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Brief Summary

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The mygalomorph (trapdoor spiders, tarantulas, and their relatives) spider family Cyrtaucheniidae (waferlid trapdoor spiders) includes 102 described species according to Platnick (2013), who follows recent authors by separating into a distinct family, Euctenizidae, a number of genera formerly placed in the Cyrtaucheniidae and by transferring two other genera from Cyrtaucheniidae to Nemesiidae. For North America north of Mexico, Platnick (2013) recognizes just a single cyrtaucheniid (Cyrtauchenius talpa) but 60 species of euctenizids (from a total known world fauna of 66 species; outside the United States, five additional species are known from Mexico and one from Guadeloupe).

The Cyrtaucheniidae has been viewed as one of the most diverse mygalomorph families in North America, in both number of species and diversity of ecological habits (Bond and Hedin 2006), but as noted above, recent work has indicated that the family as currently composed is polyphyletic (Bond et al. 2012) and this diversity is almost all now assigned to the family Euctenizidae. Bond and Opell (2002) revised the "southwestern North American Cyrtaucheniidae" (subfamily Euctenizinae). The euctenizines were included in the family Ctenizidae until Raven (1985) named the group as a subfamily within the Cyrtaucheniidae. More recently, the status of this group as a distinct family, Euctenizidae,has been supported by multiple studies (Goloboff 1993; Bond and Opell 2002; Bond and Hedin 2006; Hedin and Bond 2006; Bond et al. 2012).

(Bond 2005)

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Wafer trapdoor spider

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The wafer trapdoor spiders, family Cyrtaucheniidae,[3] are a widespread family of spiders that lack the thorn-like spines on tarsi and metatarsi I and II (the two outermost leg segments) found in true trapdoor spiders (Ctenizidae).

Etymology

The name derives from the Greek κυρταύχην, kyrtaúchēn, which in turn is derived from Greek κυρτός kyrtós, meaning "curved", "arched" or "bent", αὐχήν auchen, meaning the cervix or neck, and the suffix -idae, which designates belonging to a family.[citation needed]

Biology

Many, but not all, make wafer-like doors to their burrows, while others build the cork-like doors found commonly in the true trapdoor spiders. The biology of nearly all the species is poorly known.

The monotypic Angka hexops has only six eyes, with the posterior median eyes missing. It is up to 15 mm long in both sexes.[4]

Distribution

The family is well represented South America, and Africa. A currently undescribed genus in the western United States may hold an altitude record for the family, being found up to over 11,000 feet (3,300 meters). The genus Anemesia is found only in Central Asia, and Cyrtauchenius reaches from Algeria north to Italy, with one species found in the USA. Angka is endemic to the cloud forest of Doi Inthanon, Thailand.

Genera

The former subfamily Euctenizinae from the USA and Mexico were promoted to family rank as Euctenizidae in 2012, and are now considered more closely related to Idiopidae.[5]

As of November 2015[update], the World Spider Catalog accepted the following genera.[1]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b "Family: Cyrtaucheniidae Simon, 1889", World Spider Catalog, Natural History Museum Bern, retrieved 2015-11-11.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ "Currently valid spider genera and species", World Spider Catalog, Natural History Museum Bern, retrieved 2015-11-11
  3. ^ Raven, R.J. 1985. The spider Infraorder Mygalomorphae (Araneae): cladistics and systematics. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 182: 1-180.
  4. ^ Murphy, Frances & Murphy, John (2000). An Introduction to the Spiders of South East Asia. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Nature Society.
  5. ^ "Family: Euctenizidae Raven, 1985", World Spider Catalog, Natural History Museum Bern, retrieved 2015-11-11

References

  • Raven, Robert J. (1985). "The spider Infraorder Mygalomorphae (Araneae): cladistics and systematics". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 182: 1-180.
  • Platnick, Norman I. (2008). "The world spider catalog, version 8.5". American Museum of Natural History.
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Extant Araneae families
Suborder Mesothelae
Suborder Opisthothelae
Mygalomorphae AraneomorphaeNon-entelegynes Entelegynae
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Wafer trapdoor spider: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The wafer trapdoor spiders, family Cyrtaucheniidae, are a widespread family of spiders that lack the thorn-like spines on tarsi and metatarsi I and II (the two outermost leg segments) found in true trapdoor spiders (Ctenizidae).

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