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Brief Summary

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Rhizobacteria are legumes’ best friends. All plants need nitrogen. Most can only get it from soil. But legumes, such as beans, can get it from air. This is thanks to rhizobacteria. These bacteria live in legumes’ roots. They turn nitrogen from air into a form the plant can use. Plants return the favor by giving the bacteria food and shelter.
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Benefits

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Many bacteria in the family Rhizobiaceae (a clade of proteobacteria) are able to infect and establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis on the roots of leguminous plants. This symbiosis is of economic importance to humans in a variety of ways and decreases the need for nitrogen fertilizer for some key agriculturally important plants (e.g. soybean and alfalfa). The establishment of the symbiosis involves complex interactions between the plant host and the bacteria, resulting in the formation of a novel organ, the nodule, which the bacteria colonize as intracellular symbionts. Stacey et al. (2006) reviewed recent discoveries relating to how this symbiosis is established.

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Leo Shapiro
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Rhizobiaceae

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The Rhizobiaceae is a family of proteobacteria comprising multiple subgroups that enhance and hinder plant development.[4] Some bacteria found in the family are used for plant nutrition and collectively make up the rhizobia. Other bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes severely alter the development of plants in their ability to induce crown galls or hairy roots found on the stem.[4] The family has been of an interest to scientists for centuries in their ability to associate with plants and modify plant development.[4] The Rhizobiaceae are, like all Proteobacteria, Gram-negative. They are aerobic, and the cells are usually rod-shaped.[5] Many species of the Rhizobiaceae are diazotrophs which are able to fix nitrogen and are symbiotic with plant roots.

Relation to Agrobacterium

Agrobacterium has been recognized as being related to the Rhizobium.[6] Evidence supporting the association was conducted by phylogentic inferences based on 16S rDNA sequence analyses showing the genera could not be distinguished as separate monophyletic clades.[6]

Phylogeny

The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN)[3] and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI),[7] and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 by The All-Species Living Tree Project [8]

                                         

Rhizobium lusitanum Valverde et al. 2006

   

Rhizobium rhizogenes (Riker et al. 1930) Young et al. 2001[12]

   

Agrobacterium rubi Hildebrand 1940

       

Rhizobium multihospitium Han et al. 2008

   

Rhizobium tropici Martínez-Romero et al. 1991

     

Rhizobium miluonense Gu et al. 2008

       

Rhizobium leguminosarum (Frank 1879) Frank 1889 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Ramírez-Bahena et al. 2008[9]

         

Rhizobium endophyticum López-López et al. 2011

   

Rhizobium tibeticum Hou et al. 2009

     

Rhizobium etli Segovia et al. 1993

       

Rhizobium pisi Ramírez-Bahena et al. 2008

     

Rhizobium phaseoli Dangeard 1926 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Ramírez-Bahena et al. 2008

   

Rhizobium fabae Tian et al. 2008

     

Rhizobium hainanense Chen et al. 1997

       

Arthrobacter viscosus Gasdorf et al. 1965[17]

   

Rhizobium alamii Berge et al. 2009

   

Rhizobium mesosinicum Lin et al. 2009

       

Rhizobium sullae Squartini et al. 2002

     

Rhizobium indigoferae Wei et al. 2002

     

Rhizobium gallicum Amarger et al. 1997

   

Rhizobium yanglingense Tan et al. 2001

     

Rhizobium mongolense Van Berkum et al. 1998

   

Rhizobium oryzae Peng et al. 2008

     

Rhizobium loessense Wei et al. 2003

     

Rhizobium tubonense Zhang et al. 2011

           

Rhizobium cellulosilyticum García-Fraile et al. 2007

   

Rhizobium soli Yoon et al. 2010

       

Neorhizobium galegae Lindström 1989

   

Neorhizobium vignae Ren et al. 2011

       

Neorhizobium huautlense Wang et al. 1998

   

Neorhizobium alkalisoli Lu et al. 2009

                     

Aureimonas altamirensis (Jurado et al. 2006) Rathsack et al. 2011[9][10][11]

   

Aureimonas frigidaquae (Kim et al. 2008) Rathsack et al. 2011[10][11]

     

Aureimonas ureilytica (Weon et al. 2007) Rathsack et al. 2011[10][11]

     

Aurantimonas coralicida Denner et al. 2003 emend. Rathsack et al. 2011.[9][10]

     

Fulvimarina pelagi Cho and Giovannoni 2003 emend. Rathsack et al. 2011[9][10]

     

Martelella mediterranea Rivas et al. 2005[9][10]

     

Allorhizobium undicola (de Lajudie et al. 1998) Young et al. 2001[12]

     

Allorhizobium vitis (Ophel and Kerr 1990) Young et al. 2001[12]

       

Allorhizobium borbori Zhang et al. 2011

           

Beijerinckia fluminensis Döbereiner and Ruschel 1958[13]

   

Agrobacterium larrymoorei Bouzar and Jones 2001

     

Agrobacterium radiobacter Beijerinck and van Delden 1902[14]

       

Rhizobium selenitireducens corrig. Hunter et al. 2008

   

Rhizobium rosettiformans Kaur et al. 2011

         

Rhizobium daejeonense Quan et al. 2005

         

Rhizobium aggregatum (Hirsch and Müller 1986) Kaur et al. 2011

   

Pararhizobium capsulatum Hirsch and Müller 1986[15]

     

Pararhizobium giardinii Amarger et al. 1997

                   

Ensifer mexicanus Lloret et al. 2011

   

Ensifer terangae (De Lajudie et al. 1994) Young 2003[16]

     

Ensifer saheli (De Lajudie et al. 1994) Young 2003[16]

     

Ensifer kostiensis (Nick et al. 1999) Young 2003[16]

     

Ensifer kummerowiae (Wei et al. 2002) Young 2003[16]

     

Ensifer fredii (Scholla and Elkan 1984) Young 2003[16]

   

Sinorhizobium americanum corrig. Toledo et al. 2004

       

Ensifer arboris (Nick et al. 1999) Young 2003[16]

   

Ensifer garamanticus Merabet et al. 2010

     

Ensifer meliloti (Dangeard 1926) Young 2003[16]

   

Ensifer numidicus Merabet et al. 2010

       

Ensifer adhaerens Casida 1982[9]

     

References

  1. ^ a b Mousavi SA, Willems A, Nesme X, de Lajudie P, Lindström K (2015). "Revised phylogeny of Rhizobiaceae: proposal of the delineation of Pararhizobium gen. nov., and 13 new species combinations". Syst Appl Microbiol. 38 (2): 84–90. doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2014.12.003. PMID 25595870.
  2. ^ Kimes NE, López-Pérez M, Flores-Félix JD, Ramírez-Bahena MH, Igual JM, Peix A, Rodriguez-Valera F, Velázquez E (2015). "Pseudorhizobium pelagicum gen. nov., sp. nov. isolated from a pelagic Mediterranean zone". Syst Appl Microbiol. 38 (5): 293–299. doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2015.05.003. PMID 26078205.
  3. ^ a b J.P. Euzéby. "Proteobacteria (scroll down for Rhizobiaceae)". LPSN. Archived from the original on 2013-01-27. Retrieved 2012-05-02.
  4. ^ a b c Spaink, Herman P.; Kondorosi, Adam; Hooykaas, Paul (2012-12-06). The Rhizobiaceae: Molecular Biology of Model Plant-Associated Bacteria. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9789401150606.
  5. ^ Garrity, George M.; Brenner, Don J.; Krieg, Noel R.; Staley, James T. (eds.) (2005). Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume Two: The Proteobacteria, Part C: The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria. New York, New York: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-24145-6.
  6. ^ a b Young, J. M.; Kuykendall, L. D.; Martínez-Romero, E.; Kerr, A.; Sawada, H. (2003-01-01). "Classification and nomenclature of Agrobacterium and Rhizobium – a reply to Farrand et al. (2003)". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 53 (5): 1689–1695. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02762-0. PMID 13130069.
  7. ^ Sayers; et al. "Rhizobiaceae". NCBI taxonomy database. Retrieved 2012-05-02.
  8. ^ All-Species Living Tree Project."16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 (full tree)" (PDF). SILVA RDB. Retrieved 2012-05-02.
  9. ^ a b c d e f This is the type species for the genus.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Species found in the genera Aurantimonas, Aureimonas, Fulvimarina, and Martelella are all currently classified in the Aurantimonadaceae.
  11. ^ a b c The species in the genus Aureimonas were formerly classified in the genus Aurantimonas.
  12. ^ a b c These species were formerly classified in the genus Agrobacterium.
  13. ^ Beijerinckia fluminensis is currently classified in the Beijerinckiaceae.
  14. ^ This includes Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith and Townsend 1907) Conn 1942.
  15. ^ Blastobacter capsulatus is currently classified in the Bradyrhizobiaceae.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g These species were formerly classified in the genus Sinorhizobium.
  17. ^ Arthrobacter viscosus is currently classified in the Micrococcaceae. See Arthrobacter.
"
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Rhizobiaceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Rhizobiaceae is a family of proteobacteria comprising multiple subgroups that enhance and hinder plant development. Some bacteria found in the family are used for plant nutrition and collectively make up the rhizobia. Other bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes severely alter the development of plants in their ability to induce crown galls or hairy roots found on the stem. The family has been of an interest to scientists for centuries in their ability to associate with plants and modify plant development. The Rhizobiaceae are, like all Proteobacteria, Gram-negative. They are aerobic, and the cells are usually rod-shaped. Many species of the Rhizobiaceae are diazotrophs which are able to fix nitrogen and are symbiotic with plant roots.

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