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Otiorhynchus (Dorymerus) sulcatus (Fabricius 1775)

Brief Summary

    Vine weevil: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) is an insect native to Europe but common in North America as well. It is a pest of many garden plants.

Comprehensive Description

    Conservation Status
    provided by University of Alberta Museums
    Common in North America (Warner and Negley 1976), not of concern.
    Distribution
    provided by University of Alberta Museums
    This species occurs in Southern Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island and Quebec (Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 1999). It occurs in the western United States as far north as Alaska, and is very well spread out across the eastern United States (Warner and Negley 1976). It inhabits northern and mid Europe as far south as France and Italy, and is present in Australia, New Zealand, and Tasmania (Warner and Negley 1976).
    General Description
    provided by University of Alberta Museums
    "Eggs are yellowish brown in color and larvae are creamy white with a brown head (Oregon State University Extention). The pupae are also creamy white, and reveal distinct adult parts with separate wing sacs along their backs that eventually fuse (Shearer). Adults are blackish, 9 to 11 mm long, have elbowed antennae slightly widened at the tip, have fused elytra and cannot fly. They have patches of golden scales on their elytra covered with yellow curled hairs (Warner and Negley 1976). The apex of their tibia is rounded, their femora are toothed, and their rostrum is long and widened at the tip (Warner and Negley 1976). Although the weevils are parthenogenetic and there are no males in North America, they do have a spermatheca (Cram 1958). Adults tend to aggregate in large groups due to pheromones and other attractants (Alford et al. 1996).
    Life Cycle
    provided by University of Alberta Museums
    In the early summer, adults emerge from the soil, then must feed for approximately 4 weeks before they begin ovipositing (Oregon State University Extension). They oviposit their eggs in soil near plant roots and foliage, and oviposition ends by early September (Oregon State University Extension). Each adult may deposit more than 800 eggs in its lifetime, and its life expectancy can be 2 or more years (Alford et al. 1996). Larvae overwinter in the soil among plant roots, continue to develop in the spring when the soil warms up, then pupate in the late spring (Oregon State University Extension). Dispersal of this flightless weevil is dependent on the distances it walks and on shipments of horticultural products (Entomol. Soc. of Wash. 1999). It inhabits greenhouses, nurseries, vineyards, and other agricultural crops (Entomol. Soc. of Wash. 1999).
    Trophic Strategy
    provided by University of Alberta Museums
    Larvae feed on roots, and adults feed nocturnally on the foliage of a wider range of host plants (Warner and Negley 1976). North American host plants include maple, maidenhair, bittersweet, clematis, dracaena, hawthorn, cyclamen, strawberry, juniper, privet, mint, four o'clock, tuberose, rhododendron, rose, raspberry, nightshade, potato, spirea, yew, arborvitae, blueberry, and the European host plants include grape (Warner and Negley 1976).
    Vine weevil
    provided by wikipedia

    Black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) is an insect native to Europe but common in North America as well. It is a pest of many garden plants.

    Overview

    The adult weevil is matte black with fused wing covers, and is unable to fly. It feeds at night on the outer edges of leaves, causing the leaves to have a notched margin. Broadleaved evergreen plants such as Camellia, Rhododendron, Euonymus and Bergenia are particularly prone to damage, although a wide range of different garden plants is susceptible to attack.[1]

    Female weevils have the ability to reproduce parthenogenetically[2] with fertilisation of eggs required to produce males, though no males have been observed.[3] This form of parthenogenesis is known as thelytoky. Grubs grow up to 1 cm in length, have a slightly curved, legless body, creamy-white in colour, with a tan-brown head. They live below the soil surface, and feed on roots and cambium at the base of the trunk. They cause most damage to herbaceous plants, particularly those growing in containers, where root growth is restricted. Severe infestations can result in complete root destruction and hence plant death.

    Host plants

    The host plants include the following, listed by genus:

    Controls

    Organic controls

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    The soil dwelling grubs can be controlled using parasitic nematodes, for example Steinernema kraussei and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, which can be bought from some garden centres and by mail order.[4] They are simply mixed with water, and watered onto the soil.

    Adult weevils can be controlled by using sticky barriers on the trunks of affected plants, as the weevils return to the soil each day.

    Adults can also be manually removed from plants at night when they can be found feeding on leaf edges. Use only a dim torch or candlelight to search by, as they will drop to the ground if startled by bright light.

    Adults may also be controlled using the fungus Beauveria bassiana, which is a biocontrol.

    See also

    References

    1. ^ "Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Curculionidae) - the black vine weevil". www.forestry.ubc.ca. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved 2018-09-11..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ "FruitDisease - Entomology, vine weevils". www.fruitdisease.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2017-05-07. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
    3. ^ "Black Vine Weevil" (PDF). 2003. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-11-29.
    4. ^ "Black Vine Weevil". University of Illinois Extension. Archived from the original on 2010-02-10. Retrieved 2009-12-29.

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by University of Alberta Museums
    Larvae live underground among plant roots, and adults prefer dark quiet spaces (Warner and Negley 1976).

Cyclicity

    Cyclicity
    provided by University of Alberta Museums
    Usually overwinter as larvae, but adults may hibernate in warmer climates (Warner and Negley 1976).