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Reproduction

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Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual

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Myers, P. 2001. "Muridae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Muridae.html
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Behavior

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Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Myers, P. 2001. "Muridae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Muridae.html
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Morphology

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Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Myers, P. 2001. "Muridae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Muridae.html
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Brief Summary

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Mice and rats suffer from a bad reputation. That is due particularely to the fact that they like to live where people live. They eat everything, reproduce often and have big nests. However, mice and rats are the most important source of food for owls, raptors and land predators. On the Wadden Islands, you find wood mice, harvest mice and brown rats, and occasionally house mice. Wood mice take over the role of house mice when there are no house mice.
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Rats, Mice, Hamsters, Voles, Lemmings, and Gerbils

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This family of 301 Recent genera and 1,336 species is by far the largest mammalian family. With the exception of certain arctic islands, parts of the West Indies, New Zealand, many oceanic islands, and Antarctica, its natural range extends worldwide. Introduction through human agency has led to the establishment of several species of murids on many of the islands where the family originally was absent. There long has been controversy regarding which groups are included in this family and how these groups are interrelated. The Muridae here are considered to comprise the 16 subfamilies listed below. However, many authorities have followed Simpson (1945) in giving familial status to the Sigmodontinae (with the name Cricetidae), the Spalacinae, the Platacanthomyinae, the Rhizomyinae, and the Murinae. Based in part on paleontological evidence, Chaline, Mein, and Petter (1977) went even further and recognized the following as separate families: the Sigmodontinae (with the name Cricetidae and including the Cricetinae, the Spalacinae, the Myospalacinae, the Lophiomyinae, and the Platacanthomyinae as subfamilies), the Nesomyinae (including the Otomyinae as a subfamily), the Rhizomyinae, the Gerbillinae, the Arvicolinae, the Dendromuridae (including the Petromyscinae as a subfamily), the Cricetomyinae, and the Murinae (including the Hydromyinae as a subfamily). The actual sequence used by Chaline, Mein, and Petter (1977) generally has been followed here. However, all of the families have been made parts of a single family, which in accordance with nomenclatural priority is called the Muridae. Although Simpson (1945) separated the Muridae and the Cricetidae, many authorities have considered the differences between the two insufficient to warrant familial distinction. The latter position was taken by Hershkovitz (1962) and E. R. Hall (1981) and is followed here. Once the Cricetidae are made part of the Muridae, it becomes reasonable to do the same with the other families listed by Chaline, Mein, and Petter (1977). This procedure was followed by Carleton and Musser (1984), Corbet and Hill (1991), and Musser and Carleton (in Wilson and Reeder 1993), though with some modification of sequence. Also, Carleton and Musser (1984) and Musser and Carleton (in Wilson and Reeder 1993) considered the subfamily Hydromyinae to be part of the Murinae, whereas Lidicker and Brylski (1987) included the Australian genera Mesembriomys, Conilurus, Leporillus, Zyzomys, Pseudomys, Notomys, Leggadina, and Mastacomys in the Hydromyinae. Corbet and Hill (1991) placed the subfamily Petromyscinae within the Dendromurinae. There remains considerable support for keeping the Rhizomyidae as a separate family (Lekagul and McNeely 1977; Medway 1978).
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Nowak, Ronald M. "RODENTIA; MURIDAE." Walker's Mammals of the World. Sixth ed. Vol. II. Baltimore, Maryland: John Hopkins UP, 1999. 1334-1346. Print.
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CJ Kronk (Superraptor)
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Muridae

provided by wikipedia EN

The Muridae, or murids, are the largest family of rodents and of mammals, containing over 700 species found naturally throughout Eurasia, Africa, and Australia.[citation needed]

The name Muridae comes from the Latin mus (genitive muris), meaning "mouse".

Distribution and habitat

Brown rat distribution.png

Murids are found nearly everywhere in the world, though many subfamilies have narrower ranges. Murids are not found in Antarctica or many oceanic islands. Although none of them is native to the Americas, a few species, notably the house mouse and black rat, have been introduced worldwide. Murids occupy a broad range of ecosystems from tropical forests to tundras. Fossorial, arboreal, and semiaquatic murid species occur, though most are terrestrial.[2] The extensive list of niches filled by murids helps to explain their relative abundance.

Diet and dentition

A broad range of feeding habits is found in murids, ranging from herbivorous and omnivorous species to specialists that consume strictly earthworms, certain species of fungi, or aquatic insects.[2] Most genera consume plant matter and small invertebrates, often storing seeds and other plant matter for winter consumption. Murids have sciurognathous jaws (an ancestral character in rodents)[further explanation needed] and a diastema is present.[3] Murids lack canines and premolars. Generally, three molars (though sometimes only one or two) are found, and the nature of the molars varies by genus and feeding habit.

Reproduction

Some murids are highly social, while others are solitary. Females commonly produce several litters annually. In warm regions, breeding may occur year-round. Though the lifespans of most genera are generally less than two years, murids have high reproductive potential and their populations tend to increase rapidly and then drastically decline when food resources have been exhausted. This is often seen in a three- to four-year cycle.[4]

Characteristics

The murids are small mammals, typically around 10 cm (3.9 in) long excluding the tail, but ranging from 4.5 to 8 cm (1.8 to 3.1 in) in the African pygmy mouse to 48 cm (19 in) in the southern giant slender-tailed cloud rat. They typically have slender bodies with scaled tails longer than the body, and pointed snouts with prominent whiskers, but with wide variation in these broad traits. Some murids have elongated legs and feet to allow them to move with a hopping motion, while others have broad feet and prehensile tails to improve their climbing ability, and yet others have neither adaptation. They are most commonly some shade of brown in colour, although many have black, grey, or white markings.[5]

Murids generally have excellent senses of hearing and smell. They live in a wide range of habitats from forest to grassland, and mountain ranges. A number of species, especially the gerbils, are adapted to desert conditions, and can survive for a long time with minimal water. They consume a wide range of foods depending on the species, with the aid of powerful jaw muscles and gnawing incisors that grow throughout life. The dental formula of murids is 1.0.0.1-31.0.0.1-3.

Murids breed frequently, often producing large litters several times per year. They typically give birth between 20 and 40 days after mating, although this varies greatly between species. The young are typically born blind, hairless, and helpless, although exceptions occur, such as in spiny mice.[5]

Evolution

As with many other small mammals, the evolution of the murids is not well known, as few fossils survive. They probably evolved from hamster-like animals in tropical Asia some time in the early Miocene, and have only subsequently produced species capable of surviving in cooler climates. They have become especially common worldwide during the Holocene, as a result of hitching a ride commensally with human migrations.[6][7][8][9]

Classification

The murids are classified in five subfamilies, around 150 genera and about 710 species.[citation needed]

Subfamilies

In literature

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A print showing cats and mice from a 1501 German edition of Aesop's fables

Murids feature in literature, including folk tales and fairy stories. In the Pied Piper of Hamelin, retold in many versions since the 14th century, including one by the Brothers Grimm, a rat-catcher lures the town's rats into the river, but the mayor refuses to pay him. In revenge, the rat-catcher lures away all the children of the town, never to return.[10] Mice feature in some of Beatrix Potter's small books, including The Tale of Two Bad Mice (1904), The Tale of Mrs Tittlemouse (1910), The Tale of Johnny Town-Mouse (1918), and The Tailor of Gloucester (1903), which last was described by J. R. R. Tolkien as perhaps the nearest to his idea of a fairy story, the rest being "beast-fables".[11] Among Aesop's Fables are The Cat and the Mice and The Frog and the Mouse.[12] In James Herbert's first novel, The Rats, (1974), a vagrant is attacked and eaten alive by a pack of giant rats; further attacks follow.[13]

References

  1. ^ Aghova, Tatiana; Kimura, Yuri; Bryja, Josef; Dobigny, Gauthier; Granjon, Laurent; Kergoat, Gael J. "Fossils know it best: using a new set of fossil calibrations to improve the temporal phylogenetic framework of murid rodents (Rodentia: Myomorpha: Muroidea: Muridae)" (PDF): 16. doi:10.1101/180398. Retrieved 29 August 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ a b "ADW: Subfamilies of Muridae". animaldiversity.org. Retrieved 2015-11-08.
  3. ^ "Muridae (Old World mice and rats, gerbils, whistling rats, and relatives)". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 2015-11-08.
  4. ^ Nowak, Ronald M. (1999-04-07). Walker's Mammals of the World. JHU Press. ISBN 9780801857898.
  5. ^ a b Berry, R. J.; Årgren, G. (1984), Macdonald, D., ed., The Encyclopedia of Mammals, New York: Facts on File, pp. 658–663 & 674–677, ISBN 0-87196-871-1
  6. ^ Savage, R. J. G.; Long, M. R. (1986), Mammal Evolution: an Illustrated Guide, New York: Facts on File, p. 124, ISBN 0-8160-1194-X
  7. ^ Jansa, Sharon. A.; Weksler, Marcelo (2004), "Phylogeny of muroid rodents: relationships within and among major lineages as determined by IRBP gene sequences" (PDF), Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 31 (1): 256–276, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2003.07.002, PMID 15019624, archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-17
  8. ^ Michaux, Johan; Reyes, Aurelio; Catzeflis, François (1 November 2001), "Evolutionary history of the most speciose mammals: molecular phylogeny of muroid rodents", Molecular Biology and Evolution, 18 (11): 2017–2031, doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a003743, ISSN 0737-4038, PMID 11606698
  9. ^ Steppan, Scott; Adkins, Ronald; Anderson, Joel (2004), "Phylogeny and divergence-date estimates of rapid radiations in muroid rodents based on multiple nuclear genes" (PDF), Systematic Biology, 53 (4): 533–553, doi:10.1080/10635150490468701, PMID 15371245
  10. ^ Mieder, Wolfgang (2007). The Pied Piper: A Handbook. Greenwood. pp. 71 and passim. ISBN 0-313-33464-1.
  11. ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (2001). On Fairy-Stories. Tree and Leaf. HarperCollins. p. 16. ISBN 0-007-10504-5.
  12. ^ Gibbs, Laura (2002–2008). "Aesopica". MythFolklore.net. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  13. ^ Holland, Steve (21 March 2013). "James Herbert obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 June 2014.

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Muridae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Muridae, or murids, are the largest family of rodents and of mammals, containing over 700 species found naturally throughout Eurasia, Africa, and Australia.[citation needed]

The name Muridae comes from the Latin mus (genitive muris), meaning "mouse".

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