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Brief Summary

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Platnick (2013) lists 528 species in the spider family Dysderidae (woodlouse spiders). Dysderids are native to the western Palearctic, with most species being circum-Mediterranean, many of them with narrow distributions (Cook 1965a,b; Ubick 2005). Just one of these species, Dysdera crocata, is found in North America north of Mexico (and it is not native; this synanthropic species has been spread widely around the world) (Ubick 2005; Bradley 2013).

Dysderids have six eyes, two in front and four behind, with the posterior row slightly procurved (i.e., the lateral eyes are anterior to the median eyes). There are two pairs of conspicuous spiracles under the abdomen. Dysderids have huge chelicerae and long fangs, giving them a fearsome appearance, but none of the scattered reports of humans being bitten by dysderids have been medically serious. These bites have sometimes resulted from the spider building its retreat in the fingers of a glove. (Bradley 2013)

Dysderids are widely believed to feed mainly on terrestrial isopods (woodlice, pillbugs). Although it is unclear how specialized dysderids are in nature (they will take a range of prey in captivity), some dysderid species are known to feed on isopods in the wild and their modified chelicerae and feeding behavior appear clearly to indicate at least some degree of specialization for capturing these prey and biting through their hard calcareous exoskeletons (Cooke 1965a,b; Pollard et al. 1995; Řezáč and Pekár 2007 and references therein; Řezáč et al. 2008).

Dysderids are nocturnal wandering hunters. They are ground dwellers, often found under rocks and logs in both grasslands and forests. Cooke (1965a,b) studied the life history of two British Dysdera species, D. crocata and D. erythrina. These spiders build retreats for molting and depositing eggs, which are loosely bound with silk and guarded by the female within a thick cocoon in which she seals herself. In captivity, these spiders reach sexual maturity in around 18 months and then live for an additional two to three years. In the Nearctic region, the introduced Dysdera crocata is found mainly in urban areas and disturbed habitats. (Cooke 1965a; Ubick 2005)

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Dysderidae

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Dysderidae, also known as woodlouse hunters, sowbug-eating spiders, and cell spiders, is a family of araneomorph spiders first described by Carl Ludwig Koch in 1837.[1] They are found primarily in Eurasia, extending into North Africa with very few species occurring in South America. Dysdera crocata is introduced into many regions of the world.[2]

Dysderids have six eyes, and are haplogyne, i.e. the females lack a sclerotized epigyne. There is a substantial number of genera, but two of them, Dysdera and Harpactea, account for a very large number of the species and are widespread across the family's range. One species, Dysdera crocata (the woodlouse hunter), has been transported over much of the planet together with its preferred foods—woodlice. Dysdera also feeds on beetles. These spiders have very large chelicerae, which they use to pierce the armored bodies of woodlice and beetles. There are also some reports that they have a mildly toxic venom that can cause local reactions in humans.

The spiders have their six eyes arranged in a semicircle like segestrids, but have only the first two pairs of legs produced forward. Dysdera crocata has a characteristic coloring, which can only be confused with spiders in the corinnid genera Trachelas and Meriola: the carapace is dull red-brown and the abdomen gray or tan.

Genera

The categorization into subfamilies follows Joel Hallan's Biology Catalog. As of April 2019, the World Spider Catalog accepts the following genera:[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ Koch, C. L. (1837). "Übersicht des Arachnidensystems". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. ^ a b "Family: Dysderidae C. L. Koch, 1837". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2019-04-20.

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Dysderidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Dysderidae, also known as woodlouse hunters, sowbug-eating spiders, and cell spiders, is a family of araneomorph spiders first described by Carl Ludwig Koch in 1837. They are found primarily in Eurasia, extending into North Africa with very few species occurring in South America. Dysdera crocata is introduced into many regions of the world.

Dysderids have six eyes, and are haplogyne, i.e. the females lack a sclerotized epigyne. There is a substantial number of genera, but two of them, Dysdera and Harpactea, account for a very large number of the species and are widespread across the family's range. One species, Dysdera crocata (the woodlouse hunter), has been transported over much of the planet together with its preferred foods—woodlice. Dysdera also feeds on beetles. These spiders have very large chelicerae, which they use to pierce the armored bodies of woodlice and beetles. There are also some reports that they have a mildly toxic venom that can cause local reactions in humans.

The spiders have their six eyes arranged in a semicircle like segestrids, but have only the first two pairs of legs produced forward. Dysdera crocata has a characteristic coloring, which can only be confused with spiders in the corinnid genera Trachelas and Meriola: the carapace is dull red-brown and the abdomen gray or tan.

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