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Bacilli

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Bacilli is a taxonomic class of bacteria that includes two orders, Bacillales and Lactobacillales, which contain several well-known pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis (the cause of anthrax). Bacilli are almost exclusively gram-positive bacteria.[1]

Ambiguity

Several related concepts make use of similar words, and the ambiguity can create considerable confusion. The term "Bacillus" (capitalized and italicized) is also the name of a genus (Bacillus anthracis) that, among many other genera, falls within the class Bacilli.

The word "bacillus" (or its plural "bacilli", with a small b) is also a generic term to describe the morphology of any rod-shaped bacterium. This general term does not mean that the subject is a member of class Bacilli or genus Bacillus. Thus, it does not necessarily imply a similar group of characteristics. Not all members of class Bacilli are rod-shaped (Staphylococcus is spherical), and many other rod-shaped bacteria that do not fall within that class exist (e.g., Clostridium is rod-shaped but very different taxonomically). Moreover, the general term "bacillus" does not necessarily indicate the Gram-positive staining common to class Bacilli. For example, E. coli is a rod-shaped bacterium that can be described as "a bacillus", but it stains Gram-negative and does not belong to the genus Bacillus or the class Bacilli. Some microbiologists have forsaken the general "bacillus" term because of the confusion it can create.

Phylogeny

The phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 132 by The All-Species Living Tree Project[2], with the currently accepted taxonomy based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) [3], National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[4] and some non validated clade names from Genome Taxonomic Database.[5]

Bacilli    

Calditerricola {"Calditerricolales" ♥: "Calditerricolaceae" ♥}

   

Kyrpidia {"Kyrpidiales" ♥: "Kyrpidiaceae" ♥}

       

Thermoactinomycetaceae {"Thermoactinomycetales" ♥}

     

Caldalkalibacillus {"Caldalkalibacillales" ♥: "Caldalkalibacillaceae" ♥}

    Thermicanales ♥  

"Thermicanaceae" ♥

   

"Novibacillaceae" ♥

        "Tumebacillales" ♥  

"Effusibacillaceae" ♥

   

"Tumebacillaceae" ♥

    "Alicyclobacillales" ♥  

"Acidibacillaceae" ♥

   

Alicyclobacillaceae

        "Paenibacillales" ♥  

Ammoniibacillus

   

Paenibacillaceae

       

Microaerobacter

     

"Tepidibacillaceae" ♥ {"Tepidibacillales" ♥}

     

Melghiribacillus

     

Bacillus species group 2

       

"Salisediminibacteriaceae" ♥

   

"Marinococcaceae" ♥

       

Bacillaceae 2

     

"Amphibacillaceae" ♥

     

Aureibacillus

       

"Fictibacillaceae" ♥

     

Sporolactobacillaceae

   

"Anaerobacillaceae" ♥

       

(continued)

                               

Bacilli part 2 (continued)

Bacilli part 2

Bacillaceae (incl. Planococcaceae) {Bacillales}

       

"Domibacillaceae" ♥

   

"Anoxybacillaceae" ♥

         

Bacillus koreensis

   

Listeriaceae

       

Desulfuribacillus

       

Exiguobacterium {"Exiguobacterales" ♥: "Exiguobacteraceae" ♥}

     

Paenibacillaceae 2

     

Aneurinibacillus {"Aneurinibacillales" ♥: "Aneurinibacillaceae" ♥}

   

Brevibacillus {"Brevibacillales" ♥: "Brevibacillaceae" ♥}

           

Staphylococcaceae

       

Gemella

Aphragmobacteria

Haloplasma contractile

     

Turicibacter sanguinis

       

Asteroleplasma

   

Eggerthiaceae {Eggerthiales}

       

Erysipelotrichaceae {Erysipelotrichales}

Mollicutes    

Anaeroplasma {Anaeroplasmataceae}

   

Acholeplasma {Acholeplasmatales: Acholeplasmataceae}

    Mycoplasmatales

Mycoplasmataceae (incl. Entomoplasmataceae; Spiroplasmataceae)

   

Ureaplasmataceae

                Lactobacillales

Aerococcaceae

     

Granulicatella

     

Atopobacter

     

Carnobacteriaceae 2

     

Carnobacteriaceae+Enterococcaceae+Streptococcaceae

     

Lactobacillus species-group 2

       

Lactobacillus floricola

   

Leuconostocaceae

     

Lactobacillaceae

                             

Unclassified Bacilli

  • "Candidatus Izimaplasma" ♠ {"Izimaplasmatales" ♥: "Izimaplasmataceae" ♥}
  • "Candidatus Lumbricoplasma" ♠ {Lumbricoplasmataceae ♠}
  • "Rubeoparvulaceae" ♥ {"Rubeoparvulales" ♥}

Notes:
♥ Clade names not lodged at National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) or listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN)

References

  1. ^ Ludwig, Wolfgang; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; Whitman, William B. (2015). "Bacilli class. Nov". Bergey's Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. p. 1. doi:10.1002/9781118960608.cbm00033. ISBN 9781118960608.
  2. ^ "16S rRNA-based LTP release 132 (full tree)". All-Species Living Tree Project. Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
  3. ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Bacilli". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved 2018-07-20.
  4. ^ Sayers; et al. "Bacilli". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
  5. ^ "GTDB taxonomy". Genome Taxonomic Database. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
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Bacilli: Brief Summary

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Bacilli is a taxonomic class of bacteria that includes two orders, Bacillales and Lactobacillales, which contain several well-known pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis (the cause of anthrax). Bacilli are almost exclusively gram-positive bacteria.

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