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Macropiratidae

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Macropiratidae is a family of moths which has sometimes been treated as a subfamily of the Pterophoridae, owing to the resemblance between specimens of Macropiratidae and plume moths of the genus Agdistis, at least when preserved as pinned specimens. The family contains a single genus Agdistopis with three species.

Thomas Bainbrigge Fletcher described the species now known as Agdistopis sinhala from a single specimen in poor condition, collected in Sri Lanka in December 1907.[1]

In 1917, George Hampson published a description of a new genus Agdistopis and a new species, Agdistopis petrochroa.[2] His description was based on five specimens collected in Taiwan, Sri Lanka and Singapore. A. petrochroa was subsequently synonymised with A. sinhala. Hampson considered these moths to belong to the Pyralidae, but noted the remarkable superficial resemblance to Agdistis.

In 1932, Edward Meyrick described two species and assigned them both to a new genus (Macropiratis) and a new family, Macropiratidae.[3] The first of these, now known as Agdistopis halieutica was recorded from Fiji, while the second (under the name Macropiratis heteromantis) was described from Sri Lanka and is now considered to be another redescription of A. sinhala. Subsequently, these moths (including A. griveaudi, described in 1982 from Madagascar) have been considered closely related to the plume moths, either as a subfamily Macropiratinae, or more recently as a full family in the superfamily Pterophoroidea.[4][5][6] The posture of live moths and the appearance of caterpillars is markedly dissimilar from Agdistis or any other Pterophoridae.[7]

Based on a major molecular phylogeny of the Lepidoptera including A. sinhala published in 2013,[8] the family appears to be more closely related either to Hyblaeidae or Copromorphidae than to Pterophoridae. Subsequent studies have reinforced the separation of Macropiratidae from Pterophoridae and placement with Alucitoidea, Carposinoidea, Epermenioidea and Hyblaeoidea.[9]

Species

References

  1. ^ Fletcher, Thomas Bainbrigge (1909). "The Plume-Moths of Ceylon. Part I - The Pterophoridae". Spolia Zeylanica. 6: 8.
  2. ^ Hampson, George (1917). "A classification of the Pyralidae, subfamily Gallerianae". Novitates Zoologicae. 24: 43–44. doi:10.5962/bhl.part.23146 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library.
  3. ^ Meyrick, Edward (1932). Exotic Microlepidoptera 4. pp. 248–249.
  4. ^ Gielis, Cees (2003). Pterophoroidea & Alucitoidea (Lepidoptera) – In: World Catalogue of Insects 4. Stenstrup, Denmark: Apollo Books. pp. 198 pp. ISBN 87-88757-68-4.
  5. ^ "Family MACROPIRATIDAE". Australian Biological Resources Study - Australian Faunal Directory. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  6. ^ "Agdistopis sinhala (Fletcher, 1909)" 東方單羽蛾. Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  7. ^ "Taiwan Moth Information Centre".
  8. ^ Regier, JC; Mitter, C; Zwick, A; Bazinet, AL; Cummings, MP et al. (2013-03-12). "A Large-Scale, Higher-Level, Molecular Phylogenetic Study of the Insect Order Lepidoptera (Moths and Butterflies)". PLOS One. 8 (3): e58568. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058568. PMC 3595289. PMID 23554903.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  9. ^ Kawahara, AY; Plotkin, D; Hamilton, CA; Gough, H; St Laurent, R.; Owens, HL; Homziak, NT; Barber, JR et al. (2017-12-06). "Diel behavious in moths and butterflies: a synthesis of data illuminates the evolution of temporal activity" (PDF). Organisms Diversity & Evolution. 18 (1): 13–27. doi:10.1007/s13127-017-0350-6.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
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Macropiratidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Macropiratidae is a family of moths which has sometimes been treated as a subfamily of the Pterophoridae, owing to the resemblance between specimens of Macropiratidae and plume moths of the genus Agdistis, at least when preserved as pinned specimens. The family contains a single genus Agdistopis with three species.

Thomas Bainbrigge Fletcher described the species now known as Agdistopis sinhala from a single specimen in poor condition, collected in Sri Lanka in December 1907.

In 1917, George Hampson published a description of a new genus Agdistopis and a new species, Agdistopis petrochroa. His description was based on five specimens collected in Taiwan, Sri Lanka and Singapore. A. petrochroa was subsequently synonymised with A. sinhala. Hampson considered these moths to belong to the Pyralidae, but noted the remarkable superficial resemblance to Agdistis.

In 1932, Edward Meyrick described two species and assigned them both to a new genus (Macropiratis) and a new family, Macropiratidae. The first of these, now known as Agdistopis halieutica was recorded from Fiji, while the second (under the name Macropiratis heteromantis) was described from Sri Lanka and is now considered to be another redescription of A. sinhala. Subsequently, these moths (including A. griveaudi, described in 1982 from Madagascar) have been considered closely related to the plume moths, either as a subfamily Macropiratinae, or more recently as a full family in the superfamily Pterophoroidea. The posture of live moths and the appearance of caterpillars is markedly dissimilar from Agdistis or any other Pterophoridae.

Based on a major molecular phylogeny of the Lepidoptera including A. sinhala published in 2013, the family appears to be more closely related either to Hyblaeidae or Copromorphidae than to Pterophoridae. Subsequent studies have reinforced the separation of Macropiratidae from Pterophoridae and placement with Alucitoidea, Carposinoidea, Epermenioidea and Hyblaeoidea.

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Pterophoridae

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The Pterophoridae or plume moths are a family of Lepidoptera with unusually modified wings. Though they belong to the Apoditrysia like the larger moths and the butterflies, unlike these they are tiny and were formerly included among the assemblage called "microlepidoptera".

Description and ecology

The forewings of plume moths usually consist of two curved spars with more or less bedraggled bristles trailing behind. This resembles the closely related Alucitidae (many-plumed moths) at first glance, but the latter have a greater number of symmetrical plumes. The hindwings are similarly constructed, but have three spars. A few genera have normal lepidopteran wings.

The usual resting posture is with the wings extended laterally and narrowly rolled up. Often they resemble a piece of dried grass, and may pass unnoticed by potential predators even when resting in exposed situations in daylight. Some species have larvae which are stem- or root-borers while others are leaf-browsers.

Economically important pterophorids include the artichoke plume moth (Platyptilia carduidactyla), an artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) pest in California, while the geranium plume moth (Platyptilia pica)[1] and the snapdragon plume moth (Stenoptilodes antirrhina) can cause damage to the ornamental plants garden geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) and common snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), respectively. Other plume moths have been used as biological control agents against invasive plant species – Lantanophaga pusillidactyla against West Indian lantana (Lantana camara), Oidaematophorus beneficus against mistflower (Ageratina riparia), Hellinsia balanotes against groundsel bush (Baccharis halimifolia),[2] and Wheeleria spilodactylus against horehound (Marrubium vulgare).[3]

Evolution

A fossil species from the extant genus Merrifieldia is known from the Oligocene of France.[4][5]

Taxonomy

The small group of moths in the genus Agdistopis has often been treated as a subfamily Macropiratinae within the Pterophoridae, but recent research indicates that this group should be considered a separate family.

The family is divided into the following subfamilies, tribes and genera,[6] some species are also listed:
Subfamily Agdistinae

Subfamily Ochyroticinae

Subfamily Deuterocopinae Gielis, 1993

Subfamily Pterophorinae Zeller, 1841

Footnotes

  1. ^ MDA (1980)
  2. ^ Palmer, W.A. & Haseler, W.H. (1992)
  3. ^ Baker, J. (2002)
  4. ^ L. Bigot, A. Nel, and J. Nel. 1986. Description de la première espèce fossile connue de Ptérophore (Lepidoptera Pterophoridae). Alexanor 14:283-288
  5. ^ SOHN, JAE-CHEON; LABANDEIRA, CONRAD; DAVIS, DONALD; MITTER, CHARLES (2012-04-30). "An annotated catalog of fossil and subfossil Lepidoptera (Insecta: Holometabola) of the world". Zootaxa. 3286 (1): 1. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3286.1.1. ISSN 1175-5334.
  6. ^ Gielis, Cees (2000-05-31). "Division of the Pterophoridae into Tribes (Lepidoptera)" (PDF). Quadrifina. 3: 57–60 – via ZOBODAT.

References

  • Baker, J. (2002): Factors affecting the establishment of a classical biological control agent, the horehound plume moth (Wheeleria spilodactylus) in South Australia. (A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Applied and Molecular Ecology, Adelaide University, Australia) PDF fulltext
  • Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) (1980): Geranium Plume Moth Quarantine. PDF fulltext
  • Palmer, W.A & Haseler, W.H. (1992): Foodplant Specificity and Biology of Oidaematophorus balanotes (Pterophoridae): A North American Moth Introduced into Australia for the Control of Baccharis halimifolia (Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 46(3), 1992: 195-202). PDF fulltext

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Pterophoridae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Pterophoridae or plume moths are a family of Lepidoptera with unusually modified wings. Though they belong to the Apoditrysia like the larger moths and the butterflies, unlike these they are tiny and were formerly included among the assemblage called "microlepidoptera".

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