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Reproduction

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Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual

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Fox, D. and P. Myers 2000. "Tayassuidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tayassuidae.html
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David L. Fox, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Behavior

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Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Fox, D. and P. Myers 2000. "Tayassuidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tayassuidae.html
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David L. Fox, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Morphology

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Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Fox, D. and P. Myers 2000. "Tayassuidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Tayassuidae.html
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David L. Fox, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Brief Summary

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Diversity of Living Peccaries

The family Tayassuidae (peccaries) is one of a number of families in the mammal order Artiodactyla. There are three extant peccary species:

1) Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu)

2) White-lipped Peccary (Tayassu pecari)

3) Chacoan (Catagonus wagneri)

A fourth species, the Giant Peccary (Pecari maximus), was described in 2007 from the southern Brazilian Amazon, but its status as a distinct species is controversial.

Peccaries are found from the southwestern United States south through Mexico and Central and South America to northern Argentina. Collared Peccaries are found across this entire range (and are expanding northward in the United States); White-lipped Peccaries are found from southern Mexico to Argentina; the Chacoan Peccary is endemic to the lowland Gran Chaco of Paraguay, Argentina, and Bolivia. In montane areas near the Equator, peccaries are found up to 2000 m above sea level or even higher.

The New World peccaries are clearly closely related to the Old World pigs. The upper canines of peccaries point downward, unlike those of pigs, which point upward. Like pigs, peccaries have poor vision, moderately good hearing, and a superb sense of smell.

Collared and White-lipped Peccaries are found in a wide range of lowland and montane habitats, including tropical moist forest, cloud forest, tropical dry forest, thorn-forest, oak grasslands, desert, seasonally flooded palm savanna, and mangroves. Collared Peccaries are also adapted to drier and cooler habitats, with their range extending north through Mexico to the United States.

All peccaries are highly social and live in stable groups. Collared Peccaries are typically found in groups of around six to 30 individuals, although while foraging and resting during the day these herds typically break up into smaller groups of three or four individuals. White-lipped Peccary groups typically include 30 to 150 individuals (reportedly as many as 500!)

Peccaries have a broad diet. They feed mainly on fruits, seeds, rhizomes, bulbs, and roots, but also small mammals, snakes, grubs, insects, and other small vertebrates and invertebrates. The Chacoan Peccary feeds mainly on cactus. Peccaries significantly shape the ecosystems in which they live through seed predation, seed dispersal, herbivory, trampling, and rooting. Peccaries are apparently not dependent on access to standing water.

The primary non-human predators of White-lipped Peccaries are Pumas (Felis concolor) and Jaguars (Panthera pardalis). The smaller and more broadly distributed Collared Peccary is also preyed upon by smaller felids, as well as Coyotes (Canis latrans) and American Black Bears (Ursus americanus).

Peccaries and Humans

Peccaries are highly preferred game for indigenous and other rural people throughout Central and South America. They are hunted both for food and as a source of skins and meat that can be sold. In past decades, hundreds of thousands of peccary skins were exported each year, with skins being used in the manufacture of gloves, shoes, and other items. but in recent years, regulation of hunting across much of their range has reduced this trade dramatically.

Where not hunted, Collared Peccaries can persist in human-dominated agricultural mosaics with pockets of primary and seconday forest habitat or other cover. Collared Peccaries are present even in suburbs of Phoenix and Tuscon, Arizona, in the United States, where they often feed on ornamental plants and have been found swimming in swimming pools. Chacoan and, especially, White-lipped Peccaries are more dependent on large areas of intact habitat.Hunting and habitat loss are the two main conservation threats faced by peccaries. The IUCN lists the Chacoan Peccary as Endangered and the White-lipped Peccary as Near Threatened.

(Taber et al. 2011 and references therein)

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Peccary

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A peccary (also javelina or skunk pig) is a medium-sized hoofed mammal of the family Tayassuidae (New World pigs) in the suborder Suina along with the Old World pigs, Suidae. They are found throughout Central and South America and in the southwestern area of North America. Peccaries usually measure between 90 and 130 cm (3.0 and 4.3 ft) in length, and a full-grown adult usually weighs about 20 to 40 kg (44 to 88 lb).

Peccaries, which are native to the Americas, are often confused[3] with the pig family that originated in Afro-Eurasia, especially since some domestic pigs brought by European settlers have escaped over the years and now run wild as "razorback" hogs in many parts of the United States.[4]

In many countries, especially in the developing world, they are kept as pets, in addition to being raised on farms as a source of food for local communities.[5]

Etymology

The word peccary is derived from the Carib word pakira or paquira.[6] In Portuguese, a peccary is called pecari, porco-do-mato, queixada, or tajaçu, among other names; in Spanish, "javelina", jabalí, sajino, or pecarí; in French Guiana and Suriname, pakira.

Characteristics

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Skulls of wild boar (left) and white-lipped peccary (right): Note how the upper canines of the peccary point downwards.

A peccary is a medium-sized animal, with a strong resemblance to a pig. Like a pig, it has a snout ending in a cartilaginous disc, and eyes that are small relative to its head. Also like a pig, it uses only the middle two digits for walking, although, unlike pigs, the other toes may be altogether absent. Its stomach is not ruminating, although it has three chambers, and is more complex than those of pigs.[7]

Peccaries are omnivores, and will eat insects, grubs, and occasionally small animals, although their preferred foods consist of roots, grasses, seeds, fruit,[7] and cacti—particularly prickly pear.[8] Pigs and peccaries can be differentiated by the shape of the canine tooth, or tusk. In European pigs, the tusk is long and curves around on itself, whereas in peccaries, the tusk is short and straight. The jaws and tusks of peccaries are adapted for crushing hard seeds and slicing into plant roots,[7] and they also use their tusks for defending against predators. The dental formula for peccaries is: 2.1.3.33.1.3.3

By rubbing the tusks together, they can make a chattering noise that warns potential predators not to get too close. In recent years in northwestern Bolivia near Madidi National Park, large groups of peccaries have been reported to have seriously injured or killed people.[9]

Peccaries are social animals, and often form herds. Over 100 individuals have been recorded for a single herd of white-lipped peccaries, but collared and Chacoan peccaries usually form smaller groups. Such social behavior seems to have been the situation in extinct peccaries, as well. The recently discovered giant peccary (Pecari maximus) of Brazil appears to be less social, primarily living in pairs.[10] Peccaries rely on their social structure to defend territory, protect against predators, regulate temperature, and interact socially.[11]

Peccaries have scent glands below each eye and another on their backs, though these are believed to be rudimentary in P. maximus. They use the scent to mark herd territories, which range from 75 to 700 acres (2.8 km2). They also mark other herd members with these scent glands by rubbing one against another. The pungent odor allows peccaries to recognize other members of their herd, despite their myopic vision. The odor is strong enough to be picked up by humans, which earns the peccary the nickname of "skunk pig".

Species

Three (possibly four) living species of peccaries are found from the southwestern United States through Central America and into South America and Trinidad.

The collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) or "musk hog", referring to the animal's scent glands, occurs from the southwestern United States into South America and the island of Trinidad. The coat consists of wiry peppered black, gray, and brown hair with a lighter colored "collar" circling the shoulders. They bear young year-round, but most often between November and March, with the average litter size consisting of two to three piglets. They are found in all kinds of habitats, from arid scrublands to humid tropical rain forests. The collared peccary is well adapted to habitat disturbed by humans, merely requiring sufficient cover; they can be found in cities and agricultural land throughout their range. Notable populations exist in the suburbs of Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona, where they feed on ornamental plants and other cultivated vegetation.[12][13] There are also urban populations as far north as Prescott, where they have been known to fill a niche similar to raccoons and other urban scavengers.[14] In Arizona they are often called "javelinas". Collared peccaries are generally found in bands of 8 to 15 animals of various ages. They defend themselves if they feel threatened, but otherwise tend to ignore humans.

A second species, the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), is mainly found in rainforests of Central and South America, but also known from a wide range of other habitats such as dry forests, grasslands, mangrove, cerrado, and dry xerophytic areas.[15]

The third species, the Chacoan peccary (Catagonus wagneri), is the closest living relative to the extinct Platygonus pearcei. It is found in the dry shrub habitat or Chaco of Paraguay, Bolivia, and Argentina. The Chacoan peccary has the unusual distinction of having been first described based on fossils and was originally thought to be only an extinct species. In 1975, the animal was discovered in the Chaco region of Paraguay. The species was well known to the native people.

A fourth as yet unconfirmed species, the giant peccary (Pecari maximus), was described from the Brazilian Amazon and north Bolivia[16] by Dutch biologist Marc van Roosmalen. Though relatively recently discovered, it has been known to the local Tupi people as caitetu munde, which means "great peccary which lives in pairs".[17][18] Thought to be the largest extant peccary, it can grow to 1.2 m (3.9 ft) in length. Its pelage is completely dark gray, with no collars whatsoever. Unlike other peccaries, it lives in pairs, or with one or two offspring. However, the scientific evidence for considering it as a species separate from the collared peccary has later been questioned,[19][20] leading the IUCN to treat it as a synonym.[21]

Evolution

Peccaries first appeared in the fossil records of the Late Eocene or Early Oligocene periods in Europe. Fossils have later been found in all continents except Australia and Antarctica. It became extinct in the Old World sometime after the Miocene period, possibly because of competition from evolving pigs. Extinct genera include the Miocene-aged Macrogenis and Floridachoerus.[22] Simojovelhyus, known from a lower partial mandible with three molars from late Oligocene strata near the town of Simojovel in Chiapas, Mexico, was originally described as a helohyid.[2]

Although they are common in South America today, peccaries did not reach that continent until about three million years ago during the Great American Interchange, when the Isthmus of Panama formed, connecting North America and South America. At that time, many North American animals—including peccaries, llamas and tapirs—entered South America, while some South American species, such as the ground sloths, and opossums, migrated north.[23]

References

  1. ^ Stinnesbeck, Sarah R.; Frey, Eberhard; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Avíles Olguín, Jeronimo; Zell, Patrick; Terrazas Mata, Alejandro; Benavente Sanvicente, Martha; González González, Arturo; Rojas Sandoval, Carmen. "A new fossil peccary from the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary of the eastern Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2016.11.003..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ a b Prothero, Donald R., Brian L. Beatty, and Richard M. Stucky. "Simojovelhyus is a Peccary, Not a Helohyid (Mammalia, Artiodactyla)." Journal of Paleontology 87.5 (2013): 930–33.
  3. ^ George Oxford Miller (October 1988). A field guide to wildlife in Texas and the Southwest. Texas Monthly Press. ISBN 978-0-87719-126-1. Retrieved 26 December 2011. "many people confuse them with domestic pigs gone wild"
  4. ^ Susan L. Woodward; Joyce A. Quinn (30 September 2011). Encyclopedia of Invasive Species: From Africanized Honey Bees to Zebra Mussels. ABC-CLIO. pp. 277–. ISBN 978-0-313-38220-8. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
  5. ^ Commercial farming of collared peccary: A Large-scale commercial farming of collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) in North-Eastern Brazil. Pigtrop.cirad.fr (2007-04-30). Retrieved on 2012-12-18.
  6. ^ "Peccary". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved March 26, 2012.
  7. ^ a b c Castellanos, Hernan (1984). Macdonald, D., ed. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 504–505. ISBN 0-87196-871-1.
  8. ^ Sowls, Lyle K. (1997). Javelinas and Other Peccaries: Their Biology, Management, and Use (2nd ed.). Texas A&M University Press. pp. 69–70. ISBN 978-0-89096-717-1.
  9. ^ Madidi Diary – Joel Sartore. Sartorestock.com. Retrieved on 2012-12-18.
  10. ^ Roosmalen, M.G.M.; Frenz, L.; Hooft, W.F. van; Iongh, H.H. de; Leirs, H. (2007). "A New Species of Living Peccary (Mammalia: Tayassuidae) from the Brazilian Amazon". Bonner zoologische Beitrage. 55 (2): 105–12.
  11. ^ Department, Arizona Game and Fish. "Living With Wildlife". www.azgfd.com. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
  12. ^ Friederici, Peter (August–September 1998). "Winners and Losers". National Wildlife Magazine. National Wildlife Federation. 36 (5).
  13. ^ Sowls, Lyle K. (1997). Javelinas and Other Peccaries: Their Biology, Management, and Use (2nd ed.). Texas A&M University Press. pp. 67–68. ISBN 978-0-89096-717-1.
  14. ^ "Unwelcome visitors: Javelinas and humans do not mix well". The Daily Courier. 25 January 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  15. ^ Keuroghlian, A.; Desbiez, A.; Reyna-Hurtado, R.; Altrichter, M.; Beck, H.; Taber, A. & Fragoso, J.M.V. (2013). "Tayassu pecari". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2013: e.T41778A44051115. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T41778A44051115.en. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  16. ^ Moravec, J., & Böhme, W. (2009). Second Find of the Recently Discovered Amazonian Giant Peccary, Pecari maximus (Mammalia: Tayassuidae) van Roosmalen et al., 2007: First Record from Bolivia. Bonner zoologische Beiträge 56(1–2): 49–54.
  17. ^ Lloyd, Robin (2007-11-02). Big Pig-Like Beast Discovered. livescience.com
  18. ^ Giant wild pig found in Brazil. The Guardian (2007-11-05). Retrieved on 2012-12-18.
  19. ^ Gongora, J., Taber, A., Keuroghlian, A., Altrichter, M., Bodmer, R.E., Mayor, P., Moran, C., Damayanti, C.S., González S. (2007). Re-examining the evidence for a 'new' peccary species, 'Pecari maximus', from the Brazilian Amazon. Newsletter of the Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos Specialist Group of the IUCN/SSC. 7(2): 19–26.
  20. ^ Gongora, J., Biondo, C., Cooper, J.D., Taber, A., Keuroghlian, A., Altrichter, M., Ferreira do Nascimento, F., Chong, A.Y., Miyaki, C.Y., Bodmer, R., Mayor, P. and González, S. (2011). Revisiting the species status of Pecari maximus van Roosmalen et al., 2007 (Mammalia) from the Brazilian Amazon. Bonn Zoological Bulletin 60(1): 95–101.
  21. ^ Gongora, J.; Reyna-Hurtado, R.; Beck, H.; Taber, A.; Altrichter, M. & Keuroghlian, A. (2011). "Pecari tajacu". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2011: e.T41777A10562361. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T41777A10562361.en. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  22. ^ White, T. E. 1942. The Lower Miocene mammal fauna of Florida. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 92(1):1–49.
  23. ^ McDonald, Greg (1999-03-27) Pearce's Peccary – Platygonus Pearcei. Hagerman Fossil Beds' Critter Corner.

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Peccary: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

A peccary (also javelina or skunk pig) is a medium-sized hoofed mammal of the family Tayassuidae (New World pigs) in the suborder Suina along with the Old World pigs, Suidae. They are found throughout Central and South America and in the southwestern area of North America. Peccaries usually measure between 90 and 130 cm (3.0 and 4.3 ft) in length, and a full-grown adult usually weighs about 20 to 40 kg (44 to 88 lb).

Peccaries, which are native to the Americas, are often confused with the pig family that originated in Afro-Eurasia, especially since some domestic pigs brought by European settlers have escaped over the years and now run wild as "razorback" hogs in many parts of the United States.

In many countries, especially in the developing world, they are kept as pets, in addition to being raised on farms as a source of food for local communities.

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