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Acholeplasmataceae

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The Acholeplasmatales are an order in the class Mollicutes, containing only one family, Acholeplasmataceae, comprising the genera Acholeplasma and Phytoplasma. Yet, Phytoplasma has the candidatus state, because members still could not be cultured.

Etymology: The name Acholeplasmatales is derived from the Greek a = not, cholè = bile and plasma = anything moulded or formed. [1]
Species in the order Acholeplasmatales can grow in a medium without cholesterol, unlike species in the order Mycoplasmatales. Cholesterol, a sterol, is an important component of the cell membrane of mycoplasmas, whereas in acholeplasmas and in bacteria in general it is absent.

Characteristics

Members of Acholeplasmatales are facultative anaerobic. They are parasites or commensals of vertebrates, insects, or plants; some are saprophytes. [2]

Phytoplasmas colonize the phloem sieve elements of vascular plants, causing diseases. They are transmitted by sap-sucking insects (primarily leafhoppers, planthoppers, and psyllids [3] ), living in the gut, haemolymph, salivary gland and other organs. Like other mollicutes, they show a high host specificity. [4]

Classification

In the first taxonomy of Mollicutes, the classification was based on requiring or not requiring cholesterol for growth. The old order Mycoplasmatales consisted of two families: Mycoplasmataceae, which requires cholesterol, and the sterol-nonrequiring Acholeplasmataceae. [1][5] In view of the many properties in which the acholeplasmas distinguish from species in Mycoplasmataceae and Spiroplasmataceae, Freundt et al. proposed in 1984 to elevate the family Acholeplasmataceae to the ordinal rank Acholeplasmatales, thus separating it from Mycoplasmatales. [6]

In 1987, the division in sterol requiring and not requiring changed with the addition of a third order, Anaeroplasmatales, taking into account that dependence on anaerobic growth conditions is an important characteristic. [7]

References

  1. ^ a b D.G. Edward, E.A. Freundt Amended nomenclature for strains related to Mycoplasma laidlawii.; J Gen Microbiol. 1970 Jul; 62; PDF
  2. ^ Stephens; et al. (1983). "Intraspecies Genetic Relatedness among Strains of Acholeplasma laidlawii and of Acholeplasma axanthum by Nucleic Acid Hybridization" (PDF). Journal of General Microbiology. 129 (6): 1929–1934. doi:10.1099/00221287-129-6-1929.CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  3. ^ Phyllis G. Weintraub and LeAnn Beanland Insect vectors of phytoplasmas Annual Review of Entomology; Vol. 51: 91-111 (2006); doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.51.110104.151039
  4. ^ IRPCM Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma Working Team ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’, a taxon for the wall-less, non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects Archived 2009-05-03 at the Wayback Machine.; Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 1243–1255 (2004).
  5. ^ Edward, D. G.; Freundt, E. A. (1969). "Proposal for Classifying Organisms Related to Mycoplasma laidlawii in a Family Sapromycetaceae, Genus Sapromyces, within the Mycoplasmatales". Microbiology. 57 (3): 391–395. doi:10.1099/00221287-57-3-391. PMID 5391433.
  6. ^ Freundt et al. Proposal for elevation of the family Acholeplasmataceae to ordinal rank: Acholeplasmatales.[permanent dead link] Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 346-349.
  7. ^ I.M. Robinson and E.A. Freundt Proposal for an Amended Classification of Anaerobic Mollicutes[permanent dead link] Int J Syst Bacteriol 1987, Vol. 37, p. 78-81
Prokaryotes: Bacteria classification (phyla and orders)
G-/
OMTerra-/
Glidobacteria

(BV1)Eobacteriaother glidobacteria Proteobacteria
(BV2)Alpha Beta Gamma Delta Epsilon Zeta BV4Spirochaetes Sphingobacteria
(FCB group) Planctobacteria/
(PVC group)Other GN G+/
no OMFirmicutes
(BV3)Bacilli Clostridia Thermolithobacteria Actinobacteria
(BV5)Actinobacteria Acidimicrobiia Coriobacteriia Nitriliruptoria Rubrobacteria Incertae
sedis
Source: Bergey's Manual (2001–2012). Alternative views: Wikispecies.
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Acholeplasmataceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Acholeplasmatales are an order in the class Mollicutes, containing only one family, Acholeplasmataceae, comprising the genera Acholeplasma and Phytoplasma. Yet, Phytoplasma has the candidatus state, because members still could not be cultured.

Etymology: The name Acholeplasmatales is derived from the Greek a = not, cholè = bile and plasma = anything moulded or formed.
Species in the order Acholeplasmatales can grow in a medium without cholesterol, unlike species in the order Mycoplasmatales. Cholesterol, a sterol, is an important component of the cell membrane of mycoplasmas, whereas in acholeplasmas and in bacteria in general it is absent.

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