dcsimg

Brief Summary

provided by EOL authors

Using morphological and mitogenomic sequence data, Johnson et al. (2009) have shown that fishes formerly placed in the family Megalomycteridae (bignose fishes) are actually the males of Cetomimidae (whalefishes). These findings were very surprising since there is great sexual dimorphism associated with distinctly different life styles. Adult females have huge mouths suitable for the captureof large prey, while adult males do not feed at all. They losetheir stomach and esophagus, instead relying on a massiveliver for nutritional support throughout adult life.

license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Katja Schulz
original
visit source
partner site
EOL authors

Brief Summary

provided by EOL authors

Until recently, these elusive deep sea fishes where only known from adult female specimens. In 2009, Johnson et al. (2009) showed that both males and juveniles of this group had been classified in their own, separate families: males as Megalomycteridae (largenose fishes) and juveniles as Mirapinnidae (tapetails). Johnson et al. (2009) point out that the whalefishes' combination of extraordinary ontogenetic transformations with extreme sexual dimorphism is unparalleled within vertebrates.

license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Katja Schulz
original
visit source
partner site
EOL authors

Brief Summary

provided by EOL authors

Using morphological and mitogenomic sequence data, Johnson et al. (2009) have shown that fishes formerly placed in the family Mirapinnidae (tapetails) are actually the larvae of Cetomimidae (whalefishes). These findings were very surprising since tapetails and whalefishes share very few morphological or ecological similarities. While the pelagic larvae live in the nutrient-rich habitat of the sunlit zone (above 200 m depth), adults are found only in the nutrient-poor waters of the bathypelagic realm (1000–4000 m). Metamorphosis from larva to adult involves dramatic changes in the skeleton, especiallythe head, which are associated with distinctly different feeding mechanisms.

license
cc-by-nc
copyright
Katja Schulz
original
visit source
partner site
EOL authors

Cetomimidae

provided by wikipedia EN

Cetomimidae is a family of small, deep-sea cetomimiform fish. They are among the most deep-living fish known, with some species recorded at depths in excess of 3,500 m (11,500 ft). Adults are known as flabby whalefishes while juveniles are known as tapetails and were formerly thought to be in a separate family, dubbed Mirapinnidae. Adults exhibit extreme sexual dimorphism, and the adult males were once thought to be exemplars of still another family, Megalomycteridae.[1]

Thought to have a circumglobal distribution throughout the Southern Hemisphere, Cetomimidae are the most diverse family of whalefishes. The largest species, Gyrinomimus grahami, reaches a length of some 40 cm. They are distinguished from other whalefishes by their loose, scaleless skin and lack of photophores.

Description

Living at extreme, lightless depths, adult females have evolved an exceptionally well-developed lateral line system. Their eyes are either very small or vestigial and instead this system of sensory pores (running the length of the body) helps the fish to accurately perceive its surroundings by detecting vibrations. Named after the baleen whale-like bodies of adult females (from the Greek ketos meaning "whale" or "sea monster" and mimos meaning "imitative"), Cetomimidae have large mouths, and their dorsal and anal fins are set far back of the head. All fins lack spines, and the pelvic fins are absent. The fish also lack swim bladders.

Cetomimidae is a red to orange-brown color in life, with the fins and jaws, in particular, being brightly colored. Longer electromagnetic wavelengths (such as red and orange) do not penetrate into the fish's realm: animals which have evolved at this depth cannot see these longer wavelengths, rendering the fish effectively black.

Their stomachs are highly distensible, allowing adult females to pursue prey otherwise too large for them to eat. Adult males do not eat at all, their jaws having fused shut during the transformation from their juvenile phase. Males retain the shells of prey consumed while still in the juvenile form and continue to metabolize these shells throughout the remainder of their lives. Both traits may have evolved due to extreme food scarcity in the ocean depths.[1]

Though little is known regarding their life history, new discoveries are being made. "[They] live in the oceanic bathypelagic realm (1000–4000 m) [which is] a nutrient-poor habitat. Most fishes living there have pelagic larvae using the rich waters of the upper 200 m. [They have remarkable] developmental changes and life-history strategies [that allow it to cope with occupying] such as contrasting environments." This species is an "extreme example of ontogenetic metamorphoses and sexual dimorphism in vertebrates." In early 2009, the Royal Society published an article detailing the discovery "that three families with greatly differing morphologies, Mirapinnidae (tapetails), Megalomycteridae (bignose fishes), and Cetomimidae (whalefishes), are larvae, males, and females, respectively, of a single-family, Cetomimidae." Apparently "morphological transformations involve dramatic changes in the skeleton, most spectacularly in the head, and are correlated with distinctly different feeding mechanisms. Larvae have small, upturned mouths and gorge on copepods. Females have huge gapes with long, horizontal jaws and specialized gill arches allowing them to capture larger prey. Males cease feeding, lose their stomach and esophagus, and apparently convert the energy from the bolus of copepods found in all transforming males to a massive liver that supports them throughout adult life."[2]

Like many deep-sea fishes, Cetomimidae is thought to undergo nightly vertical migrations; they feed within the upper 700 m of the water column by starlight and retreat back to the abyssal depths by daybreak. Judging by the latest studies, the younger fish seem to frequent shallower water more than the adults do.

Tapetails

Before a report released in January 2009, the juveniles of the species were thought to belong to a separate taxonomic family Mirapinnidae in the Cetomimiform order, with three genera Eutaeniophorus, Mirapinna, and Parataeniophorus. These "tapetails," as they are also known, had been known exclusively from immature specimens, which live in shallower waters than the adults.[3]

The tapetails are named for their caudal fins, which include a narrow streamer that may be longer than the fish's body. The genus Mirapinna, known as the hairyfish, lacks the streamer, but has multiple hair-like growths on its body. All mirapinnids lack scales and fin rays. Mirapinnids are all small fish, less than 7 cm (2.8 in) in length. They feed on small crustaceans.[3]

References

  1. ^ a b G.David Johnson; et al. (2009). "Deep-sea mystery solved: astonishing larval transformations and extreme sexual dimorphism unite three fish families". Biology Letters. 5 (2): 235–9. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2008.0722. PMC 2667197. PMID 19158027.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-07-09. Retrieved 2009-01-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ a b Paxton, John R. (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 164. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.
"
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Cetomimidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Cetomimidae is a family of small, deep-sea cetomimiform fish. They are among the most deep-living fish known, with some species recorded at depths in excess of 3,500 m (11,500 ft). Adults are known as flabby whalefishes while juveniles are known as tapetails and were formerly thought to be in a separate family, dubbed Mirapinnidae. Adults exhibit extreme sexual dimorphism, and the adult males were once thought to be exemplars of still another family, Megalomycteridae.

Thought to have a circumglobal distribution throughout the Southern Hemisphere, Cetomimidae are the most diverse family of whalefishes. The largest species, Gyrinomimus grahami, reaches a length of some 40 cm. They are distinguished from other whalefishes by their loose, scaleless skin and lack of photophores.

" Ditropichthys storeri
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN