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Brief Summary

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The spider family Anapidae (ground orbweavers) includes 154 species (Platnick 2013). Two species of these very small spiders are reported from North America. One of these, Gertschanapis shantzi, is known only from humid forests of Oregon and California, where it spins small horizontal orb webs, with radii emerging from the flat plane, in spaces within the leaf litter, among fern fronds, in rotting wood near the ground, and in similar locations. This species is rarely encountered, but can be locally common. The other putative North American representative, Comaroma mendocino, is known from a single berlese leaf litter sample from California and Coddington (2005) has suggested that it does not belong in the Palearctic anapid genus Comaroma at all, but instead likely belongs in the family Theridiidae.

(Coddington 2005; Bradley 2013)

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Anapidae

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Anapidae is a family of rather small spiders with 231 described species in 58 genera.[1] It includes the former family Micropholcommatidae as the subfamily Micropholcommatinae.[2] Most species are less than 2 millimetres (0.079 in) long.[3]

They generally live in leaf litter and moss on the floor of rain forest. Many build orb webs with a diameter less than 3 centimetres (1.2 in). In some species, such as P. parocula, the pedipalps of the female are reduced to coxal stumps.[3]

Description

Spiders of this family are very small, usually less than two millimeters long, and lack a cribellum. They can have either six or eight eyes, the rear median eyes either reduced or missing. The carapace is modified so that the eyes are raised higher than usual. Color can range from reddish brown to yellowish brown. Both margins of chelicerae have teeth. The legs are short and spineless. The labium has a spur that extends between the chelicerae and can be seen when the chelicerae are spread.[4]

Distribution

Anapidae are found worldwide, particularly in South America, Africa, Asia, Australia and New Zealand. Few genera occur in North America or Europe. Only Comaroma simoni and the three species of Zangherella are found in Europe; Gertschanapis shantzi and Comaroma mendocino are found in the United States.[5]

Systematics

The family Micropholcommatidae was synonymized with this family by Schütt in 2003[6] and by Lopa et al. in 2011,[7][2] a change that has been accepted by the World Spider Catalog.[5]

Genera

As of April 2019, the World Spider Catalog accepts the following genera:[1]

  • Acrobleps Hickman, 1979 — Australia
  • Algidiella Rix & Harvey, 2010 — New Zealand
  • Anapis Simon, 1895 — South America, Central America, Mexico, Jamaica
  • Anapisona Gertsch, 1941 — South America, Central America, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Mexico
  • Austropholcomma Rix & Harvey, 2010 — Australia
  • Borneanapis Snazell, 2009 — Indonesia
  • Caledanapis Platnick & Forster, 1989 — New Caledonia
  • Chasmocephalon O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889 — Australia
  • Comaroma Bertkau, 1889 — Asia, United States
  • Conculus Kishida, 1940 — Papua New Guinea, Asia
  • Crassanapis Platnick & Forster, 1989 — Chile, Argentina
  • Crozetulus Hickman, 1939 — Africa
  • Dippenaaria Wunderlich, 1995 — South Africa
  • Elanapis Platnick & Forster, 1989 — Chile
  • Enielkenie Ono, 2007 — Taiwan
  • Eperiella Rix & Harvey, 2010 — Chile, Australia
  • Epigastrina Rix & Harvey, 2010 — Australia
  • Eterosonycha Butler, 1932 — Australia
  • Forsteriola Brignoli, 1981 — Burundi, Rwanda, Congo
  • Gaiziapis Miller, Griswold & Yin, 2009 — China
  • Gertschanapis Platnick & Forster, 1990 — United States
  • Gigiella Rix & Harvey, 2010 — Australia, Chile
  • Guiniella Rix & Harvey, 2010 — Papua New Guinea
  • Hickmanapis Platnick & Forster, 1989 — Australia
  • Holarchaea Forster, 1955 — Australia, New Zealand
  • Mandanapis Platnick & Forster, 1989 — New Caledonia
  • Maxanapis Platnick & Forster, 1989 — Australia
  • Metanapis Brignoli, 1981 — Africa, Nepal
  • Micropholcomma Crosby & Bishop, 1927 — Australia
  • Minanapis Platnick & Forster, 1989 — Chile, China, Argentina
  • Montanapis Platnick & Forster, 1989 — New Caledonia
  • Normplatnicka Rix & Harvey, 2010 — Australia, Chile
  • Nortanapis Platnick & Forster, 1989 — Australia
  • Novanapis Platnick & Forster, 1989 — New Zealand
  • Octanapis Platnick & Forster, 1989 — Australia
  • Olgania Hickman, 1979 — Australia
  • Paranapis Platnick & Forster, 1989 — New Zealand
  • Patelliella Rix & Harvey, 2010 — Australia
  • Pecanapis Platnick & Forster, 1989 — Chile
  • Pseudanapis Simon, 1905 — Asia, Germany, South America, Africa, Mexico, Central America, Papua New Guinea
  • Pua Forster, 1959 — New Zealand
  • Queenslanapis Platnick & Forster, 1989 — Australia
  • Raveniella Rix & Harvey, 2010 — Australia
  • Rayforstia Rix & Harvey, 2010 — New Zealand, Australia
  • Risdonius Hickman, 1939 — Australia
  • Sheranapis Platnick & Forster, 1989 — Chile
  • Sinanapis Wunderlich & Song, 1995 — China, Laos, Vietnam
  • Sofanapis Platnick & Forster, 1989 — Chile
  • Spinanapis Platnick & Forster, 1989 — Australia
  • Taliniella Rix & Harvey, 2010 — New Zealand
  • Taphiassa Simon, 1880 — Australia, New Zealand, Sri Lanka
  • Tasmanapis Platnick & Forster, 1989 — Australia
  • Teutoniella Brignoli, 1981 — Chile, Brazil
  • Tinytrella Rix & Harvey, 2010 — New Zealand
  • Tricellina Forster & Platnick, 1989 — Chile
  • Victanapis Platnick & Forster, 1989 — Australia
  • Zangherella Caporiacco, 1949 — Europe, Algeria, Turkey
  • Zealanapis Platnick & Forster, 1989 — New Zealand

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Family: Anapidae Simon, 1895". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
  2. ^ a b Hormiga, Gustavo & Griswold, Charles E. (2014). "Systematics, Phylogeny, and Evolution of Orb-Weaving Spiders". Annual Review of Entomology. 59 (1): 487–512. doi:10.1146/annurev-ento-011613-162046. PMID 24160416.
  3. ^ a b Murphy, F; Murphy, J. (2000). "An introduction to the spiders of South East Asia with notes on all the genera". Malaysian Nature Society Kuala Lumpur.
  4. ^ Song, D.X.; Zhu, M.S.; Chen, J. (1999). The Spiders of China. Hebei University of Science and Technology, Publishing House, Shijiazhuang. p. 149.
  5. ^ a b "Family: Anapidae Simon, 1895". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2017-03-03.
  6. ^ Schütt, K. (2003), "Phylogeny of Symphytognathidae", Zoologica Scripta, 32: 129–151, doi:10.1046/j.1463-6409.2003.00103.x
  7. ^ Lopardo, L.; Giribet, G. & Hormiga, G. (2011), "Morphology to the rescue: molecular data and the signal of morphological characters in combined phylogenetic analyses — a case study from mysmenid spiders (Araneae, Mysmenidae), with comments on the evolution of web architecture", Cladistics, 27 (3): 278–330, doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2010.00332.x

Ramirez, M.J.; Platnick, N.I. (1999). "On Sofanapis antillanca (Araneae, Anapidae) as a kleptoparasite of austrochiline spiders (Araneae, Austrochilidae)" (PDF). Journal of Arachnology. 27 (2): 547–549.

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Anapidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Anapidae is a family of rather small spiders with 231 described species in 58 genera. It includes the former family Micropholcommatidae as the subfamily Micropholcommatinae. Most species are less than 2 millimetres (0.079 in) long.

They generally live in leaf litter and moss on the floor of rain forest. Many build orb webs with a diameter less than 3 centimetres (1.2 in). In some species, such as P. parocula, the pedipalps of the female are reduced to coxal stumps.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
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wikipedia EN