flowers; the adults of many species feed mainly on nectar and pollen, while the larvae (maggots) eat a wide range of foods. In some species, the larvae are saprotrophs, eating decaying plant and animal matter in the soil or in ponds and streams. In other species, the larvae are insectivores and prey on aphids, thrips, and other plant-sucking insects.

Aphids alone cause tens of millions of dollars of damage to crops worldwide every year; because of this, aphid-eating hoverflies are recognized as important natural enemies of pests, and potential agents for use in biological control. Some adult syrphid flies are important pollinators.

About 6,000 species in 200 genera have been described. Hoverflies are common throughout the world and can be found on all continents except Antarctica. Hoverflies are harmless to most other animals, despite their mimicry of stinging wasps and bees, which wards off predators.

Description

The size of hoverflies varies depending on the species.[1] Some, such as members of the genus Baccha, are small, elongated, and slender, while others, such as members of Criorhina, are large, hairy, and yellow and black. As members of the Diptera, all hoverflies have a single functional pair of wings (the hind wings are reduced to balancing organs).[2] Many species are brightly colored, with spots, stripes, and bands of yellow or brown covering their bodies.[2] Due to this coloring, they are often mistaken for wasps or bees; they exhibit Batesian mimicry. Despite this, hoverflies are harmless to humans.[1] Drone flies, E. tenax, are an example of a species of hoverfly who exhibit Batesian mimicry.

With a few exceptions,[3] hoverflies are distinguished from other flies by having a spurious vein, located parallel to their fourth longitudinal wing vein.[1] Adults feed mainly on nectar and pollen.[2] Many species also hover around flowers, lending to their common name.[1]

Bee flies of the family Bombyliidae often mimic Hymenoptera and hover around flowers, as well, rendering some bombyliid species hard to tell apart from Syrphidae at first glance. Hoverflies can, nevertheless, be distinguished in the field by anatomical features such as:

  • The legs and mouthparts of hoverflies are usually not particularly long and thin (some bombyliids have a long and needle-like proboscis, many have legs that are noticeably longer and thinner than in similar-sized syrphids)
  • Their facial cuticle often has prominent bulges and/or beak- to knob-like projections (most bee flies have an evenly curved or sloping face).
  • The wings are often clear or have smooth gradients of tinting, and their veins merge posteriorly into a "false edge" that runs parallel to the wing's true rear edge and extends along half or more of the wing length (bombyliid wings lack a "false rear edge" and often have large dark areas with sharp boundaries, or complex patterns of spots).
  • Their abdomens and thoraces often have glossy cuticular body surfaces, abdominal colors are usually mainly due to cuticular pigments (bee flies are usually very hairy, their abdominal colors are almost always due to pigmentation of hairs and not the underlying cuticle).

Reproduction and life cycle

"
Midair mating of Simosyrphus grandicornis

Unlike adults, the maggots of hoverflies feed on a variety of foods; some are saprotrophs, eating decaying plant or animal matter, while others are insectivores, eating aphids, thrips, and other plant-sucking insects.[1][4] Predatory species are beneficial to farmers and gardeners, as aphids destroy crops, and hoverfly maggots are often used in biological control. This includes one of the most common widespread hoverfly species, Syritta pipiens, whose larvae feed on aphids. Certain species, such as Lampetia equestris or Eumerus tuberculatus, are responsible for pollination.

An example of a well-known hoverfly maggot is the rat-tailed maggot, of the drone fly, Eristalis tenax. It has a breathing siphon at its rear end, giving it its name.[1] The species lives in stagnant water, such as sewage and lagoons.[5] The maggots also have a commercial use, and are sometimes sold for ice fishing.[6]

On extremely rare occasions, hoverfly larvae have been known to cause accidental myiasis in humans. This occurs when the larvae are accidentally ingested from contaminated food.[5][7]

Distribution and habitat

Hoverflies are a cosmopolitan family found in most biomes, except extreme deserts, tundra at extremely high latitudes, and Antarctica.[8][9] Certain species are more common in certain areas than others; for example, the American hoverfly, Eupeodes americanus, is common in the Nearctic ecozone, and the common hoverfly, Melangyna viridiceps, is common in the Australasia ecozone. About 6,000 species and 200 genera are in the family.[10]

While some hoverfly larvae are aquatic and are often found in stagnant water, those of species that prey upon aphids and other plant parasites are usually terrestrial, residing on leaves.[11] Adults are often found near flowers, their principal food source being nectar and pollen.[2] Some species are found in more unusual locations; for example, members of the genus Volucella can be found in bumblebee nests, while members of Microdon are myrmecophiles, found in ant or termite nests.[1] Others can be found in decomposing vegetation.

Pollination

"
Episyrphus balteatus on flower
"
Hoverfly (Eupeodes corollae)

Hoverflies are important pollinators of flowering plants in many ecosystems worldwide.[12] Syrphid flies are frequent flower visitors to a wide range of wild plants, as well as agricultural crops, and are often considered the second-most important group of pollinators after wild bees. However, relatively little research into fly pollinators has been conducted compared with bee species.[12] Bees are thought to be able to carry a greater volume of pollen on their bodies, but flies may be able to compensate for this by making a greater number of flower visits.

Like many pollinator groups, syrphid flies range from species that take a generalist approach to foraging by visiting a wide range of plant species through those that specialize in a narrow range of plants.[13] Although hoverflies are often considered mainly nonselective pollinators, some hoverflies species are highly selective and carry pollen from one plant species.[14] Cheilosia albitarsis is thought to only visit Ranunculus repens.

Specific flower preferences differ among species, but syrphid fly species have repeatedly been shown to prefer white- and yellow-coloured flowers.[15] Nonvisual flower cues such as olfactory cues also help these flies to find flowers, especially those that are not yellow.[16] Many syrphid fly species have short, unspecialized mouth parts and tend to feed on flowers that are more open as the nectar and pollen can be easily accessed.[17]

Also, a number of fascinating interactions occur between orchids and hoverflies. The orchid species Epipactis veratrifolia mimics alarm pheromones of aphids which attracts pollinating hoverflies .[18] Another plant, the slipper orchid in southwest China, also achieves pollination by deceit by exploiting the innate yellow color preference of syrphids.[19]

Case study – New Zealand

More than 40 species of syrphid flies are found in New Zealand[20] in a variety of habitats, including agricultural fields and alpine zones. Two hoverfly species in Switzerland are being investigated as potential biological control agents of hawkweeds in New Zealand.[21]

Native hoverfly species Melanostoma fasciatum and Melangyna novaezelandiae are common on agricultural fields in New Zealand.[22] Coriander and tansy leaf are particularly attractive to many species of adults, which feed on their pollen.[23] In organic paddocks, hoverflies were found to feed on an average of three and a maximum of six different pollens. M. fasciatum has a short proboscis, which restricts it to obtaining nectar from disk flowers.[24]

Syrphid flies are also common visitors to flowers in alpine zones in New Zealand. Native flies (Allograpta and Platycheirus) in alpine zones show preferences for flower species based on their colour in alpine zones; syrphid flies consistently choose yellow flowers over white regardless of species.[25] However, syrphid flies are not as effective pollinators of alpine herb species as native solitary bees.[26]

Systematics

Relationship with humans

Larvae of many hoverfly species prey upon pest insects, including aphids and leafhoppers, which spread some diseases such as curly top, so they are seen in biocontrol as a natural means of reducing the levels of pests. Gardeners, therefore, sometimes use companion plants to attract hoverflies. Those reputed to do so include Alyssum spp., Iberis umbellata, statice, buckwheat, chamomile, parsley, and yarrow.

Fredrik Sjöberg's book The Fly Trap concerns his enthusiasm for hoverflies on the island of Runmarö in the Baltic Sea.[27] The island is a hotspot for hoverflies and other insects; Sjöberg has collected 58 species of butterflies there, and (in seven years of hunting) 202 species of hoverflies, including 180 in his garden. He estimates that in 2014, only 25 hoverfly enthusiasts lived in all of Sweden.[28]

Identification guides

  • Stubbs, A.E. and Falk, S.J. (2002) British Hoverflies An Illustrated Identification Guide. Pub. 1983 with 469 pages, 12 col plates, b/w illus.British Entomological and Natural History Society ISBN 1-899935-05-3. 276 species are described with extensive keys to aid identification. It displays 190 species on colour plates. 2nd edition, pub. 2002, includes new British species and name changes. It includes European species likely to appear in Britain. Additional black and white plates illustrate the male genitalia of the difficult genera Cheilosia and Sphaerophoria.
  • Vockeroth, J.R. A revision of the genera of the Syrphini (Diptera: Syrphidae) Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, no. 62:1-176. Keys subfamilies, tribes and genera on a world basis and under regions.
  • van Veen, M.P. (2004) "Hoverflies of Northwest Europe, Identification Keys to the Syrphidae". KNNV Publishing, Utrecht. ISBN 9050111998

Regional lists

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Hover fly". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2009. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
  2. ^ a b c d "Hoverfly". Hutchinson Encyclopedia. Helicon Publishing. 2009. Retrieved December 6, 2009.
  3. ^ Reemer, Menno (2008). "Surimyia, a new genus of Microdontinae, with notes on Paragodon Thompson, 1969 (Diptera, Syrphidae)" (PDF). Zoologische Mededelingen. 82: 177–188.
  4. ^ Schmidt, Martin; Thewes, Ulrich; Thies, Carsten; Tscharntke, Teja (2004). "Aphid suppression in mulched cereals". Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 113 (2): 87–93. doi:10.1111/j.0013-8703.2004.00205.x. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  5. ^ a b Aguilera A, Cid A, Regueiro BJ, Prieto JM, Noya M (September 1999). "Intestinal myiasis caused by Eristalis tenax". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 37 (9): 3082. PMC 85471. PMID 10475752.
  6. ^ Dictionary of Ichthyology; Brian W. Coad and Don E. McAllister Archived 2009-12-06 at the Wayback Machine at ww.briancoad.com
  7. ^ Whish-Wilson PB (2000). "A possible case of intestinal myiasis due to Eristalis tenax". The Medical Journal of Australia. 173 (11–12): 652. doi:10.5694/j.1326-5377.2000.tb139374.x. PMID 11379520.
  8. ^ Barkemeyer, Werner. "Syrphidae (hoverflies)". Biodiversity Explorer. South Africa: Iziko Museum. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
  9. ^ Thompson, F. Christian (August 19, 1999). "Flower Flies". The Diptera Site. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on December 11, 2009. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
  10. ^ Philip J. Scholl; E. Paul Catts; Gary R. Mullen (2009). "Myiasis (Muscoidea, Oestroidea)". In Gary Mullen; Gary Richard Mullen; Lance Durden (eds.). Medical and Veterinary Entomology (2nd ed.). Academic Press. pp. 309–338. ISBN 978-0-12-372500-4.
  11. ^ Laura Smith. "Syrphidae, hover flies". bumblebee.org.
  12. ^ a b Larson, B.M.H; Kevan, P.G.; Inouye, D. W. (2001). "Flies and flowers: taxonomic diversity of anthophiles and pollinators". Canadian Entomologist. 133 (4): 439–465. doi:10.4039/ent133439-4.
  13. ^ Van Der Kooi, C. J.; Pen, I.; Staal, M.; Stavenga, D. G.; Elzenga, J. T. M. (2015). "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers". Plant Biology. 18 (1): 56–62. doi:10.1111/plb.12328. PMID 25754608.
  14. ^ Haslett, J.R. (1989). "Interpreting patterns of resource utilization: randomness and selectivity in pollen feeding by adult hoverflies". Oecologia. 78 (4): 433–442. doi:10.1007/bf00378732. PMID 28312171.
  15. ^ Sajjad, Asif; Saeed, Shafqat (2010). "Floral host plant range of syrphid flies (Syrphidae: Diptera) under natural conditions in southern punjab, Pakistan". Pakistan Journal of Biology. 42 (2): 1187–1200.
  16. ^ Primante, Clara; Dotterl, Stefan (2010). "A syrphid fly uses olfactory cues to find a non-yellow flower". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 36 (11): 1207–1210. doi:10.1007/s10886-010-9871-6. PMID 20924654.
  17. ^ Campbell, Alistair, J.; Biesmeijer, J. C.; Varma, V.; Wakers, F. L. (2012). "Realising multiple ecosystem services based on the response of three beneficial insect groups to floral traits and trait diversity". Basic and Applied Ecology. 13 (4): 363–370. doi:10.1016/j.baae.2012.04.003.
  18. ^ Stokl, Johannes; Brodmann; Dafni; Ayasse; Hansson (2011). "Smells like aphids: orchid flowers mimic aphid alarm pheromones to attract hoverflies for pollination". Proc. R. Soc. B. 278 (1709): 1216–1222. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.1770. PMC 3049078. PMID 20943694.
  19. ^ Shi, J.; Luo, Y.B.; Ran, J.C.; Liu, Z.J.; Zhou, Q. (2009). "Pollination by deceit in Paphiopedilum barbigerum (Orchidaceae): a staminode exploits innate colour preferences of hoverflies (Syrphidae)". Plant Biology. 11: 17–28. doi:10.1111/j.1438-8677.2008.00120.x. PMID 19121110.
  20. ^ "Diptera: Syrphidae". Landcare Research. Retrieved 2013-08-30.
  21. ^ Grosskopf, Gitta (2005). "Biology and life history of Cheliosia urbana (Meigen) and Cheilosia psilophthalma (Becker), two sympatric hoverflies approved for the biological control of hawkweeds (Hieracium spp.) in New Zealand". Biological Control. 35 (2): 142–154. doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2005.06.013.
  22. ^ Morris, Michael, C. (2000). "Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) "companion plants" can attract hover flies, and may reduce infestation in cabbages". New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science. 28: 213–217. doi:10.1080/01140671.2000.9514141.
  23. ^ Hickman, Janice, M.; Lovei, G. L.; Wratten, S. D. (1995). "Pollen feeding by adults of the hoverfly Melanostoma fasciatum (Diptera: Syrphidae)". New Zealand Journal of Zoology. 22 (4): 387–392. doi:10.1080/03014223.1995.9518057.
  24. ^ Holloway, Beverley, A. (1976). "Pollen-feeding in hover-flies (Diptera:Syrphidae)". New Zealand Journal of Ecology. 3 (4): 339–350. doi:10.1080/03014223.1976.9517924.
  25. ^ Campbell, Diane; Bischoff, M.; Lord, J. M.; Robertson, A. W. (2010). "Flower color influences insect visitation in alpine New Zealand". Ecology. 91 (9): 2638–2649. doi:10.1890/09-0941.1.
  26. ^ Bischoff, Mascha; Campbell, D. R.; Lord, J. M.; Robertson, A. W. (2013). "The relative importance of solitary bees and syrphid flies as pollinators of two outcrossing plant species in the New Zealand alpine". Austral Ecology. 38 (2): 169–176. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.2012.02389.x.
  27. ^ Sjöberg, Fredrik (2014). The Fly Trap. Particular Books. p. 197. ISBN 978-1-84614-776-0.
  28. ^ Barkham, Patrick (14 June 2014). "Fredrik Sjöberg: 'I realised I had to write my book for people not interested in flies'". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 March 2015.

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Hoverfly: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Hoverflies, also called flower flies or syrphid flies, make up the insect family Syrphidae. As their common name suggests, they are often seen hovering or nectaring at flowers; the adults of many species feed mainly on nectar and pollen, while the larvae (maggots) eat a wide range of foods. In some species, the larvae are saprotrophs, eating decaying plant and animal matter in the soil or in ponds and streams. In other species, the larvae are insectivores and prey on aphids, thrips, and other plant-sucking insects.

Aphids alone cause tens of millions of dollars of damage to crops worldwide every year; because of this, aphid-eating hoverflies are recognized as important natural enemies of pests, and potential agents for use in biological control. Some adult syrphid flies are important pollinators.

About 6,000 species in 200 genera have been described. Hoverflies are common throughout the world and can be found on all continents except Antarctica. Hoverflies are harmless to most other animals, despite their mimicry of stinging wasps and bees, which wards off predators.

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Description

provided by Zookeys
Body length: 8–10 mm. Metallic green to bluish flies (legs may be yellowish), entire body densely and coarsely punctate, mimics of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera). Head about as wide as thorax. Face convexly produced in profile; about as wide as an eye. Lateral oral margins produced. Vertex flat. Occiput ventrally narrow, dorsally strongly widened. Eye densely pilose. Eyes in male with mutual distance smaller than width of antennal fossa. Antennal fossa twice as wide as high, dorsally covered by ‘shelf-like’ extension of frons. Antenna longer than distance between antennal fossa and anterior oral margin; basoflagellomere longer than scape, oval; bare. Postpronotum pilose. Notal wing lamina strongly developed; partly overlapping membranes around wing insertion. Scutellum semicircular; with calcars. Anepisternum moderately sulcate; with bare part limited to ventral half. Anepimeron entirely pilose. Katepimeron flat; bare. Katatergum carinate. Wing: vein R4+5 with posterior appendix; vein M1 perpendicular to vein R4+5; postero-apical corner of cell r4+5 widely rounded; crossvein r-m located around basal 1/4 of cell dm. Abdomen oval, about 1.5 times as long as wide. Posterior margin of tergite 1 angular. Tergites 3 and 4 fused. Male genitalia: phallus unfurcate; epandrium without ventrolateral ridge; surstylus furcate, with anterior part short and wide, posterior process long and narrow.
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Reemer M, Ståhls G (2013) Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae) ZooKeys 288: 1–213
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Gunilla Ståhls
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Description

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Body length: 6–9 mm. Small, metallic green to blue flies, with long antennae and oval abdomen. Head about as wide as thorax or slightly wider. Face convex; narrower than an eye. Lateral oral margins weakly produced. Vertex flat. Occiput ventrally narrow, dorsally widened. Eye pilose. Eye margins in male converging at level of frons, with mutual distance 2 to 4 times as large as width of antennal fossa. Antennal fossa about as wide as high. Antenna about as long as to longer than distance between antennal fossa and anterior oral margin; basoflagellomere longer than scape, oval; bare. Postpronotum pilose. Scutellum semicircular; with calcars, which may be spatulate (widened and dorsoventrally flattened). Anepisternum weakly sulcate; pilose anteriorly and posteriorly, widely bare in between. Anepimeron entirely pilose. Katepimeron convex; smooth; bare. Wing: vein R4+5 with posterior appendix; vein M1 perpendicular to vein R4+5; postero-apical corner of cell r4+5 rectangular, with small appendix; crossvein r-m located between basal 1/6 to 1/5 of cell dm. Abdomen oval, about 1.5 to 2 times as long as wide. Tergites 3 and 4 fused. Sternite 1 pilose or bare. Male genitalia: phallus unfurcate, projecting slightly beyond apex of hypandrium; hypandrium with basal part bulb-like; epandrium without ventrolateral ridge; surstylus shallowly furcate, with long posterior process.
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Reemer M, Ståhls G (2013) Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae) ZooKeys 288: 1–213
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Gunilla Ståhls
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Description

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Body length: 5–10 mm. Small, broadly built flies with long antennae and short, almost round abdomen. Head about as wide as thorax. Face convex; slighly narrower to slightly wider than an eye. Lateral oral margins not produced. Vertex flat. Occiput ventrally narrow, dorsally widened. Eye bare. Eye margins in male parallel, not converging at level of frons, with mutual distance 4 times as large as width of antennal fossa. Antennal fossa about as wide as high. Antenna longer than distance between antennal fossa and anterior oral margin; basoflagellomere longer than scape, sickle-shaped; bare. Postpronotum pilose. Scutellum semicircular; with small calcars or only with pair of small tufts of black microtrichiae posteriorly. Anepisternum without sulcus; pilose on slightly less than dorsal half, bare on slightly more than ventral half. Anepimeron entirely pilose. Katepimeron convex; bare. Wing: vein R4+5 with posterior appendix; vein M1 perpendicular to vein R4+5; postero-apical corner of cell r4+5 rectangular, with small appendix; crossvein r-m located between basal 1/8 and 1/10 of cell dm. Abdomen approximately round, 1 to 1.2 times as long as wide. Tergites 3 and 4 fused. Sternite 1 bare. Male genitalia: phallus straight, furcate near apex, with both processes about equally long; hypandrium without apical part; epandrium without ventrolateral ridge; surstylus furcate, with anterior lobe small and narrow, posterior lobe larger and wider.
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Reemer M, Ståhls G (2013) Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae) ZooKeys 288: 1–213
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Gunilla Ståhls
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Description

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Body length: 7–10 mm. Dark-coloured, stout-legged flies with oval abdomen and moderately long antennae. Head about as wide as thorax. Face convex; wider than an eye. Lateral oral margins produced. Vertex flat. Occiput wide over entire length, narrowest point halfway. Eye bare. Eye margins in male not converging at level of frons, with mutual distance around 4 times as large as width of antennal fossa. Antennal fossa about as wide as high. Antenna longer than distance between antennal fossa and anterior oral margin; basoflagellomere longer than scape; with dorsal margin curved dorsad, more or less sickle-shaped; bare. Postpronotum pilose. Scutellum semicircular; without calcars. Anepisternum weakly sulcate; pilose, with small bare part on ventral half. Anepimeron entirely pilose. Katepimeron convex; with wrinkled texture; bare. Wing: vein R4+5 with posterior appendix; vein M1 more or less straight, perpendicular to vein R4+5; postero-apical corner of cell r4+5 rectangular, with small appendix; crossvein r-m located between basal 1/6 of cell dm. Abdomen oval, about twice as long as wide. Tergites 3 and 4 fused. Sternite 1 pilose. Male genitalia: phallus not or little projecting beyond apex of hypandrium, slightly bent dorsad, shallowly furcate, with both processes about equally long; epandrium without ventrolateral ridge; surstylus unfurcate.
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Menno Reemer, Gunilla Ståhls
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Reemer M, Ståhls G (2013) Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae) ZooKeys 288: 1–213
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Menno Reemer
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Gunilla Ståhls
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Description

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Body length: 7–9 mm. Small, dark flies with relatively short antennae and characteristically shaped abdomen. Head slightly wider than thorax. Face convex; about as wide as or narrower than an eye. Lateral oral margins hardly produced. Vertex flat or slightly produced, densely pilose. Occiput ventrally narrow, dorsally widened. Eye bare. Eye margins in male slightly converging at level of frons, with mutual distance 2.5-3 times width of antennal fossa. Antennal fossa about as wide as high. Antenna shorter than distance between antennal fossa and anterior oral margin; basoflagellomere as long as or longer than scape, oval; bare. Postpronotum pilose. Scutellum semicircular; with calcars. Anepisternum sulcate; entirely pilose. Anepimeron entirely pilose. Katepimeron moderately convex; with wrinkled texture; bare. Wing: vein R4+5 with posterior appendix; vein M1 perpendicular to vein R4+5; postero-apical corner of cell r4+5 rectangular to weakly rounded, with small appendix; crossvein r-m located between basal 1/6 to 1/5 of cell dm. Abdomen 2.5-3 times as long as wide; with characteristic shape: widest point about halfway tergite 2, which has strongly arcuate lateral margins and pair of depressed areas dorsally; tergites 3-4 narrower and almost parallel-sided. Tergites 3 and 4 fused. Sternite 1 pilose. Male genitalia: phallus furcate near apex, with dorsal process long and whip-like, ventral process very short; epandrium with ventrolateral ridge.
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Menno Reemer, Gunilla Ståhls
bibliographic citation
Reemer M, Ståhls G (2013) Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae) ZooKeys 288: 1–213
author
Menno Reemer
author
Gunilla Ståhls
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Description

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Body length: 6–18 mm. Slender to moderately broadly built flies with oval or basally constricted abdomen and long antennae. Head wider than thorax. Face straight to slightly convex or slightly concave in dorsal half; narrower to wider than an eye; medially with vitta of transversely wrinkled texture (except in some smaller species of the flavofascium-group); gena distinctly ventrally produced. Lateral oral margins produced. Vertex flat. Occiput ventrally narrow, dorsally widened. Eye bare. Eye margins in male converging at level of frons, with mutual distance 1.5-4 times as large as width of antennal fossa. Antennal fossa about as wide as high. Antenna longer than distance between antennal fossa and anterior oral margin; basoflagellomere shorter to longer than scape; bare. Postpronotum pilose or bare. Scutellum semicircular; with calcars. Anepisternum sulcate; pilose anterodorsally and posteriorly, widely bare in between. Anepimeron entirely pilose. Katepimeron flat; with wrinkled texture; bare. Wing: vein R4+5 with posterior appendix; vein M1 more or less straight, perpendicular to vein R4+5; postero-apical corner of cell r4+5 widely rounded, without appendix; crossvein r-m located between basal 1/6 and 1/3 of cell dm. Abdomen oval or basally constricted, 2-4 times as long as wide. Tergites 3 and 4 fused. Sternite 1 bare. Male genitalia: phallus not or little projecting beyond apex of hypandrium, slightly bent dorsad, shallowly furcate, with both processes about equally long and with their apexes wide at the furcation point but pointed apically; epandrium without ventrolateral ridge; surstylus unfurcate.
license
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Menno Reemer, Gunilla Ståhls
bibliographic citation
Reemer M, Ståhls G (2013) Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae) ZooKeys 288: 1–213
author
Menno Reemer
author
Gunilla Ståhls
original
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Zookeys

Description

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Body length: 5–10 mm. Stingless bee mimicking flies with short to moderately long antennae and oval, kite-shaped or more or less parallel-sided abdomen. Head slightly wider than thorax. Face convex; narrower than an eye. Lateral oral margins not produced. Vertex narrow, convexly produced and shining in most species, flat in some. Occiput wide and parallel-sided over entire length. Eye with short, sparse pile. Eye margins in male not converging at level of frons, with mutual distance 2 to 3 times as large as width of antennal fossa. Antennal fossa about as wide as high. Antenna as long as or shorter than distance between antennal fossa and anterior oral margin; basoflagellomere shorter to longer than scape, oval; bare. Postpronotum pilose. Scutellum semicircular, in some species weakly sulcate apicomedially; without calcars. Anepisternum without sulcus; pilose anterodorsally and posteriorly, widely bare in between. Anepimeron entirely pilose. Katepimeron convex; bare. Metapleurae either separated or forming postmetacoxal bridge. Wing: vein R4+5 without posterior appendix; vein M1 perpendicular to vein R4+5; postero-apical corner of cell r4+5 rectangular, with small appendix; crossvein r-m located within 1/4 of cell dm, usually within basal 1/10. Abdomen oval or kite-shaped, 1.5 to 2.5 times as long as wide. Tergites 3 and 4 fused. Sternite 1 pilose or bare. Male genitalia: phallus furcate near apex, with dorsal and ventral process equally long; epandrium without ventrolateral ridge.
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Menno Reemer, Gunilla Ståhls
bibliographic citation
Reemer M, Ståhls G (2013) Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae) ZooKeys 288: 1–213
author
Menno Reemer
author
Gunilla Ståhls
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Zookeys

Description

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Body length: 7–9 mm. Broadly built flies with moderately long antennae and short abdomen. Head about as wide as thorax or slightly wider. Face convex; about as wide as an eye. Lateral oral margins distinctly produced. Vertex irregularly swollen. Occiput ventrally narrow, dorsally widened. Eye bare. Eye margins in male converging at level of frons, with mutual distance 2.5 times as large as width of antennal fossa. Antennal fossa about as wide as high. Antenna longer than distance between antennal fossa and anterior oral margin; basoflagellomere about as long as to slightly longer than scape, parallel-sided; bare. Postpronotum bare. Scutellum semicircular; with large, blunt calcars, separated by deep sulcus. Anepisternum weakly sulcate; entirely pilose. Anepimeron entirely pilose. Katepimeron flat; bare. Wing: vein R4+5 with posterior appendix; vein M1 perpendicular to vein R4+5; postero-apical corner of cell r4+5 rectangular, with small appendix; crossvein r-m located around basal 1/4 of cell dm. Abdomen heart-shaped, about as long as wide. Tergites 3 and 4 fused. Sternite 1 bare. Male genitalia: phallus furcate, with furcation point near apex; hypandrium with basal part bulb-like; epandrium without ventrolateral ridge; surstylus deeply furcate.
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cc-by-3.0
copyright
Menno Reemer, Gunilla Ståhls
bibliographic citation
Reemer M, Ståhls G (2013) Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae) ZooKeys 288: 1–213
author
Menno Reemer
author
Gunilla Ståhls
original
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Zookeys

Description

provided by Zookeys
Body length: 8 mm. Broadly built flies with oval abdomen. Head wider than thorax. Face convex in profile; wider than an eye. Lateral oral margins not produced. Antennal fossa about as wide as high. Vertex flat. Occiput rather wide, dorsally strongly widened. Eye bare. Eye margins in male not converging at level of frons; with mutual distance about five times the width of antennal fossa. Antenna longer than distance between antennal fossa and anterior oral margin; basoflagellomere longer than scape, bare, bifurcate, with dorsal branch narrower and shorter than ventral branch, ventral branch strongly curved; arista well-developed. Postpronotum pilose. Scutellum semicircular; without calcars. Anepisternum moderately sulcate; pilose anteriorly and posteriorly, bare medially. Anepimeron entirely pilose. Katepimeron convex; bare. Wing: vein R4+5 with posterior appendix; vein M1 perpendicular to vein R4+5; postero-apical corner of cell r4+5 widely rounded; crossvein r-m located around basal 1/4 of cell dm. Abdomen oval, about 1.5 times as long as wide. Tergites 3 and 4 fused. Male genitalia: phallus unfurcate; epandrium without ventrolateral ridge; surstylus with long posterior process and wide anterior lamella. Female unknown.
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Menno Reemer, Gunilla Ståhls
bibliographic citation
Reemer M, Ståhls G (2013) Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae) ZooKeys 288: 1–213
author
Menno Reemer
author
Gunilla Ståhls
original
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Zookeys

Distribution

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Described species: 1. One additional, undescribed species is known to the first author. All known records are from the Amazon region of South America, including the Guyana shield.
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copyright
Menno Reemer, Gunilla Ståhls
bibliographic citation
Reemer M, Ståhls G (2013) Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae) ZooKeys 288: 1–213
author
Menno Reemer
author
Gunilla Ståhls
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Zookeys

Distribution

provided by Zookeys
Described species: 5. Nearctic (4 species) and Neotropical (1 species).
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cc-by-3.0
copyright
Menno Reemer, Gunilla Ståhls
bibliographic citation
Reemer M, Ståhls G (2013) Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae) ZooKeys 288: 1–213
author
Menno Reemer
author
Gunilla Ståhls
original
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Zookeys

Distribution

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Described species: 1. Central and South America. Unpublished molecular evidence suggests that more than one species is involved, but this needs further study.
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cc-by-3.0
copyright
Menno Reemer, Gunilla Ståhls
bibliographic citation
Reemer M, Ståhls G (2013) Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae) ZooKeys 288: 1–213
author
Menno Reemer
author
Gunilla Ståhls
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Zookeys

Distribution

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Described species: 5. Australia (incl. Tasmania).
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cc-by-3.0
copyright
Menno Reemer, Gunilla Ståhls
bibliographic citation
Reemer M, Ståhls G (2013) Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae) ZooKeys 288: 1–213
author
Menno Reemer
author
Gunilla Ståhls
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Zookeys

Distribution

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Described species: 5. North and Central America, from South Dakota in the U.S.A. southward to Guatemala. The south border of this range is marked by Microdon brunnipennis Hull, 1944, which was described as a variety of Microdon baliopterus Loew, 1872 by Hull (1944b). The assignment of this taxon to Omegasyrphus is based only on this description, as the type has not been examined.
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cc-by-3.0
copyright
Menno Reemer, Gunilla Ståhls
bibliographic citation
Reemer M, Ståhls G (2013) Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae) ZooKeys 288: 1–213
author
Menno Reemer
author
Gunilla Ståhls
original
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Zookeys

Distribution

provided by Zookeys
Described species: 24. Neotropical. Several undescribed species are known to the first author.
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cc-by-3.0
copyright
Menno Reemer, Gunilla Ståhls
bibliographic citation
Reemer M, Ståhls G (2013) Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae) ZooKeys 288: 1–213
author
Menno Reemer
author
Gunilla Ståhls
original
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Zookeys

Distribution

provided by Zookeys
Described species: 5. Central and South America. Several undescribed species are known to the first author.
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cc-by-3.0
copyright
Menno Reemer, Gunilla Ståhls
bibliographic citation
Reemer M, Ståhls G (2013) Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae) ZooKeys 288: 1–213
author
Menno Reemer
author
Gunilla Ståhls
original
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Zookeys

Distribution

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Described species: 1. Indonesia: Java. The species seems not to be uncommon, as specimens collected by different collectors in different years are present in several entomological collections (BMNH, KBIN, MZH, RMNH, ZMAN). Although entomological collectors have been active in other parts of the Sunda region, such as peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo, this species has so far not been found there. This suggests that this singular species is endemic to Java.
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cc-by-3.0
copyright
Menno Reemer, Gunilla Ståhls
bibliographic citation
Reemer M, Ståhls G (2013) Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae) ZooKeys 288: 1–213
author
Menno Reemer
author
Gunilla Ståhls
original
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Zookeys

Distribution

provided by Zookeys
Described species: 1. Australia: New South Wales, Queensland and Tasmania (Ferguson 1926a).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Menno Reemer, Gunilla Ståhls
bibliographic citation
Reemer M, Ståhls G (2013) Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae) ZooKeys 288: 1–213
author
Menno Reemer
author
Gunilla Ståhls
original
visit source
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Zookeys