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Reproduction

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Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual

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Hester, L. and P. Myers 2001. "Megadermatidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Megadermatidae.html
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Laurel Hester
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Behavior

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Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Hester, L. and P. Myers 2001. "Megadermatidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Megadermatidae.html
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Morphology

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Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Hester, L. and P. Myers 2001. "Megadermatidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Megadermatidae.html
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Laurel Hester
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Phil Myers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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Megadermatidae

provided by wikipedia EN
This article is about bats in the family Megadermatidae. For the false vampire bats in the family Phyllostomidae, see Phyllostomidae.

Megadermatidae, or false vampire bats, are a family of bats found from central Africa, eastwards through southern Asia, and into Australia. They are relatively large bats, ranging from 6.5 cm to 14 cm in head-body length. They have large eyes, very large ears and a prominent nose-leaf. They have a wide membrane between the hind legs, or uropatagium, but no tail. Many species are a drab brown in color, but some are white, bluish-grey or even olive-green, helping to camouflage them against their preferred roosting environments. They are primarily insectivorous, but will also eat a wide range of small vertebrates.[1]

Systematics

.mw-parser-output table.clade{border-spacing:0;margin:0;font-size:100%;line-height:100%;border-collapse:separate;width:auto}.mw-parser-output table.clade table.clade{width:100%}.mw-parser-output table.clade td{border:0;padding:0;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label{width:0.8em;border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:bottom;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel{border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:top;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar{vertical-align:middle;text-align:left;padding:0 0.5em}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf{border:0;padding:0;text-align:left;vertical-align:middle}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leafR{border:0;padding:0;text-align:right} Rhinolophoidea

Megadermatidae (false vampire bats)

       

Craseonycteridae (Kitti's hog-nosed bat)

   

Rhinopomatidae (mouse-tailed bats)

       

Hipposideridae (Old World leaf-nosed bats)

   

Rhinolophidae (horseshoe bats)

        Internal relationships of the Rhinolophoidea, according to a 2011 study[2] Megadermatidae

Megaderma spasma (lesser false vampire bat)

       

Megaderma lyra (greater false vampire bat)

   

Lavia frons (yellow-winged bat)

       

Cardioderma cor (heart-nosed bat)

   

Macroderma gigas (ghost bat)

        Internal relationships of the Megadermatidae, according to a 2015 study[3]

Megadermatidae is a family within the Rhinolophoidea superfamily. Genetic analysis shows that it is the most basal member of the superfamily. It is a monophyletic family of bats, based on genetic analysis.[2]

There is confusion about the relationship of species within Megadermatidae. A 2015 study concluded that, while they did not have enough genetic data to fully resolve these relationships, the two Megaderma species should be in separate genera. The authors of the 2015 paper suggested that the greater false vampire bat, Megaderma lyra, should be renamed as Lyroderma lyra.[3] The recovered cladogram in the 2015 study had relatively low posterior probabilities, however, underscoring the need for future study to achieve higher resolution.[3] Note that the Thongaree’s disc-nosed bat was not included in this analysis, as it was not described as a new species until 2015.[4]

Fossil record

Megadermatidae is a relatively old family, appearing in the fossil record as early as 37 million years ago.[2] Several fossil species have been described, including:[5]

  • Macroderma godthelpi: Discovered in northwestern Queensland, Australia; the holotype was likely from the mid-Miocene.
  • Necromantis adichaster: Discovered in the Quercy Phosphorites Formations of France; fossils found from the Eocene and Oligocene.
  • Megaderma brailloni: Discovered in France; dated from the early Eocene.
  • Megaderma gaillardi: Discovered in France; dated from the mid-Miocene.
  • Megaderma lugdunensis: Discovered in France and the Czech Republic; dated from the mid-Miocene.
  • Megaderma jaegeri: Discovered in Morocco; dated from the mid-Miocene
  • Megaderma vireti: Discovered in Lissieu, France; dated from the late Miocene.
  • Megaderma mediterraneum: Discovered in France; dated from the late Pliocene.
  • Megaderma janossyi: Discovered in Hungary; dated from the early Pliocene.
  • Megaderma watwat: Discovered in Palestine; dated from the Pleistocene.

Description

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Appearance of Megaderma spasma

False vampire bats are relatively large, with combined head and body lengths that range from 65–140 mm (2.6–5.5 in). Their forearm lengths range from 50–115 mm (2.0–4.5 in). They all lack tails. The ghost bat is the largest member of the family. All the species have very large ears with divided tragi. They have long nose-leaves. All species are similar in that they lack upper incisors, though not all species have the same dental formulae.[6] The lesser false vampire bat and greater false vampire bat have a dental formula of 0.1.2.32.1.2.3 × 2 = 28, while the ghost bat, heart-nosed bat, Thongaree’s disc-nosed bat, and yellow-winged bat have a dental formula of 0.1.1.32.1.2.3 × 2 = 26.[4][6]

Biology and ecology

These species are collectively called false vampire due to the old misconception that they were sanguivorous like the true vampire bats. The ghost bat, heart-nosed bat, lesser false vampire bat, and greater false vampire bat feed on insects and small vertebrates; the yellow-winged bat and Thongaree's disc-nosed bat are likely fully insectivorous.[4][6][7] The heart-nosed bat, greater false vampire bat, and the ghost bat are three of the few bat-eating bats in the world.[7][8] All species of this family are nocturnal, with the exception of the yellow-winged bat which is sometimes active in daylight.[6]

Conservation

All Megadermatidae species are evaluated as least concern by the IUCN with the exception of the ghost bat, which is vulnerable, and Thongaree’s disc-nosed bat, which is critically endangered.[9][10]

Classification

Family Megadermatidae

References

  1. ^ Macdonald, D., ed. (1984). The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. p. 804. ISBN 0-87196-871-1..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ a b c Agnarsson, Ingi; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos M; Flores-Saldana, Nadia Paola; May-Collado, Laura J (2011). "A time-calibrated species-level phylogeny of bats (Chiroptera, Mammalia)". PLoS Currents. 3: RRN1212. doi:10.1371/currents.RRN1212. PMC 3038382. PMID 21327164.
  3. ^ a b c Kaňuch, Peter; Aghová, Tatiana; Meheretu, Yonas; Šumbera, Radim; Bryja, Josef (2015). "New discoveries on the ecology and echolocation of the heart-nosed bat Cardioderma cor with a contribution to the phylogeny of Megadermatidae". African Zoology. 50: 53. doi:10.1080/15627020.2015.1021711.
  4. ^ a b c Soisook, Pipat; Prajakjitr, Amorn; Karapan, Sunate; Francis, Charles M; Bates, Paul J. J (2015). "A new genus and species of false vampire (Chiroptera: Megadermatidae) from peninsular Thailand" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3931 (4): 528. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3931.4.4. PMID 25781844.
  5. ^ Hand, S. J. (1985). "New Miocene megadermatids (Chiroptera: Megadermatidae) from Australia with comments on megadermatid phylogenetics". Australian Mammalogy. 8 (1–2): 5–43.
  6. ^ a b c d Nowak, R. M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. 1. JHU Press. p. 324. ISBN 9780801857898.
  7. ^ a b Vaughan, T. A (1976). "Nocturnal Behavior of the African False Vampire Bat (Cardioderma cor)". Journal of Mammalogy. 57 (2): 227. doi:10.2307/1379685. JSTOR 1379685.
  8. ^ Nuwer, Rachel (10 May 2016). "The World's Carnivorous Bats Are Emerging From the Dark". Smithsonian.com. The Smithsonian. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  9. ^ Soisook, P. (2017). "Eudiscoderma thongareeae". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T80263386A95642210.
  10. ^ McKenzie, N. & Hall, L. (2008). "Macroderma gigas". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T12590A3362578. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T12590A3362578.en. Retrieved 12 January 2018.

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Megadermatidae: Brief Summary

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This article is about bats in the family Megadermatidae. For the false vampire bats in the family Phyllostomidae, see Phyllostomidae.

Megadermatidae, or false vampire bats, are a family of bats found from central Africa, eastwards through southern Asia, and into Australia. They are relatively large bats, ranging from 6.5 cm to 14 cm in head-body length. They have large eyes, very large ears and a prominent nose-leaf. They have a wide membrane between the hind legs, or uropatagium, but no tail. Many species are a drab brown in color, but some are white, bluish-grey or even olive-green, helping to camouflage them against their preferred roosting environments. They are primarily insectivorous, but will also eat a wide range of small vertebrates.

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