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Reproduction

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Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual

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Myers, P. 2001. "Echimyidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Echimyidae.html
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Behavior

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Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Myers, P. 2001. "Echimyidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Echimyidae.html
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Morphology

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Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Myers, P. 2001. "Echimyidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Echimyidae.html
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Echimyidae

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The armored rat, Hoplomys gymnurus
 src=
The white-tailed olalla rat, Olallamys albicauda
 src=
An Atlantic spiny rat, Trinomys sp.
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The red-crested tree rat, Santamartamys rufodorsalis

Echimyidae is the family[1] of neotropical spiny rats and their fossil relatives.[2] This is the most species-rich family of hystricognath rodents.[3] It is probably also the most ecologically diverse, with members ranging from fully arboreal to terrestrial to fossorial habits.[3] They presently exist mainly in South America; three members of the family also range into Central America. Species of the extinct subfamily Heteropsomyinae formerly lived on Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico in the Antilles,[2] probably until the arrival of Europeans.[3] Some authorities consider the nutria from southern and central South America to be a part of this family.

Characteristics

In general form, most spiny rats resemble rats, although they are more closely related to guinea pigs and chinchillas. Most species have stiff, pointed hairs, or spines, that presumably serve for protection from predators.

Many echimyids can break off their tails when attacked. This action may confuse predators long enough for the spiny rat to escape. Unlike the tails of some species of lizards, however, the tails of spiny rats do not regenerate. Therefore, the tactic can only be used once in an individual's lifetime.

Most spiny rats are rare and poorly known, but a few are extremely abundant. Various species are respectively terrestrial, arboreal, or fossorial. In general, the arboreal forms are most rat-like in appearance, whilst the burrowing species are more gopher-like, with stocky bodies and short tails. Most species do poorly in conditions of high heat and aridity and are restricted to regions with abundant water. They are almost exclusively herbivorous.

Systematics

The current taxonomic content of the family Echimyidae has been reshaped over time, and its organization into coherent units stems from two realizations. The first is that cladistic approaches applied to morphological characters showed that many traits used to define taxa were plesiomorphic or homoplastic. The second realization came from the advent of phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence and protein sequence data with probability methods — maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference —, leading to the identification of robust clades and the recognition of higher categorical ranks (see Phylogeny section).[4][5] The following table recapitulates and compares the taxonomic content of taxa recognized on molecular and traditional basis: the two families Capromyidae and Myocastoridae, the five subfamilies Echimyinae, Euryzygomatomyinae, Capromyinae, Dactylomyinae, Eumysopinae, and the four tribes Echimyini, Myocastorini, Capromyini, and Plagiodontini.

Extant genera

  • Family Echimyidae - spiny rats
Comparison between molecular-based[4][5] and traditional[2][6] systematics
for extant Echimyidae and Capromyidae genera. Genera Vernacular names Molecular-based subfamilies Molecular-based tribes Traditional systematics Echimys arboreal spiny rats Echimyinae Echimyini Echimyinae Phyllomys Atlantic tree-rats Echimyinae Echimyini Echimyinae Makalata — Echimyinae Echimyini Echimyinae Pattonomys — Echimyinae Echimyini Echimyinae Toromys giant tree-rat Echimyinae Echimyini Echimyinae Diplomys — Echimyinae Echimyini Echimyinae Santamartamys red-crested tree-rat Echimyinae Echimyini Echimyinae Isothrix toros or brush-tailed rats Echimyinae Echimyini Echimyinae Dactylomys bamboo rats Echimyinae Echimyini Dactylomyinae Olallamys olalla rats Echimyinae Echimyini Dactylomyinae Kannabateomys Atlantic bamboo rat Echimyinae Echimyini Dactylomyinae Lonchothrix tuft-tailed spiny tree-rat Echimyinae Echimyini Eumysopinae Mesomys spiny tree-rats Echimyinae Echimyini Eumysopinae Callistomys painted tree-rat Echimyinae Myocastorini Echimyinae Myocastor coypu Echimyinae Myocastorini Myocastoridae Thrichomys punaré Echimyinae Myocastorini Eumysopinae Hoplomys armored rat Echimyinae Myocastorini Eumysopinae Proechimys spiny rats Echimyinae Myocastorini Eumysopinae Trinomys Atlantic spiny rats Euryzygomatomyinae — Eumysopinae Euryzygomatomys guiara Euryzygomatomyinae — Eumysopinae Clyomys — Euryzygomatomyinae — Eumysopinae Carterodon Owl's spiny rat Incertae sedis — Eumysopinae Plagiodontia — Capromyinae Plagiodontini Capromyidae Geocapromys — Capromyinae Capromyini Capromyidae Mesocapromys — Capromyinae Capromyini Capromyidae Mysateles — Capromyinae Capromyini Capromyidae Capromys Desmarest's hutia Capromyinae Capromyini Capromyidae

Extinct genera

About Chaetomys

The bristle-spined rat, Chaetomys subspinosus, has sometimes been classified in Echimyidae,[3] although traditionally considered a member of the New World porcupine family Erethizontidae.[7] The classification with Echimyidae is supported by similarities in the cheek teeth structure.[8] Like all living caviomorphs except erethizontids, Chaetomys seems to lack posterior carotid foramina, and together with all echimyids and in contrast to all other caviomorphs, Chaetomys seems to retain the otherwise deciduous premolars (dP4).[9] Some of these characters have been, however, reinterpreted as evidence for affinities between Chaetomys and the Erethizontidae.[10] A molecular phylogeny based on the mitochondrial gene coding for cytochrome b combined to karyological evidence actually suggests Chaetomys is more closely related to the Erethizontidae than to the Echimyidae, although it branches as the sister group to the rest of the Erethizontidae.[11]

Phylogeny

The phylogenetic tree of the Echimyidae shows a major split between the subfamily Echimyinae and an assemblage containing the Euryzygomatomyinae, Carterodon, and the Capromyidae. The first major clade contains a majority of arboreal genera (e.g., Phyllomys, Dactylomys, and Mesomys), a few terrestrial taxa (e.g., Proechimys), and a subaquatic one (Myocastor). The second major clade includes fossorial genera (e.g., Euryzygomatomys or Carterodon), a terrestrial one (Trinomys), and members inhabiting the Caribbean islands (Capromyidae).

Genus-level cladogram of the Echimyidae (including members of the family Capromyidae). .mw-parser-output table.clade{border-spacing:0;margin:0;font-size:100%;line-height:100%;border-collapse:separate;width:auto}.mw-parser-output table.clade table.clade{width:100%}.mw-parser-output table.clade td{border:0;padding:0;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label{width:0.8em;border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:bottom;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel{border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:top;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar{vertical-align:middle;text-align:left;padding:0 0.5em}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf{border:0;padding:0;text-align:left;vertical-align:middle}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leafR{border:0;padding:0;text-align:right} Echimyidae Echimyinae Echimyini

Echimys

   

Phyllomys

     

Makalata

     

Pattonomys

   

Toromys

        "Dactylomyines"  

Dactylomys

   

Olallamys

     

Kannabateomys

       

Diplomys

   

Santamartamys

         

Lonchothrix

   

Mesomys

       

Isothrix

    Myocastorini

Callistomys

   

Myocastor

       

Thrichomys

   

Hoplomys

   

Proechimys

            Euryzygomatomyinae

Trinomys

   

Euryzygomatomys

   

Clyomys

         

Carterodon

Capromyidae Plagiodontini

Plagiodontia

Capromyini

Geocapromys

   

Mesocapromys

   

Mysateles

     

Capromys

              The cladogram has been reconstructed from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA characters.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][4][5] The green bar shows the polyphyly of the arboreal taxa, due to closer affinities of Callistomys with Myocastorini rather than with Echimyini. The red bar shows the polyphyly of the fossorial taxa, due to closer affinities of Carterodon with Capromyidae rather than with Euryzygomatomyinae.

References and notes

  1. ^ Gray, J. E. (1825). "Outline of an attempt at the disposition of the Mammalia into tribes and families with a list of the genera apparently appertaining to each tribe". Annals of Philosophy. 10: 337–344..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ a b c Woods, C.A.; Kilpatrick, C.W. (2005). "Family Echimyidae". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 1575–1592. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  3. ^ a b c d Myers, P. "Echimyidae: spiny rats". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
  4. ^ a b c Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Patton, James L.; Leite, Yuri L. R. (2016). "Family Echimyidae (hutias, South American spiny-rats and coypu)". In Wilson, Don E.; Lacher, Thomas E. Jr; Mittermeier, Russell A. Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol 6. Lagomorphs and Rodents I. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 552–641. ISBN 978-84-941892-3-4.
  5. ^ a b c Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Upham, Nathan S.; Emmons, Louise H.; Justy, Fabienne; Leite, Yuri L. R.; Loss, Ana Carolina; Orlando, Ludovic; Tilak, Marie-Ka; Patterson, Bruce D.; Douzery, Emmanuel J. P. (2017-03-01). "Mitogenomic Phylogeny, Diversification, and Biogeography of South American Spiny Rats". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 34 (3): 613–633. doi:10.1093/molbev/msw261. ISSN 0737-4038.
  6. ^ Woods, C.A.; Kilpatrick, C.W. (2005). "Family Capromyidae". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  7. ^ Woods, C.A.; Kilpatrick, C.W. (2005). "Genus Chaetomys". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 1546. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  8. ^ Stehlin HG, Schaub S (1951). "Die Trigonodontie der simplicidentaten Nager". Schweizerische paläontologische Abhandlungen. 67: 1–385.
  9. ^ Patterson, B.; Wood, A. E. (1982). "Rodents from the Deseadan Oligocene of Bolivia and the relationships of the Caviomorpha". Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A.: Harvard University. 149: 371–543. Retrieved 2017-09-26.
  10. ^ Carvalho G (2000). "Substitution of the deciduous premolar Chaetomys subspinosus (Olfers, 1818) (Hystricognathi, Rodentia) and its taxonomic implications". Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 65: 187–190.
  11. ^ Vilela, R.V.; Machado, T.; Ventura, K.; Fagundes, V.; Silva, M.J.; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Y. (2009). "The taxonomic status of the endangered thin-spined porcupine, Chaetomys subspinosus (Olfers, 1818), based on molecular and karyologic data". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9: 29. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-29.
  12. ^ Lara, Márcia C.; Patton, James L.; da Silva, Maria Nazareth F. (1996). "The Simultaneous Diversification of South American Echimyid Rodents (Hystricognathi) Based on Complete Cytochrome b Sequences". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 5 (2): 403–413. doi:10.1006/mpev.1996.0035.
  13. ^ Leite, Yuri L. R.; Patton, James L. (2002). "Evolution of South American spiny rats (Rodentia, Echimyidae): the star-phylogeny hypothesis revisited". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 25 (3): 455–464. doi:10.1016/s1055-7903(02)00279-8.
  14. ^ Galewski, Thomas; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Leite, Yuri L. R.; Patton, James L.; Douzery, Emmanuel J. P. (2005). "Ecomorphological diversification among South American spiny rats (Rodentia; Echimyidae): a phylogenetic and chronological approach". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 34 (3): 601–615. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.11.015.
  15. ^ Upham, Nathan S.; Patterson, Bruce D. (2012). "Diversification and biogeography of the Neotropical caviomorph lineage Octodontoidea (Rodentia: Hystricognathi)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 63 (2): 417–429. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2012.01.020.
  16. ^ Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Galewski, Thomas; Tilak, Marie-ka; Douzery, Emmanuel J. P. (2013-03-01). "Diversification of South American spiny rats (Echimyidae): a multigene phylogenetic approach". Zoologica Scripta. 42 (2): 117–134. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00572.x. ISSN 1463-6409.
  17. ^ Loss, Ana; Moura, Raquel T.; Leite, Yuri L. R. (2014). "Unexpected phylogenetic relationships of the painted tree rat Callistomys pictus (Rodentia: Echimyidae)" (PDF). Natureza on line. 12: 132–136.
  18. ^ Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Vilstrup, Julia T.; Raghavan, Maanasa; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Willerslev, Eske; Douzery, Emmanuel J. P.; Orlando, Ludovic (2014-07-01). "Rodents of the Caribbean: origin and diversification of hutias unravelled by next-generation museomics". Biology Letters. 10 (7): 20140266. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2014.0266. ISSN 1744-9561. PMC 4126619.
  19. ^ Upham, Nathan S.; Patterson, Bruce D. (2015). "Evolution of Caviomorph rodents: a complete phylogeny and timetree for living genera". In Vassallo, Aldo Ivan; Antenucci, Daniel. Biology of caviomorph rodents: diversity and evolution. Buenos Aires: SAREM Series A, Mammalogical Research — Sociedad Argentina para el Estudio de los Mamíferos. pp. 63–120.

Bibliography

Extant families in order Rodentia
Sciuromorpha
("Squirrel-like") Castorimorpha
("Beaver-like") Myomorpha
("Mouse-like") Anomaluromorpha
("Anomalure-like") Hystricomorpha
("Porcupine-like")
EchimyinaeEchimyiniEchimys Phyllomys Makalata Toromys Pattonomys Dactylomys Olallamys Kannabateomys Diplomys Santamartamys Lonchothrix Mesomys Isothrix MyocastoriniCallistomys Myocastor Thrichomys Hoplomys Proechimysgroup simonsigroup semispinosusgroup longicaudatusgroup guyannensisgroup echinothrixgroup trinitatusgroup canicollisgroup decumanusgroup goeldiigroup gardneri EuryzygomatomyinaeClyomys Euryzygomatomys Trinomys Incertae sedisCarterodon CapromyinaeCapromyiniCapromys Mesocapromys Mysateles Geocapromys PlagiodontiniPlagiodontia Rhizoplagiodontia
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Echimyidae: Brief Summary

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 src= The armored rat, Hoplomys gymnurus  src= The white-tailed olalla rat, Olallamys albicauda  src= An Atlantic spiny rat, Trinomys sp.  src= The red-crested tree rat, Santamartamys rufodorsalis

Echimyidae is the family of neotropical spiny rats and their fossil relatives. This is the most species-rich family of hystricognath rodents. It is probably also the most ecologically diverse, with members ranging from fully arboreal to terrestrial to fossorial habits. They presently exist mainly in South America; three members of the family also range into Central America. Species of the extinct subfamily Heteropsomyinae formerly lived on Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico in the Antilles, probably until the arrival of Europeans. Some authorities consider the nutria from southern and central South America to be a part of this family.

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