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Brief Summary

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As treated by Platnick (2013), the spider family Dictynidae includes 575 species, including some ecribellate genera formerly placed in Agelenidae; according to Bradley (2013), 290 species are found in North America north of Mexico (Bradley notes that nearly half of these species belong to the closely related genera Dictyna, Emblyna, Mallos, and Mexitlia, the males of which generally have distinctively bowed cheliceral bases).

Dictynids typically have eight eyes in two transverse rows, usually with the anterior median eyes reduced; some species lack the anterior median eyes altogether and others (such as troglobites) lack eyes entirely. Dictynidae has a worldwide distribution with the great majority of species occurring in the northern hemisphere, especially in the Holarctic region. In North America, numerous endemic species are known from Texas (mainly troglobites) and the Pacific Coast region. All ecribellate dictynids are found at or below ground level. A number of ecribellate dictynids are specialized troglobites, but most species are forest inhabitants living deep in leaf litter or under bark, logs, rocks, and other objects. Their webs are usually very reduced sheets and function mainly as retreats. Cribellate dictynids occur in a wider range of habitats, ranging from deep leaf litter to branch tips high in the canopy of old growth conifers. Many genera in the entirely cribellate subfamily Dictyninae are arboreal, constructing webs on foliage, flowers, branches, and dried plant stalks. With experience, an observer can learn to distinguish the webs of most dictynids from those of cobweb weavers (Theridiidae) and hackledmesh weavers (Amaurobiidae). The webs of theridiids have a more open structure with unadorned silk lines, lacking the cribellate zigzags; in contrast to the space-filling webs of most theridiids, dictynid webs are often constructed in the open without overhanging protection. Amaurobiids are larger spiders and build a spacious web, often with a funnel-like depression leading to a tubular retreat. Some dictynids do not build obvious webs (e.g., in the ecribellate genera Blabomma, Cicurina, and Yorima) and instead are either free-ranging spiders found near the ground or build inconspicuous webs under logs or other debris. (Bradley 2013)

Bennett (2005) reviewed in some detail the complex history of the systematics and taxonomy of the family Dictynidae. Bennett notes that many unanswered questions about the delineation of this family remain to be addressed and that most genera require revision.

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Dictynidae

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Dictynidae is a family of cribellate, hackled band-producing spiders first described by Octavius Pickard-Cambridge in 1871.[1] Most build irregular webs on or near the ground, creating a tangle of silken fibers among several branches or stems of one plant.[2]

Genera

As of April 2019, the World Spider Catalog accepts the following genera:[3]

  • Adenodictyna Ono, 2008 — Japan
  • Aebutina Simon, 1892 — Ecuador, Brazil
  • Ajmonia Caporiacco, 1934 — Asia, Algeria
  • Altella Simon, 1884 — Europe, Asia, Algeria
  • Anaxibia Thorell, 1898 — Asia, Africa
  • Arangina Lehtinen, 1967 — New Zealand
  • Archaeodictyna Caporiacco, 1928 — Asia, Europe, Africa
  • Arctella Holm, 1945 — Asia, North America
  • Argenna Thorell, 1870 — Asia, North America
  • Argennina Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936 — United States
  • Argyroneta Latreille, 1804 — Asia, Europe
  • Atelolathys Simon, 1892 — Sri Lanka
  • Banaidja Lehtinen, 1967 — Samoa
  • Bannaella Zhang & Li, 2011 — China
  • Brigittea Lehtinen, 1967 — Asia, Italy
  • Brommella Tullgren, 1948 — Asia, United States, Greece
  • Callevophthalmus Simon, 1906 — Australia
  • Chaerea Simon, 1884 — Algeria, Europe
  • Clitistes Simon, 1902 — Chile
  • Devade Simon, 1884 — Asia, Algeria, Ukraine
  • Dictyna Sundevall, 1833 — North America, Asia, South America, Cuba, Panama, Europe, Africa
  • Dictynomorpha Spassky, 1939 — Asia
  • Emblyna Chamberlin, 1948 — North America, Asia, Europe, Ecuador
  • Hackmania Lehtinen, 1967 — Russia, United States
  • Helenactyna Benoit, 1977 — St. Helena
  • Hoplolathys Caporiacco, 1947 — Ethiopia
  • Iviella Lehtinen, 1967 — Canada, United States
  • Kharitonovia Esyunin, Zamani & Tuneva, 2017 — Iran, Uzbekistan
  • Lathys Simon, 1884 — Asia, North America, Africa, Europe
  • Mallos O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902 — North America, South America, Central America
  • Marilynia Lehtinen, 1967 — France
  • Mashimo Lehtinen, 1967 — Zambia
  • Mexitlia Lehtinen, 1967 — Mexico, United States
  • Mizaga Simon, 1898 — Senegal
  • Myanmardictyna Wunderlich, 2017 — Myanmar
  • Nigma Lehtinen, 1967 — Asia, Africa, Europe, United States
  • Paradictyna Forster, 1970 — New Zealand
  • Paratheuma Bryant, 1940 — Oceania, Asia, North America
  • Penangodyna Wunderlich, 1995 — Malaysia
  • Phantyna Chamberlin, 1948 — North America, South America
  • Qiyunia Song & Xu, 1989 — China, Japan
  • Rhion O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1871 — Sri Lanka
  • Saltonia Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942 — United States
  • Scotolathys Simon, 1884 — Algeria, Europe, Israel
  • Shango Lehtinen, 1967 — South Africa
  • Sudesna Lehtinen, 1967 — Australia, Asia
  • Tahuantina Lehtinen, 1967 — Chile
  • Tandil Mello-Leitão, 1940 — Argentina
  • Thallumetus Simon, 1893 — South America, Panama, North America
  • Tivyna Chamberlin, 1948 — United States, Mexico, Cuba
  • Tricholathys Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935 — North America, Asia
  • Viridictyna Forster, 1970 — New Zealand

See also

References

  1. ^ Pickard-Cambridge, O. (1871). "Arachnida". The Zoological Record. 7: 207–224.
  2. ^ Roth, V.D.; Brown, W.L. (1975). "Comments on the spider Saltonia incerta Banks (Agelenidae?)" (PDF). J. Arachnol. 3: 53–56.
  3. ^ "Family: Dictynidae O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1871". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
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Dictynidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Dictynidae is a family of cribellate, hackled band-producing spiders first described by Octavius Pickard-Cambridge in 1871. Most build irregular webs on or near the ground, creating a tangle of silken fibers among several branches or stems of one plant.

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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