dcsimg

Brief Summary

    Anapidae: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Anapidae is a family of rather small spiders with 220 described species in 57 genera. It includes the former family Micropholcommatidae as the subfamily Micropholcommatinae. Most species are less than 2 mm long.

    In some species (such as Pseudanapis parocula) the pedipalps of the female are reduced to coxal stumps.

    Anapidae generally live in leaf litter and moss on the floor of rain forest. Many build orb webs with a diameter of less than 3 cm.

    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors

    The spider family Anapidae (ground orbweavers) includes 154 species (Platnick 2013). Two species of these very small spiders are reported from North America. One of these, Gertschanapis shantzi, is known only from humid forests of Oregon and California, where it spins small horizontal orb webs, with radii emerging from the flat plane, in spaces within the leaf litter, among fern fronds, in rotting wood near the ground, and in similar locations. This species is rarely encountered, but can be locally common. The other putative North American representative, Comaroma mendocino, is known from a single berlese leaf litter sample from California and Coddington (2005) has suggested that it does not belong in the Palearctic anapid genus Comaroma at all, but instead likely belongs in the family Theridiidae.

    (Coddington 2005; Bradley 2013)

Comprehensive Description

    Anapidae
    provided by wikipedia

    Anapidae is a family of rather small spiders with 220 described species in 57 genera.[1] It includes the former family Micropholcommatidae as the subfamily Micropholcommatinae.[2] Most species are less than 2 mm long.[3]

    In some species (such as Pseudanapis parocula) the pedipalps of the female are reduced to coxal stumps.[3]

    Anapidae generally live in leaf litter and moss on the floor of rain forest. Many build orb webs with a diameter of less than 3 cm.[3]

    Description

    Spiders of this family are very small, usually less than two millimeters long, and lack a cribellum. They can have either six or eight eyes, the rear median eyes either reduced or missing. The carapace is modified so that the eyes are raised higher than usual. Color can range from reddish brown to yellowish brown. Both margins of chelicerae have teeth. The legs are short and spineless. The labium has a spur that extends between the chelicerae and can be seen when the chelicerae are spread.[4]

    Systematics

    The family Micropholcommatidae was synonymized with this family by Schütt in 2003[5] and by Lopa et al. in 2011,[6][2] a change that has been accepted by the World Spider Catalog.[7]

    Genera

     src=
    male Conoculus lyugadinus

    As of March 2017[update], the World Spider Catalog accepted the following genera:[7]

    Distribution

    Anapidae are found worldwide, particularly in South America, Africa, Asia, Australia and New Zealand. Few genera occur in North America or Europe. Only Comaroma simoni and the three species of Zangherella are found in Europe; Gertschanapis shantzi and Comaroma mendocino are found in the United States.[7]

    See also

    References

    1. ^ a b "Currently valid spider genera and species". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Archived from the original on 2015-11-03. Retrieved 2017-03-03..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ a b Hormiga, Gustavo & Griswold, Charles E. (2014). "Systematics, Phylogeny, and Evolution of Orb-Weaving Spiders". Annual Review of Entomology. 59 (1): 487–512. doi:10.1146/annurev-ento-011613-162046. PMID 24160416.
    3. ^ a b c Murphy & Murphy 2000
    4. ^ Song, D.X.; Zhu, M.S.; Chen, J. (1999). The Spiders of China. Hebei University of Science and Technology, Publishing House, Shijiazhuang. p. 149.
    5. ^ Schütt, K. (2003), "Phylogeny of Symphytognathidae", Zoologica Scripta, 32: 129–151, doi:10.1046/j.1463-6409.2003.00103.x
    6. ^ Lopardo, L.; Giribet, G. & Hormiga, G. (2011), "Morphology to the rescue: molecular data and the signal of morphological characters in combined phylogenetic analyses — a case study from mysmenid spiders (Araneae, Mysmenidae), with comments on the evolution of web architecture", Cladistics, 27 (3): 278–330, doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2010.00332.x
    7. ^ a b c "Family: Anapidae Simon, 1895". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2017-03-03.