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Life is short, but snakes are long: Dwarf Boas

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Tropidophiidae

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Tropidophiids or "dwarf boas" are a family of small snakes. Despite their name, they are not closely related to true boas (family Boidae). They are found in South America and the West Indies, and reach their highest diversity on Cuba. Most species are 1-2 feet long, drab-colored, nocturnal, and give birth to live young. Many change color from day to night. They either completely lack a left lung or have a greatly reduced one, but possess a "tracheal lung" on the dorsal wall of the trachea.When threatened, these snakes coil up into tight balls and spontaneously bleed from their nose and mouth.There are two genera: 32 species ofTropidophis and two species ofTrachyboa. Tropidophiids eat mostly frogs and lizards, and they constrict their prey in the same way as true boas, but recent molecular analyses have shown that they are most closely related to the single species of Red Pipesnake (Anilius scytale, family Aniliidae). This family used to contain two other genera,ExiliboaandUngaliophis, which we now know to bemore closely related to true boas. Because most species live on islands, tropidophiids are faced with numerous threats, including the almost complete destruction of native ecosystems and predation from non-native mongeese.

References

  • Battersby, J. 1938. LXIV.—Some snakes of the genus Tropidophis. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History 1:557-560
  • Brongersma, L. 1951. Some notes upon the anatomy of Tropidophis and Trachyboa (Serpentes). Zoologische Mededelingen 31:107-124
  • Cocteau, J. and G. Bibron. 1843. Reptiles. in M. R. de la Sagra, editor. Histoire physique, politique, et naturelle de l’Ile de Cuba. Vol. 4. Arthus Bertrand, Paris
  • Curcio, F. F., P. M. Sales Nunes, A. J. S. Argolo, G. Skuk, and M. T. Rodrigues. 2012. Taxonomy of the South American Dwarf Boas of the Genus Tropidophis Bibron, 1840, With the Description of Two New Species from the Atlantic Forest (Serpentes: Tropidophiidae). Herpetological Monographs 26:80-121
  • Cocteau, J. and G. Bibron. 1843. Reptiles. In: M. R. de la Sagra. Histoire physique, politique, et naturelle de l’Ile de Cuba. Vol. 4. Arthus Bertrand, Paris
  • Dessauer, H. C., J. E. Cadle, and R. Lawson. 1987. Patterns of snake evolution suggested by their proteins. Fieldiana Zoology New Series 34:1–34
  • Echternacht, A. C., F. J. Burton, and J. M. Blumenthal. 2011. The amphibians and reptiles of the Cayman Islands: conservation issues in the face of invasions. Pages 129-147 in A. Hailey, B. Wilson, and J. Horrocks, editors. Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas Volume 2: Regional Accounts of the West Indies. Brill, Leiden, Netherlands
  • Fong, A. 2005. Variation in and natural history notes on Tropidophis fuscus (Serpentes: Tropidophiidae) from Cuba. Herpetological Review 36:118-119.
  • Greene, H. W. and G. M. Burghardt. 1978. Behavior and phylogeny: constriction in ancient and modern snakes. Science 200:74-77
  • Hecht, M. K., V. Walters, and G. Ramm. 1955. Observations on the natural history of the Bahaman pigmy boa, Tropidophis pardalis, with notes on autohemorrhage. Copeia 1955:249-251
  • Hedges, S. B. 2002. Morphological variation and the definition of species in the snake genus Tropidophis (Serpentes, Tropidophiidae). Bulletin of The Natural History Museum. Zoology Series 68:83-90
  • Hedges, S. B., A. Estrada, and L. Diaz. 1999. New snake (Tropidophis) from western Cuba. Copeia 1999:376-381
  • Hedges, S. B. and O. H. Garrido. 1992. A new species of Tropidophis from Cuba (Serpentes: Tropidophiidae). Copeia 1992:820-825
  • Hedges, S. B. and O. H. Garrido. 1999. A new snake of the genus Tropidophis (Tropidophiidae) from central Cuba. Journal of Herpetology 33:436-441
  • Hedges, S. B. and O. H. Garrido. 2002. A new snake of the genus Tropidophis (Tropidophiidae) from eastern Cuba. Journal of Herpetology 36:157–161
  • Hedges, S. B., O. H. Garrido, and L. M. Diaz. 2001. A new banded snake of the genus Tropidophis (Tropidophiidae) from north-central Cuba. Journal of Herpetology 35:615-617
  • Hedges, S. B., C. Hass, and T. Maugel. 1989. Physiological color change in snakes. Journal of Herpetology 23:450-455
  • Iturriaga, M. 2014. Autohemorrhaging behavior in the Cuban Dwarf Boa Tropidophis melanurus Schlegel, 1837 (Serpentes: Tropidophiidae). Herpetology Notes 7:339-341
  • Iverson, J. B. 1986. Notes on the natural history of the Caicos Islands dwarf boa, Tropidophis greenwayi. Caribbean Journal of Science 22:191-198.
  • Meylan, P. A. 1996. Pleistocene amphibians and reptiles from the Leisey Shell Pit, Hillsborough County, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 37:273-297
  • Olson, S. L., ed. 1982. Fossil Vertebrates from the Bahamas. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA
  • Rehák, I. 1987. Color change in the snake Tropidophis feicki (Reptilia: Squamata: Tropidophidae). Vestnk Ceskoslovenske Spolecnosti Zoologicke 51:300-303.
  • Reynolds, R. G. 2011. Status, conservation, and introduction of amphibians and reptiles in the Turks and Caicos Islands, British West Indies. Pages 377-406 in A. Hailey, B. Wilson, and J. Horrocks, editors. Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas. Volume 2: Regional Accounts of the West Indies. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands
  • Reynolds, R. G., M. L. Niemiller, and L. J. Revell. 2014. Toward a Tree-of-Life for the boas and pythons: multilocus species-level phylogeny with unprecedented taxon sampling. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 71:201-213
  • Rieppel, O. 2012. “Regressed” Macrostomatan Snakes. Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences 5:99-103
  • Rivalta, V., A. González, and L. Rodríguez. 2013. Collection of herpetology of the institute of ecology and systematics, La Habana, Cuba. Family Tropidophiidae, Genus Tropidophis. Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal 5:282-300
  • Schwartz, A. 1957. A new species of boa (genus Tropidophis) from western Cuba. American Museum Novitates 1839:1-8
  • Schwartz, A. 1975. Variation in the Antillean boid snake Tropidophis haetianus Cope. Journal of Herpetology 9:303-311
  • Schwartz, A. and R. J. Marsh. 1960. A review of the pardalis-maculatus complex of the boid genus Tropidophis of the West Indies. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 123:49-84
  • Siegel, D. S., A. Miralles, and R. D. Aldridge. 2011. Controversial snake relationships supported by reproductive anatomy. Journal of Anatomy 218:342-348
  • Stull, O. G. 1928. A revision of the genus Tropidophis. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan 195:1-49
  • Szyndlar, Z. and W. Böhme. 1996. Redescription of Tropidonotus atavus von Meyer, 1855 from the Upper Oligocene of Rott (Germany) and its allocation to Rottophis gen. nov. (Serpentes, Boidae). Palaeontographica Abteilung A 240:145-161
  • Szyndlar, Z., R. Smith, and J.-C. Rage. 2008. A new dwarf boa (Serpentes, Booidea,‘Tropidophiidae’) from the Early Oligocene of Belgium: a case of the isolation of Western European snake faunas. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 152:393-406
  • Thomas, R. 1963. Cayman Islands Tropidophis (Reptilia, Serpentes). Breviora 195:1-8
  • Tolson, P. J. and R. W. Henderson. 2006. An overview of snake conservation in the West Indies. Applied Herpetology 3:345-356
  • Torres, J., C. Pérez-Penichet, and O. Torres. 2014. Predation attempt by Tropidophis melanurus (Serpentes, Tropidophiidae) on Anolis porcus (Sauria, Dactyloidae). Herpetology Notes 7:527-529
  • Torres, J., O. J. Torres, and R. Marrero. 2013. Autohemorrage in Tropidophis xanthogaster (Serpentes:Tropidophiidae) from Guanahacabibes, Cuba. Herpetology Notes 6:579-581
  • Vidal, N., A. S. Delmas, and S. B. Hedges. 2007. The higher-level relationships of alethinophidian snakes inferred from seven nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Pages 27-33 in R. W. Henderson and R. Powell, editors. Biology of the Boas and Pythons. Eagle Mountain Publishing, Eagle Mountain, Utah, USA
  • Wilcox, T. P., D. J. Zwickl, T. A. Heath, and D. M. Hillis. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships of the dwarf boas and a comparison of Bayesian and bootstrap measures of phylogenetic support. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 25:361-371
  • Zaher, H. 1994. Les Tropidopheoidea (Serpentes: Alethinophidea) sont-ils reellement monophyletiques? Arugments en faveur de leur polyphyletisme. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences Paris 317:471–478

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Tropidophiidae

provided by wikipedia EN

The Tropidophiidae, common name dwarf boas or thunder snakes,[2] are a family of nonvenomous snakes found from Mexico and the West Indies south to southeastern Brazil. These are small to medium-sized fossorial snakes, some with beautiful and striking color patterns. Currently, two living genera, containing 34 species, are recognized.[3] Two other genera (Ungaliophis and Exiliboa) were once considered to be tropidophiids but are now known to be more closely related to boids, and are classified in the subfamily Ungaliophiinae. There are a relatively large number of fossil snakes that have been described as tropidophiids (because their vertebrae are easy to identify), but which of these are more closely related to Tropidophis and Trachyboa and which are more closely related to Ungaliophis and Exiliboa is unknown.

Description

This family is confined to the neotropics, mainly in Hispaniola, Jamaica, and the Cayman Islands, with the greatest diversity being in Cuba, where new species are being discovered. These snakes are relatively small, averaging to about 30–60 cm (12–24 in) in total length (including tail).

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Rieppelophis ermannorum extinct pygmy boa

Behavior

Most species spend their day burrowed underground or under vegetation, surfacing only at night or when it rains. Some species are arboreal and are often seen hiding in bromeliads in trees.

Color change

The dwarf boas can change color from light (when they are active at night) to dark (inactive in the day). This color change is brought about by the movement of dark pigment granules.

Defensive behavior

When threatened, tropidophiids coil up into a tight ball. A more peculiar defensive behavior is their ability to bleed voluntarily from the eyes, mouth, and nostrils.

Distribution and habitat

They are found from southern Mexico and Central America, south to northwestern South America in Colombia, (Amazonian) Ecuador, and Peru, as well as in northwestern and southeastern Brazil, and also in the West Indies.[1]

Fossils

Fossils of ten extinct species in five genera[4] from the Paleocene, Eocene, and Oligocene of Europe, Africa, & North and South America have been assigned to the Tropidophiidae, although all of them are probably actually either ungaliophiines or stem afrophidians. Two genera, Falseryx and Rottophis, both from the Oligocene of western Europe, have some similarities with living tropidophiids[5] as well as with ungaliophiines, but for the most part their skulls are poorly preserved, leaving paleontologists to work on just their vertebrae. Paleogene erycines dominated the snake fauna of North America prior to the Miocene explosion of colubroids, but as far as we know all of these species were much more closely related to modern rosy and rubber boas than they were to tropidophiids. The only unequivocal tropidophiid fossils are from the Pleistocene of Florida[6] and the Bahamas[7].

Genera

Genus[2] Taxon author[1] Species[2] Common name Geographic range[1] Trachyboa W. Peters, 1860 2 Panama, Pacific Colombia and Ecuador. TropidophisT Bibron, 1840 17 The West Indies, Brazil, Peru and Ecuador.

T Type genus.[1]

Cited references

  1. ^ a b c d e McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Washington, District of Columbia: Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  2. ^ a b c "Tropidophiidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 17 August 2007.
  3. ^ "Tropidophiidae". The Reptile Database. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  4. ^ "Subfamily Tropidophiinae Cope 1894 (dwarf boa)". Fossilworks. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  5. ^ Szyndlar, Z.; Smith, R.; Rage, J.-C. (2008). "A new dwarf boa (Serpentes, Booidea,'Tropidophiidae') from the Early Oligocene of Belgium: a case of the isolation of Western European snake faunas". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 152 (2): 393–406. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2007.00357.x.
  6. ^ Meylan, P. A. (1996). "Pleistocene amphibians and reptiles from the Leisey Shell Pit, Hillsborough County, Florida" (PDF). Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History. 37: 273–297.
  7. ^ Olson, S. L. (1982). Fossil Vertebrates from the Bahamas (PDF). Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution Press.

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Tropidophiidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Tropidophiidae, common name dwarf boas or thunder snakes, are a family of nonvenomous snakes found from Mexico and the West Indies south to southeastern Brazil. These are small to medium-sized fossorial snakes, some with beautiful and striking color patterns. Currently, two living genera, containing 34 species, are recognized. Two other genera (Ungaliophis and Exiliboa) were once considered to be tropidophiids but are now known to be more closely related to boids, and are classified in the subfamily Ungaliophiinae. There are a relatively large number of fossil snakes that have been described as tropidophiids (because their vertebrae are easy to identify), but which of these are more closely related to Tropidophis and Trachyboa and which are more closely related to Ungaliophis and Exiliboa is unknown.

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