dcsimg

Brief Summary

provided by EOL authors

The spider family Clubionidae (sac spiders) includes around 581 described species (Platnick 2013). Around 58 of these occur in North America north of Mexico (Bradley 2013). Clubionids are wandering hunters and do not build webs to capture prey, although they do make sac-like silken retreats, often in rolled leaves, for molting and for depositing egg sacs. Clubionids are mostly medium-sized, light-colored spiders that are active at night. They occur on foliage, beneath loose bark, in leaf litter, and under rocks (Edwards 1958). The common name "sac spider" is derived from the fact that they build a compact silk retreat each morning before becoming inactive until the evening (Bradley 2013). Like most spiders, clubionids have eight eyes.

Historically, a broad range of spiders with two tarsal claws have been included in the Clubionidae. A number of families formerly treated as subfamilies within Clubionidae are now treated as distinct families and several genera formerly included in the Clubionidae are now placed in families that were always considered distinct from the Clubionidae. Some issues related to the delineation of this family remain, however, such as whether Cheiracanthium is a clubionid or, instead, belongs in the family Miturgidae (Richman and Ubick 2005 and references therein). The Nearctic clubionids were revised by Edwards (1958) although there have been a number of additions since then (see Richman and Ubick 2005 and references therein). Clubionids can be distinguished from similar-looking spiders in the family Gnaphosidae by their conical spinnerets. In clubionids, these are arranged in a compact cluster that rarely extends beyond the end of the abdomen. In contrast, gnaphosids have conspicuous cylindrical spinnerets, which are often visible from above. (Bradley 2013)

license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Leo Shapiro
original
visit source
partner site
EOL authors

Sac spider

provided by wikipedia EN

The sac spiders of the family Clubionidae[1] have a very confusing taxonomic history. Once, this family was a large catch-all taxon for a disparate collection of spiders, similar only in that they had eight eyes arranged in two rows[2] and conical anterior spinnerets that touched, and were wandering predators that built silken retreats, or sacs, usually on plant terminals, between leaves, under bark, or under rocks. These are now recognized to include several families, some of which are more closely related to the three-clawed spiders, like lynx and wolf spiders, than to Clubionidae and related families.[3]

General

The remnant Clubionidae now consist of a few over 500 species in 15 genera worldwide. However, "sac spider" used on its own should imply a member of the family Clubionidae, but other common names may use the phrase "sac spider" including:

As of April 2019, the World Spider Catalog accepts the following genera:[4]

  • Arabellata Baert, Versteirt & Jocqué, 2010
  • Carteroniella Strand, 1907 — South Africa
  • Carteronius Simon, 1897 — Madagascar, Mauritius, Sierra Leone
  • Clubiona Latreille, 1804 — Africa, North America, Asia, Oceania, South America, Europe, Panama
  • Clubionina Berland, 1947 — St. Paul Is.
  • Elaver O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 — North America, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Philippines
  • Invexillata Versteirt, Baert & Jocqué, 2010
  • Malamatidia Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001 — Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia
  • Matidia Thorell, 1878 — Asia, Papua New Guinea
  • Nusatidia Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001 — Asia
  • Porrhoclubiona Lohmander, 1944 — Asia, Africa, Europe
  • Pristidia Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001 — Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia
  • Pteroneta Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001 — Asia, Australia
  • Scopalio Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001 — Indonesia
  • Simalio Simon, 1897 — Asia, Trinidad
  • Tixcocoba Gertsch, 1977 — Mexico

In North America, the family as it is now recognised consists of only two genera, Clubiona and Elaver (formerly Clubionoides). Clubiona is nearly worldwide in distribution.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-03-05. Retrieved 2009-03-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "Clubionidae". www.bio.brandeis.edu. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  3. ^ Tree of Life Web Project. 2006. Clubionidae. Version 25 March 2006 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Clubionidae/2675/2006.03.25 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/
  4. ^ "Family: Clubionidae Wagner, 1887". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2019-04-22.

"
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Sac spider: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The sac spiders of the family Clubionidae have a very confusing taxonomic history. Once, this family was a large catch-all taxon for a disparate collection of spiders, similar only in that they had eight eyes arranged in two rows and conical anterior spinnerets that touched, and were wandering predators that built silken retreats, or sacs, usually on plant terminals, between leaves, under bark, or under rocks. These are now recognized to include several families, some of which are more closely related to the three-clawed spiders, like lynx and wolf spiders, than to Clubionidae and related families.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN