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Holocentridae
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Holocentridae is a family of ray-finned fish, belonging to the order Beryciformes with the members of the subfamily Holocentrinae typically known as squirrelfish, while the members of Myripristinae typically are known as soldierfish.[2] In Hawaii, they are known by the Japanese name mempachi/menpachi (メンパチ) or the Hawaiian ʻūʻū.

They are found in tropical parts of the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, with the greatest species richness near reefs in the Indo-Pacific. Most are found at depths from the shoreline to 100 m (330 ft), but some, notably the members of the genus Ostichthys, are generally found far deeper. Being largely or entirely nocturnal, they have relatively large eyes. During the day, they typically remain hidden in crevices, caves, or under ledges.[3] Red and silvery colours dominate.[2][4] The preopercle spines (near the gill opening) of the members of the subfamily Holocentrinae are venomous, and can give painful wounds.[5][6] Most have a maximum length of 15–35 cm (6–14 in), but Sargocentron iota barely reaches 8 cm (3 in), and S. spiniferum and Holocentrus adscensionis can reach more than 50 cm (19.5 in). The squirrelfishes mainly feed on small fishes and benthic invertebrates, while the soldierfishes typically feed on zooplankton.[6] The larvae are pelagic, unlike the adults, and can be found far out to sea.[3]

References

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). "Holocentridae" in FishBase. October 2012 version.
  2. ^ a b Lieske, Ewald, & Robert Myers. 1999. Coral Reef Fishes - Caribbean, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean including the Red Sea. 2nd edition. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}ISBN 0-691-00481-1
  3. ^ a b Paxton, John R. (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N., eds. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 161. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.
  4. ^ Debelius, Helmut. 1993. Indian Ocean Tropical Fish Guide. ISBN 3-927991-01-5
  5. ^ Randall, John E. 2005. Reef and Shore Fishes of the South Pacific.. ISBN 0-8248-2698-1
  6. ^ a b Allen, Gerry. 1999. Marine Fishes of Tropical Australia and south-east Asia. ISBN 0-7309-8363-3

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Holocentridae: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

Holocentridae is a family of ray-finned fish, belonging to the order Beryciformes with the members of the subfamily Holocentrinae typically known as squirrelfish, while the members of Myripristinae typically are known as soldierfish. In Hawaii, they are known by the Japanese name mempachi/menpachi (メンパチ) or the Hawaiian ʻūʻū.

They are found in tropical parts of the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, with the greatest species richness near reefs in the Indo-Pacific. Most are found at depths from the shoreline to 100 m (330 ft), but some, notably the members of the genus Ostichthys, are generally found far deeper. Being largely or entirely nocturnal, they have relatively large eyes. During the day, they typically remain hidden in crevices, caves, or under ledges. Red and silvery colours dominate. The preopercle spines (near the gill opening) of the members of the subfamily Holocentrinae are venomous, and can give painful wounds. Most have a maximum length of 15–35 cm (6–14 in), but Sargocentron iota barely reaches 8 cm (3 in), and S. spiniferum and Holocentrus adscensionis can reach more than 50 cm (19.5 in). The squirrelfishes mainly feed on small fishes and benthic invertebrates, while the soldierfishes typically feed on zooplankton. The larvae are pelagic, unlike the adults, and can be found far out to sea.

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ID
91055479b5448211bc6076a1d67b1911
Description
provided by World Register of Marine Species
Tropical. Distribution: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. A single spine in pelvic fin; soft rays 5-8 (mode 7). Dorsal fin long with 10-13 spines and a notched soft-rayed part. Forked caudal fin; principal caudal rays 18 or 19. Large and very rough ctenoid scales. Large eyes. Spiny-edged operculum. Vertebrae 26 or 27. Usually reddish in color. Most are nocturnal. Usually cryptic during the day in crevices or beneath ledges of reefs. Most species in shallow water from shoreline to 100 m depth. Adults usually demersal; the very young planktonic. About 61 cm maximum length.
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MASDEA (1997).
i18n: Contributor
Edward Vanden Berghe [email]
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ID
WoRMS:note:80170