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Brief Summary

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The spider family Amaurobiidae (hackledmesh weavers) has a worldwide distribution and as of 2013 included 285 described species (Platnick 2013), 71 of which occur in North America north of Mexico, with a large fraction of these found in California (Bradley 2013). The genera Wadotes (Muma 1947; Bennett 1987; Wang 2002) and Coras (Muma 1946; Wang 2002) were moved from Agelenidae to Amaurobiidae in 1986, but molecular phylogenetic analyses by Miller et al. (2010) concluded that these two genera fall within the Agelenidae, as originally believed (see Wang 2002 and Ubick 2005 for a review of the taxonomic history of Amaurobiidae).

The larger amaurobiids are relatively robust, compact, and generally dark brown in color. The chelicerae (the spider's main mouthparts) are typically large and thick with a conspicuous boss (a reinforced area at the edge of the cheliceral base where it meets the cephalothorax). The North American species (with Wadotes and Coras excluded from the family) are cribellate (i.e., they have a cribellum and produce cribellate silk) and spin tangled webs with one or more funnel-shaped entrances. The messy cribellate strands of these webs are often conspicuous. Most amaurobiid species build their webs among (and hide under) rocks, logs, or decomposing material on the ground.

The number and arrangement of a spider's eyes are often helpful in determining to which family it belongs. Most amaurobiids have eight eyes in two transverse (side-to-side) rows, but the two anterior median eyes are often reduced in size or even absent.

Two striking forms of maternal investment have been studied in Amaurobius ferox, a European species that is now also established in the northeastern United States and can sometimes be found in basements. A day after the emergence of her 80 to 100 spiderlings, the new mother produces a second batch of eggs (non-fertile "trophic eggs") which are immediately devoured by her young. Three to four days later, the spiderlings undergo their first post emergence moult. The day after that, the mother is eaten by her brood. Thus, the female both invests in trophic eggs that serve to give her offspring a nutritional boost—and then goes one step further as her spiderlings consume her as well (Kim and Horel 1998; Kim and Roland 2000; Kim et al. 2000).

(Bennett and Ubick 2005; Bradley 2013)

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Amaurobiidae

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Amaurobiidae is a family of three-clawed cribellate or ecribellate spiders found in crevices and hollows or under stones where they build retreats, and are often collected in pitfall traps. Unlidded burrows are sometimes quite obvious in crusty, loamy soil.[1][2] They are difficult to distinguish from related spiders in other families, especially Agelenidae, Desidae and Amphinectidae. Their intra- and interfamilial relationships are contentious. According to the World Spider Catalog, 2019, the family Amaurobiidae includes about 275 species in 49 genera.[3]

In Australia, they are small to medium-sized entelegyne spiders with minimal sheet webs.[2] They are fairly common in Tasmania and nearby mainland Australia in cooler rainforests, some in caves. They are widespread but uncommon along the eastern coastline. They generally have eight similar eyes in two conservatively curved rows. They often have a calamistrum on metatarsus IV associated with a cribellum. Australian amaurobiids may be distinguished from the Amphinectidae by the absence of a pretarsal fracture and the presence of a retrocoxal hymen on coxa I.[4]

Genera

This family has lost and gained several genera resulting from DNA analysis. It lost Bakala and Manjala to Desidae, while Toxopidae took in Midgee and the monotypic genus Jamara. In return, it gained some of Australia's medium-sized brown spiders in the former family Amphinectidae, including Tasmabrochus, Tasmarubrius, and Teeatta). ==Genera==

As of April 2019, the World Spider Catalog accepts the following genera:[3]

  • Altellopsis Simon, 1905 — Argentina
  • Amaurobius C. L. Koch, 1837 — North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Georgia, Micronesia
  • Anisacate Mello-Leitão, 1941 — Argentina, Chile
  • Arctobius Lehtinen, 1967 — United States, Canada, Russia
  • Auhunga Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Auximella Strand, 1908 — Ecuador, Brazil, Peru
  • Callevopsis Tullgren, 1902 — Chile, Argentina
  • Callobius Chamberlin, 1947 — North America, Bulgaria, Asia
  • Cavernocymbium Ubick, 2005 — United States
  • Chresiona Simon, 1903 — South Africa
  • Chumma Jocqué, 2001 — South Africa, Lesotho
  • Cybaeopsis Strand, 1907 — North America, Asia
  • Dardurus Davies, 1976 — Australia
  • Daviesa Koçak & Kemal, 2008 — Australia
  • Emmenomma Simon, 1884 — Argentina, Chile
  • Hicanodon Tullgren, 1901 — Chile, Argentina
  • Himalmartensus Wang & Zhu, 2008 — Nepal, India
  • Livius Roth, 1967 — Chile
  • Macrobunus Tullgren, 1901 — Chile, Argentina, South Africa
  • Malenella Ramírez, 1995 — Chile
  • Maloides Forster & Wilton, 1989 — New Zealand
  • Muritaia Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Naevius Roth, 1967 — Argentina, Peru, Bolivia
  • Neoporteria Mello-Leitão, 1943 — Chile
  • Neuquenia Mello-Leitão, 1940 — Argentina
  • Obatala Lehtinen, 1967 — South Africa
  • Otira Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Ovtchinnikovia Marusik, Kovblyuk & Ponomarev, 2010
  • Oztira Milledge, 2011 — Australia
  • Parazanomys Ubick, 2005 — United States
  • Pimus Chamberlin, 1947 — United States
  • Pseudauximus Simon, 1902 — South Africa
  • Retiro Mello-Leitão, 1915 — South America, Costa Rica
  • Rhoicinaria Exline, 1950 — Colombia, Ecuador
  • Rubrius Simon, 1887 — Chile, Argentina
  • Storenosoma Hogg, 1900 — Australia
  • Taira Lehtinen, 1967 — China, Japan
  • Tasmabrochus Davies, 2002 — Australia
  • Tasmarubrius Davies, 1998 — Australia
  • Teeatta Davies, 2005 — Australia
  • Tugana Chamberlin, 1948 — Cuba
  • Tymbira Mello-Leitão, 1944 — Argentina
  • Urepus Roth, 1967 — Peru
  • Virgilus Roth, 1967 — Ecuador
  • Wabarra Davies, 1996 — Australia
  • Waitetola Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Yacolla Lehtinen, 1967 — Brazil
  • Yupanquia Lehtinen, 1967 — Argentina
  • Zanomys Chamberlin, 1948 — United States, Canada

See also

References

  1. ^ "AMAUROBIIDAE Hackled-mesh Weavers". www.arachne.org.au. Retrieved 2019-03-20.
  2. ^ a b 1955-, Whyte, Robert (June 2017). A field guide to spiders of Australia. Anderson, Greg, 1958-, CSIRO (Australia). Clayton, Vic. ISBN 9780643107083. OCLC 973390260.
  3. ^ a b "Family: Amaurobiidae Thorell, 1870". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
  4. ^ [1] Spiders of Australia Archived 2011-11-30 at the Wayback Machine

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN

Amaurobiidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Amaurobiidae is a family of three-clawed cribellate or ecribellate spiders found in crevices and hollows or under stones where they build retreats, and are often collected in pitfall traps. Unlidded burrows are sometimes quite obvious in crusty, loamy soil. They are difficult to distinguish from related spiders in other families, especially Agelenidae, Desidae and Amphinectidae. Their intra- and interfamilial relationships are contentious. According to the World Spider Catalog, 2019, the family Amaurobiidae includes about 275 species in 49 genera.

In Australia, they are small to medium-sized entelegyne spiders with minimal sheet webs. They are fairly common in Tasmania and nearby mainland Australia in cooler rainforests, some in caves. They are widespread but uncommon along the eastern coastline. They generally have eight similar eyes in two conservatively curved rows. They often have a calamistrum on metatarsus IV associated with a cribellum. Australian amaurobiids may be distinguished from the Amphinectidae by the absence of a pretarsal fracture and the presence of a retrocoxal hymen on coxa I.

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