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Brief Summary
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Beryciformes is a group of morphologically and ecologically diverse fishes found near the base of the spiny-finned fishes (Acanthomorpha)(Near et al., 2013). Members of the Beryciformes are typically found either active on reefs at night (Holocentridae, Anomalopidae, Monocentridae, and a few Trachichthyidae) or living their lives in deep waters usually >200 m depth. Several lineages (Trachichthyidae, Berycidae, Holocentridae) are associated with bottom structures, such as wrecks, deepwater reefs, pinacles, rises, or seamounts. Many other beryciforms are meso- or bathypelagic (Diretmidae, Anoplogastridae), including several families that were formerly separated out as the Stephanoberyciformes (Johnson and Patterson, 1993), such as the Melamphaidae, Rondeletiidae, Barbourisiidae, Cetomimidae. New molecular evolution studies place the members of the Stephanoberyciformes within the Beryciformes (Betancur et al., 2013; Near et al., 2013). Several of those stephanoberycoid lineages show substantial reductions in their ossification (Moore, 1993).

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Beryciformes
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The Beryciformes are a poorly-understood order of carnivorous ray-finned fishes consisting of 7 families, 30 genera, and 161 species.[1] They feed on small fish and invertebrates. Beyond this, little is known about the biology of most member species because of their nocturnal habits and deepwater habitats.[2] All beryciform species are marine and most live in tropical to temperate, deepwater environments. Most live on the continental shelf and continental slope, with some species being found as deep as 2,000 m (6,600 ft).[3] Some species move closer to the surface at night,[4] while others live entirely in shallow water and are nocturnal, hiding in rock crevices and caves during the day. Several species are mesopelagic and bathypelagic. Beryciformes' bodies are deep and mildly compressed, typically with large eyes that help them see in darker waters. Colors range from red to yellow and brown to black, and sizes range from 8–61 cm (3.1–24.0 in).[3] Member genera include the alfonsinos, squirrelfishes, flashlight fishes, fangtooth fishes, spinyfins, pineconefishes, redfishes, roughies, and slimeheads. A number of member species are caught commercially, including the alfonsino, the splendid alfonsino, and the orange roughy, the latter being much more economically important. Some species have bioluminescent bacteria contained in pockets of skin or in light organs near the eyes, including the anomalopids and monocentrids.[2]

Taxonomy and phylogeny

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Pseudoberyx syriacus, an extinct beryciform

Beryciforms first appeared during the Late Cretaceous period and have survived to today in relative abundance. They are considered the most primitive order in Acanthopterygii, and as such are split off at the base of the cladogram below from the rest of the member orders. Beryciforms are distinguished by having 18-19 caudal fin rays, as opposed to percomorphs, which have 17. Having fewer caudal fin rays is considered a sign of a more recently evolved species among fish. The whalefishes, beardfishes, gibberfishes, and pricklefishes were once considered members of Beryciformes, but have since been assigned to separate orders.[2]

Phylogeny

A recent phylogeny basd on the work Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2017.[5] The Gibberichthyidae (gibberfishes) and Hispidoberycidae (spiny-scale pricklefish) of suborder Stephanoberycoidei were not examined. .mw-parser-output table.clade{border-spacing:0;margin:0;font-size:100%;line-height:100%;border-collapse:separate;width:auto}.mw-parser-output table.clade table.clade{width:100%}.mw-parser-output table.clade td{border:0;padding:0;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label{width:0.8em;border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:bottom;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel{border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:top;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar{vertical-align:middle;text-align:left;padding:0 0.5em}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf{border:0;padding:0;text-align:left;vertical-align:middle}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leafR{border:0;padding:0;text-align:right}

Polymixiiformes (beardfishes)

Acanthopterygii Berycimorpha Beryciformes Berycoidei  

Melamphaidae (ridgeheads or bigscales)

   

Berycidae (alfonsinos and nannygais)

    Stephanoberycoidei  

Cetomimidae (flabby whalefishes)

     

Rondeletiidae (redmouth whalefishes)

     

Barbourisiidae (velvet whalefish)

   

Stephanoberycidae (pricklefishes)

          Trachichthyiformes

Diretmidae (spinyfins)

  Trachichthyoidea    

Monocentridae (pinecone fishes)

   

Anomalopidae (lanterneye or flashlight fishes)

     

Trachichthyidae (slimeheads, roughies or redfish) Anoplogaster cornuta.jpg

          Holocentrimorpha Holocentriformes

Holocentridae (squirrelfishes and soldierfishes)

     

Percomorpha (perches and allies)

       

Older classification

The order contains 7 families, 30 genera, and 161 species:[1]

Human interaction

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Alfonsinos for sale

The Beryciformes are generally not important to humans, and their trend towards living in deeper waters generally keeps many species away from human activity. Several species are found in the aquarium trade, however. Pineapplefishes are of interest to fishkeepers for their bright colors, while squirrelfishes' shallower reef habitats and bright red colors make them more easily collected. Flashlight fishes are also kept as pets because of the bioluminescent organs underneath their eyes.[2] The alfonsinos and orange roughy are of a different interest to humans, targeted by deepwater commercial fisheries. Increased catches could lead to steep population declines for these species as their extended lifespans make them vulnerable to overfishing. The orange roughy, for example, can live up to 149 years, but takes anywhere from 23–40 years to begin reproducing.[6][7] Despite these risks, most of the species that have been evaluated by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) are listed as Least Concern or Data Deficient; only a few are classified as Vulnerable.

Timeline of genera

The Beryciformes first appeared in the Late Cretaceous and still survive today in relative abundance.[8]

References

  1. ^ a b Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2008). "Beryciformes" in FishBase. November 2008 version.
  2. ^ a b c d Grzimek, Bernhard (2003). Michael Hutchins, ed. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Fishes II. 5 (2 ed.). Farmington Hills: Gale. pp. 113–122. ISBN 978-0787657819..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  3. ^ a b Bray, Dianne J. "Order Beryciformes". Fishes of Australia. Museums Victoria.
  4. ^ Paxton, John R. (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N., eds. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 160–163. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.
  5. ^ Betancur-Rodriguez, R.; Wiley, E.O.; Arratia, Gloria; Acero, A.; Bailly, N.; Miya, M.; Lecointre, G.; Ortí, G. (2017). "Phylogenetic Classification of Bony Fishes – Version 4". BMC Evolutionary Biology. BioMed Central. 17 (162). doi:10.1186/s12862-017-0958-3.
  6. ^ Fenton, G.E; Short, S.A.; Ritz, D.A. (June 1991). "Age determination of orange roughy, Hoplostethus atlanticus (Pisces: Trachichthyidae) using 210 Pb: 226 Ra disequilibria". Marine Biology. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer. 109 (2): 197–202. doi:10.1007/BF01319387. ISSN 0025-3162. Retrieved 2010-06-18.
  7. ^ Managing risk and uncertainty in deep-sea fisheries: lessons from Orange Roughy
  8. ^ Sepkoski, J. (2002). "A compendium of fossil marine animal genera". Bulletins of American Paleontology. 363: 1–560. Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2011-05-17.

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Beryciformes: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

The Beryciformes are a poorly-understood order of carnivorous ray-finned fishes consisting of 7 families, 30 genera, and 161 species. They feed on small fish and invertebrates. Beyond this, little is known about the biology of most member species because of their nocturnal habits and deepwater habitats. All beryciform species are marine and most live in tropical to temperate, deepwater environments. Most live on the continental shelf and continental slope, with some species being found as deep as 2,000 m (6,600 ft). Some species move closer to the surface at night, while others live entirely in shallow water and are nocturnal, hiding in rock crevices and caves during the day. Several species are mesopelagic and bathypelagic. Beryciformes' bodies are deep and mildly compressed, typically with large eyes that help them see in darker waters. Colors range from red to yellow and brown to black, and sizes range from 8–61 cm (3.1–24.0 in). Member genera include the alfonsinos, squirrelfishes, flashlight fishes, fangtooth fishes, spinyfins, pineconefishes, redfishes, roughies, and slimeheads. A number of member species are caught commercially, including the alfonsino, the splendid alfonsino, and the orange roughy, the latter being much more economically important. Some species have bioluminescent bacteria contained in pockets of skin or in light organs near the eyes, including the anomalopids and monocentrids.

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