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Brief Summary

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Most of the 182 species in the spider family Desidae (saltwater spiders) are found in Australia and the South Pacific (Platnick 2013). In North America north of Mexico, there is one native species and one species originally from Australia. The small and inconspicuous spiders of the native species, Paratheuma insulana, are intertidal and found in coral rubble in southern Florida (Florida Keys) and the Caribbean; they have also been reported from oyster beds at low tide along the Gulf coast of northern Florida. These spiders remain in their silken retreats during high tide and emerge at night during low tide to hunt (no web is built). The introduced species, Badumna longinqua (formerly known as Ixeuticus martius), is a large dark spider that in North America is found in and around buildings in coastal California and Oregon (Ubick 2005; Simó et al. 2011). It spins conspicuous, messy webs (including a silken retreat) and is capable of delivering a painful, if not medically serious, bite (Isbister and Gray 2004) (Bradley 2013). The only other Nearctic representative of this family is the nocturnal Paratheuma interaesta, from around the Sea of Cortez (Gulf of California) in Sonora, Mexico, which lives along rocky shores and builds retreats in empty barnacle shells (Roth and Brown 1975; Ubick 2005). Ubick briefly reviewed the confusing taxonomic history of some of the spiders now placed in the Desidae (Ubick 2005 and references therein).

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Desidae

provided by wikipedia EN

Desidae is a family of spiders, some of which are known as intertidal spiders. The family is named for the genus Desis, members of which live in a very unusual location — between the tides. The family has been reevaluated in recent years and now includes inland genera and species as well, such as Badumna and Phryganoporus. In 2017, the family Amphinectidae was merged into Desidae. The family Toxopidae has been separated off. Those intertidal spiders that are truly marine commonly live in barnacle shells, which they seal up with silk; this allows them to maintain an air bubble during high tide. They emerge at night to feed on various small arthropods that live in the intertidal zone.

Distribution

As now circumscribed, the family Desidae is mainly found in South America and Australasia, with some species reaching north to Malaysia.[1]

Metaltella simoni has been introduced in a large part of the Southern United States (records exist from California, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Florida) and is considered an invasive species in Florida. It is feared that it could extirpate the native titanoecid species Titanoeca brunnea.

Genera

As of April 2019, the World Spider Catalog accepts the following genera:[1]

  • Akatorea Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Amphinecta Simon, 1898 — New Zealand
  • Austmusia Gray, 1983 — Australia
  • Badumna Thorell, 1890 — Oceania, Asia, North America, Uruguay
  • Baiami Lehtinen, 1967 — Australia
  • Bakala Davies, 1990 — Australia
  • Barahna Davies, 2003 — Australia
  • Buyina Davies, 1998 — Australia
  • Calacadia Exline, 1960 — Chile
  • Cambridgea L. Koch, 1872 — New Zealand
  • Canala Gray, 1992 — New Caledonia
  • Cicirra Simon, 1886 — Australia
  • Colcarteria Gray, 1992 — Australia
  • Corasoides Butler, 1929 — Papua New Guinea, Australia
  • Cunnawarra Davies, 1998 — Australia
  • Desis Walckenaer, 1837 — Africa, Ecuador, Asia, Oceania
  • Dunstanoides Forster & Wilton, 1989 — New Zealand
  • Epimecinus Simon, 1908 — Australia
  • Forsterina Lehtinen, 1967 — Australia
  • Goyenia Forster, 1970 — New Zealand
  • Helsonia Forster, 1970 — New Zealand
  • Holomamoea Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Huara Forster, 1964 — New Zealand
  • Ischalea L. Koch, 1872 — Madagascar, Mauritius, New Zealand
  • Jalkaraburra Davies, 1998 — Australia
  • Keera Davies, 1998 — Australia
  • Lathyarcha Simon, 1908 — Australia
  • Magua Davies, 1998 — Australia
  • Makora Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Mamoea Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Mangareia Forster, 1970 — New Zealand
  • Maniho Marples, 1959 — New Zealand
  • Manjala Davies, 1990 — Australia
  • Matachia Dalmas, 1917 — New Zealand
  • Mesudus Özdikmen, 2007 — New Zealand
  • Metaltella Mello-Leitão, 1931 — South America, North America
  • Namandia Lehtinen, 1967 — Australia
  • Nanocambridgea Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Neororea Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Notomatachia Forster, 1970 — New Zealand
  • Nuisiana Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Oparara Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Panoa Forster, 1970 — New Zealand
  • Paramamoea Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Paramatachia Dalmas, 1918 — Australia
  • Penaoola Davies, 1998 — Australia
  • Phryganoporus Simon, 1908 — Australia
  • Pitonga Davies, 1984 — Northern Australia
  • Poaka Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Porteria Simon, 1904 — Chile
  • Quemusia Davies, 1998 — Australia
  • Rangitata Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Rapua Forster, 1970 — New Zealand
  • Reinga Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Rorea Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Syrorisa Simon, 1908 — Australia
  • Tanganoides Davies, 2005 — Australia
  • Taurongia Hogg, 1901 — Australia
  • Tuakana Forster, 1970 — New Zealand
  • Waterea Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Family: Desidae Pocock, 1895". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2019-04-20.

"
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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN

Desidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Desidae is a family of spiders, some of which are known as intertidal spiders. The family is named for the genus Desis, members of which live in a very unusual location — between the tides. The family has been reevaluated in recent years and now includes inland genera and species as well, such as Badumna and Phryganoporus. In 2017, the family Amphinectidae was merged into Desidae. The family Toxopidae has been separated off. Those intertidal spiders that are truly marine commonly live in barnacle shells, which they seal up with silk; this allows them to maintain an air bubble during high tide. They emerge at night to feed on various small arthropods that live in the intertidal zone.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN